A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Redneck is a 1973 Italian-British crime-thriller film directed by Silvio Narizzano. Franco Nero as Mosquito Telly Savalas as Memphis Mark Lester as Lennox Duncan Ely Galleani as Maria Duilio Del Prete as Captain Lenzi Maria Michi as Princess Beatrice Clary as Margaret Duncan Bruno Boschetti as Police Officer Aldo De Carellis as Riccardo Tommy Duggan as Anthony Duncan Giuseppe Mattei as Jeweller Lara Wendel as German Girl Redneck on IMDb
John Kingsley Orton, known under the pen name of Joe Orton, was an English playwright and diarist. His public career—from 1964 until his death in 1967—was short but influential. During this brief period he shocked and amused audiences with his scandalous black comedies; the adjective Ortonesque refers to work characterised by a dark yet farcical cynicism. Orton was born at Causeway Lane Maternity Hospital, Leicester, to William A. Orton and Elsie M. Orton. William worked for Leicester County Borough Council as a gardener and Elsie worked in the local footwear industry until tuberculosis cost her a lung; when Joe was two years old, they moved from 261 Avenue Road Extension in Clarendon Park, Leicester, to 9 Fayrhurst Road on the Saffron Lane council estate. He soon had a younger brother and two younger sisters and Leonie. Orton attended Marriot Road Primary School, but failed the eleven-plus exam after extended bouts of asthma, so took a secretarial course at Clark's College in Leicester from 1945 to 1947.
He began working as a junior clerk for £3 a week. Orton became interested in performing in the theatre around 1949 and joined a number of dramatic societies, including the prestigious Leicester Dramatic Society. While working on amateur productions he was determined to improve his appearance and physique, buying bodybuilding courses, taking elocution lessons, trying to redress his lack of education and culture, he applied for a scholarship at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in November 1950. He was accepted, left the East Midlands for London, his entrance into RADA was delayed until May 1951 by appendicitis. Orton met Kenneth Halliwell at RADA in 1951 and moved into a West Hampstead flat with him and two other students in June of that year. Halliwell was seven years older than Orton and of independent means, having a substantial inheritance, they formed a strong relationship and became lovers. After graduating, both Orton and Halliwell went into regional repertory work: Orton spent four months in Ipswich as an assistant stage manager.
Both began to write together. They collaborated on a number of unpublished novels with no success at gaining publication; the rejection of their great hope, The Last Days of Sodom, in 1957 led them to solo works. Orton wrote his last novel, The Vision of Gombold Proval, in 1959, he drew on these manuscripts for ideas. Confident of their "specialness," Orton and Halliwell refused to work for long periods, they subsisted on Halliwell's money and were forced to follow an ascetic life to restrict their spending to £5 a week. From 1957 to 1959, they worked in six-month stretches at Cadbury's to raise money for a new flat. A lack of serious work led them to amuse themselves with hoaxes. Orton created the alter ego Edna Welthorpe, an elderly theatre snob, whom he revived to stir controversy over his plays. Orton chose the name as an allusion to Rattigan's archetypal playgoer. From January 1959, they began surreptitiously to remove books from several local public libraries and modify the cover art or the blurbs before returning them to the shelves.
A volume of poems by John Betjeman, for example, was returned to the library with a new dustjacket featuring a photograph of a nearly naked tattooed, middle-aged man. The couple decorated their flat with many of the prints, they were discovered and prosecuted in May 1962. They were found guilty on five counts of theft and malicious damage, admitted damaging more than 70 books, were sentenced to prison for six months and fined £262; the incident was reported in the Daily Mirror as "Gorilla in the Roses". Orton and Halliwell felt that that sentence was unduly harsh "because we were queers". However, prison was a crucial formative experience for Orton; as Orton put it: "It affected my attitude towards society. Before I had been vaguely conscious of something rotten somewhere, prison crystallised this; the old whore society lifted up her skirts and the stench was pretty foul.... Being in the nick brought detachment to my writing. I wasn't involved any more, and it worked." The book covers that Orton and Halliwell vandalised have since become a valued part of the Islington Local History Centre collection.
Some are exhibited in the Islington Museum. A collection of the book covers is available online. Orton began to write plays in the early 1960s. In 1963, the BBC paid £65 for the radio play The Ruffian on the Stair, broadcast on 31 August 1964, it was rewritten for the stage in 1966. Orton poured out new works, he had completed Entertaining Mr Sloane by the time. He sent a copy to theatre agent Peggy Ramsay in December 1963, it premiered at the New Arts Theatre on 6 May 1964. Reviews ranged from praise to outrage. Entertaining Mr Sloane lost money in its three-week run, but critical praise from playwright Terence Rattigan, who invested £3,000 in it, ensured its survival; the play was transferred to Wyndham's Theatre in the West End at the end of June and to the Queen's Theatre in October. Sloane tied for first in the Variety Critics' Poll for Best New Play and Orton came second for Most Promising Playw
Richard Lester Liebman is an American film director based in the United Kingdom. He is known for his work with The Beatles in the 1960s and his work on the Superman film series in the 1980s. Lester is an Honorary Associate of London Film School. Richard Lester Liebman was born to a Jewish family in Pennsylvania. A child prodigy, he began studies at the University of Pennsylvania at the age of 15, he started in television in 1950, working as a stage hand, floor manager, assistant director and director in less than a year, because no one else was around who knew how to do the work. Lester directed Action in the Afternoon an American western television series that aired live on CBS from February 2, 1953 to January 29, 1954; the series originated from the studios and back lot of WCAU, Channel 10 in Philadelphia, was broadcast Monday through Friday regardless of the weather. The half-hour series aired variously throughout its run. In 1953, Lester moved to London and began work as a director in television, working for the low-budget producers The Danziger Brothers on episodes of Mark Saber, a half-hour detective series.
He worked as a writer on Curtains for The Barris Beat. A variety show he produced caught the eye of Peter Sellers, who enlisted Lester's help in translating The Goon Show to television as The Idiot Weekly, Price 2d, it was a hit, as were two follow-up shows, A Show Called Son of Fred. Lester recalled that A Show Called Fred was "broadcast live and that's why I went into film directing where you can do a second take!"Lester directed episodes of the TV series After Hours. Lester received acclaim with a short film he made with Spike Milligan and Peter Sellers, The Running Jumping & Standing Still Film, he did The Sound of Jazz. Lester's first feature as director was It's Trad, Dad!, a low budget musical which consisted of a series of music acts including John Leyton and Gene Vincent. His second was The Mouse on the Moon starring Margaret Rutherford, a sequel to The Mouse That Roared, he returned to TV. The Running Jumping & Standing Still Film was a favourite of the Beatles John Lennon; when the band members were contracted to make a feature film, they chose Lester from a list of possible directors.
A Hard Day's Night showed an exaggerated and simplified version of the Beatles' characters, proved to be an effective marketing tool. Many of its stylistic innovations survive today as the conventions of music videos, in particular the multi-angle filming of a live performance. Lester was sent an award from MTV as "Father of the Music Video". A Hard Day's Night was a huge commercial success. Lester directed the first of several quintessential "swinging" films, the sex comedy The Knack …and How to Get It. Lester's first of three films with actor Michael Crawford, it won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Lester followed this with the Beatles film Help!. A spoof of the popular James Bond spy thrillers, it was another huge commercial success. Lester received a Hollywood offer to direct the film adaptation of A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, he made the darkly surreal anti-war movie How I Won the War co-starring Crawford and Lennon, which he referred to as an "anti-anti-war movie".
Lester commented that anti-war movies still took the concept of war contrasting "bad" war crimes with wars fought for "good" causes like the liberation from Nazism or, at that time, whereas he set out to deconstruct it to show war as fundamentally opposed to humanity. Although set in World War II, the film serves as an oblique reference to the Vietnam War and at one point, breaking the fourth wall, references this directly. Lester made Petulia with Julie Christie and George C. Scott, a score by John Barry, he returned to his anti-war theme with the post-apocalyptic black comedy The Bed Sitting Room, based on a play by Spike Milligan and John Antrobus. How I Won the War and Bed Sitting Room performed poorly at the box office and Lester found himself unable to raise finance for a series of projects, including an adaptation of the Flashman novels. Lester's career revived when he was hired by Alexander and Ilya Salkind to do a version of The Three Musketeers, based on a script by George MacDonald Fraser.
The producers decided to split the first film into two after principal photography was completed, the second being called The Four Musketeers. Many of the cast principals sued the Salkinds as a result, stating that they were only contracted to make one film. Both movies were commercially successful. Lester was called in at the last minute as a replacement director on Juggernaut, a thriller set on a cruise liner; the success of the Musketeers films enabled Lester to raise finance for Royal Flash, based on the second of the Flashman novels by MacDonald Fraser. Lester followed this with Robin and Marian, from a script by James Goldman, starring Sean Connery and Audrey Hepburn, he made The Ritz based on a play by Terrence McNally. Lester directed Butch and Sundance: The Early Days and Cuba with Connery. Lester's next film was a huge success: Superman II. Production on Superman II began before Superman was completed, had to be halted to concentrate on getting the first movie completed. After the first Superman film was released in late 1978, the Salkinds went back into production on Superman II without informing Superman director Richard Donner.
Although Donner had shot a majority of wh