Silviculture is the practice of controlling the growth, composition/structure, quality of forests to meet values and needs timber production. The name comes from the Latin silvi- and culture; the study of forests and woods is termed silvology. Silviculture focuses on making sure that the treatment of forest stands are used to conserve and improve their productivity. Silviculture is the science and art of growing and cultivating forest crops, based on a knowledge of silvics. In specific, silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment and management of forest stands; the distinction between forestry and silviculture is that silviculture is applied at the stand-level, while forestry is a broader concept. Adaptive management is common in silviculture, while forestry can include natural/conserved land without stand-level management and treatments being applied; the origin of forestry in German-speaking Europe has defined silvicultural systems broadly as high forest, coppice with standards and compound coppice, short rotation coppice, coppice.
There are other systems as well. These varied silvicultural systems include several harvesting methods, which are wrongly said to be a silvicultural systems, but may be called rejuvenating or regenerating method depending on the purpose; the high forest system is further subdivided in German: High forest Age class forest Even-aged forestry Clear cutting Shelterwood cutting Seed-tree method Uneven-aged forestry The Femel selection cutting Strip selection cutting Shelterwood wedge cutting Mixed-form regeneration methods Continuous cover forestry Uneven-aged forestry Selection forest Target diameter harvesting These names give the impression is that these are neatly defined systems, but in practice there are variations within these harvesting methods in accordance with to local ecology and site conditions. While location of an archetypal form of harvesting technique can be identified, broad generalizations can be made, these are rules of thumb rather than strict blueprints on how techniques might be applied.
This misunderstanding has meant that many older English textbooks did not capture the true complexity of silviculture as practiced where it originated in Mitteleuropa. This silviculture was culturally predicated on wood production in temperate and boreal climates and did not deal with tropical forestry; the misapplication of this philosophy to those tropical forests has been problematic. There is an alternative silvicultural tradition which developed in Japan and thus created a different biocultural landscape called satoyama. After harvesting comes regeneration, which may be split into natural and artificial, tending, which includes release treatments, pruning and intermediate treatments, it is conceivable that any of these 3 phases may happen at the same time within a stand, depending on the goal for that particular stand. Regeneration is basic to the continuation of forested, as well as to the afforestation of treeless land. Regeneration can take place through self-sown seed, by artificially sown seed, or by planted seedlings.
In whichever case, the performance of regeneration depends on its growth potential and the degree to which its environment allows the potential to be expressed. Seed, of course, is needed for all regeneration modes, both for natural or artificial sowing and for raising planting stock in a nursery. Natural regeneration is a "human-assisted natural regeneration" means of establishing a forest age class from natural seeding or sprouting in an area after harvesting in that area through selection cutting, shelter harvest, soil preparation, or restricting the size of a clear-cut stand to secure natural regeneration from the surrounding trees; the process of natural regeneration involves the renewal of forests by means of self-sown seeds, root suckers, or coppicing. In natural forests, conifers rely entirely on regeneration through seed. Most of the broadleaves, are able to regenerate by the means of emergence of shoots from stumps and broken stems. Any seed, self-sown or artificially applied, requires a seedbed suitable for securing germination.
In order to germinate, a seed requires suitable conditions of temperature and aeration. For seeds of many species, light is necessary, facilitates the germination of seeds in other species, but spruces are not exacting in their light requirements, will germinate without light. White spruce seed germinated at 35 °F and 40 °F after continuous stratification for one year or longer and developed radicles less than 6 cm long in the cold room; when exposed to light, those germinants developed chlorophyll and were phototropic with continued elongation. For survival in the short and medium terms, a germinant needs: a continuing supply of moisture. Shade is important to the survival of young seedlings. In the longer term, there must be an adequate supply
Joel D. Kopple is an American professor and clinical investigator in medicine, nephrology and public health, he is professor at UCLA Fielding School of Public Health. He served from 1982 to 2007 as the chief of the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, he is known as the father of the field of Renal Nutrition. To recognize the contributions of Kopple to advancing the field of Renal Nutrition, the National Kidney Foundation and its Council on Renal Nutrition designated the'Joel D Kopple Award in Renal Nutrition, annually granted to a distinguished individual for his/her efforts to advance the field of renal nutrition; the International Federation of Kidney Foundations has created a separate Joel D. Kopple Award, given to a person or group that has made a major contribution to the health or well-being of people with or at risk for kidney disease. Kopple's research focus has been in amino acid and protein metabolism and nutritional disorders and their management in kidney disease and kidney failure.
He has authored or co-authored many hundreds of peer-reviewed manuscripts, invited papers and chapters. He is an editor of many proceedings and symposia and an editor of the textbook entitled, Nutritional Management of Renal Disease, he founded the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism, the International Federation of Kidney Foundations, World Kidney Day, served a central role in founding other institutions, served as president of the National Kidney Foundation and several professional and scientific societies. Kopple is an elected Fellow of the American Society for Nutrition and is a Fellow of the American Society of Nephrology, he has received many awards. Among these, he was the 1993 recipient of the David M. Hume Memorial Award by the National Kidney Foundation, he received the 2004 Robert H. Herman Memorial Award and the 1997 E. V. McCollum Award from the American Society for Nutrition, he received the Belding Scribner Award of the American Society of Nephrology in 2006. Kopple received honorary doctorate degrees from the University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik in 1995, the University of Szeged in 2002 and the University d'Auvergne in 2010.
PubMed publications of JD Kopple
Prestons is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 37 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Liverpool. Prestons was named after a local Irish family who in the 1910s ran a small post office on the corner of Romana Square; the family's maiden name was Preston and they were well known for being friendly and helpful to the small community, donating food and household items to those in need. Hence, their name became synonymous with the post office and in 1972, it became the name of the suburb. Schools in the suburb include Prestons Public School. Private schools include, William Carey Christian School, Saint Catherine of Siena Catholic Primary School and the former Sule College, now known as Amity College. Prestons is situated at an important road junction where the M5 South Western Motorway from the city meets the Hume Motorway heading towards Canberra and Melbourne and the Westlink M7 heading towards Mount Druitt and northern Sydney.
All three roads can be accessed from Camden Valley Way, which connects Prestons to Liverpool and Camden. The M7 can be accessed from Bernera Road. Prestons is serviced by trains to the city via Granville and the Airport from Glenfield and Edmondson Park stations. Busabout provides three bus services to Liverpool via different routes. One of these, the 850 connects to Camden; the Prestons Cricket Club operates from Amalfi Park, since it was founded in 1968. Prestons Robins Little Athletics operates every Wednesday and Friday nights at the new park on Ash Road during summer months. According to the 2016 Australian census, Prestons had a population of 15 315 people; the most common countries of birth, other than Australia, were Fiji, India and New Zealand. The most common foreign languages spoken at home were Hindi and Spanish. While Catholicism was the most common religion, Islam was the second most common with 14.6%, ahead of Hinduism with 9.6%