Aaron is a prophet, high priest, the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions. Knowledge of Aaron, along with his brother Moses, comes from religious texts, such as the Bible and Quran; the Hebrew Bible relates that, unlike Moses, who grew up in the Egyptian royal court and his elder sister Miriam remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt. When Moses first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron served as his brother's spokesman to the Pharaoh. Part of the Law that Moses received from God at Sinai granted Aaron the priesthood for himself and his male descendants, he became the first High Priest of the Israelites. Aaron died before the Israelites crossed the North Jordan river and he was buried on Mount Hor. Aaron is mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible. According to the Book of Exodus, Aaron first functioned as Moses' assistant; because Moses complained that he could not speak well, God appointed Aaron as Moses' "prophet". At the command of Moses, he let his rod turn into a snake.
He stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues. After that, Moses tended to speak for himself. During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron was not always active. At the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the "rod of God"; when the revelation was given to Moses at biblical Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit. While Joshua went with Moses to the top, however and Hur remained below to look after the people. From here on in Exodus and Numbers, Joshua appears in the role of Moses' assistant while Aaron functions instead as the first high priest; the books of Exodus and Numbers maintain that Aaron received from God a monopoly over the priesthood for himself and his male descendants. The family of Aaron had the exclusive right and responsibility to make offerings on the altar to Yahweh; the rest of his tribe, the Levites, were given subordinate responsibilities within the sanctuary.
Moses anointed and consecrated Aaron and his sons to the priesthood, arrayed them in the robes of office. He related to them God's detailed instructions for performing their duties while the rest of the Israelites listened. Aaron and his successors as high priest were given control over the Urim and Thummim by which the will of God could be determined. God commissioned the Aaronide priests to distinguish the holy from the common and the clean from the unclean, to teach the divine laws to the Israelites; the priests were commissioned to bless the people. When Aaron completed the altar offerings for the first time and, with Moses, "blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people: And there came a fire out from before the LORD, consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat when all the people saw, they shouted, fell on their faces". In this way, the institution of the Aaronide priesthood was established. In books of the Hebrew Bible and his kin are not mentioned often except in literature dating to the Babylonian captivity and later.
The books of Judges and Kings mention priests and Levites, but do not mention the Aaronides in particular. The Book of Ezekiel, which devotes much attention to priestly matters, calls the priestly upper class the Zadokites after one of King David's priests, it does reflect a two-tier priesthood with the Levites in subordinate position. A two-tier hierarchy of Aaronides and Levites appears in Ezra and Chronicles; as a result, many historians think that Aaronide families did not control the priesthood in pre-exilic Israel. What is clear is that high priests claiming Aaronide descent dominated the Second Temple period. Most scholars think the Torah reached its final form early in this period, which may account for Aaron's prominence in Exodus and Numbers. Aaron plays a leading role in several stories of conflicts during Israel's wilderness wanderings. During the prolonged absence of Moses on Mount Sinai, the people provoked Aaron to make a golden calf.. This incident nearly caused God to destroy the Israelites.
Moses intervened, but led the loyal Levites in executing many of the culprits. Aaron, escaped punishment for his role in the affair, because of the intercession of Moses according to Deuteronomy 9:20. Retellings of this story always excuse Aaron for his role. For example, in rabbinic sources and in the Quran, Aaron was not the idol-maker and upon Moses' return begged his pardon because he felt mortally threatened by the Israelites. On the day of Aaron's consecration, his oldest sons and Abihu, were burned up by divine fire because they offered "strange" incense. Most interpreters think this story reflects a conflict between priestly families some time in Israel's past. Others argue that the story shows what can happen if the priests do not follow God's instructions given through Moses; the Torah depicts the siblings, Moses and Miriam, as the leaders of Israel after the Exodus, a view reflected in the biblical Book of Micah. Numbers 12, reports that on one occasion and Miriam complained about Moses' exclusive claim to be the LORD's prophet.
Their presumption was rebuffed by God who affirmed Moses' uniqueness as the
Amoraim refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah. They were concentrated in the Land of Israel, their legal discussions and debates were codified in the Gemara. The Amoraim followed the Tannaim in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars; the Tannaim were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition. The first Babylonian Amoraim were Abba Arika, respectfully referred to as Rav, his contemporary and frequent debate partner, Shmuel. Among the earliest Amoraim in Israel were Johanan bar Shimon ben Lakish. Traditionally, the Amoraic period is reckoned as eight generations; the last Amoraim are considered to be Ravina I and Rav Ashi, Ravina II, nephew of Ravina I, who codified the Babylonian Talmud around 500 CE. In total, 761 amoraim are mentioned by name in the Babylonian Talmuds. 367 of them were active in the land of Israel from around 200-350 CE, while the other 394 lived in Babylonia during 200-500 CE. In the Talmud itself, the singular amora refers to a lecturer's assistant.
The following is an abbreviated listing of the most prominent of the Amoraim mentioned in the Talmud. More complete listings may be provided by some of the external links below. See List of rabbis. Abba Arika, known as Rav, last Tanna, first Amora. Disciple of Judah haNasi. Moved from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia. Founder and Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Shmuel, disciple of Judah haNasi's students and others. Dean of the Yeshiva at Nehardea. Joshua ben Levi, headed the school of Lod. Bar Kappara Rav Huna, disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Rav Yehudah, disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Adda bar Ahavah, disciple of Rav. Hillel, son of Gamaliel III, disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, younger brother of Judah II. Judah II, disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, son and successor of Gamaliel III as Nasi. Sometimes called Rabbi Judah Nesi'ah, Rebbi like his grandfather. Resh Lakish, disciple of Judah haNasi, Rabbi Yannai and others, colleague of Rabbi Yochanan.
Yochanan bar Nafcha, disciple of Judah haNasi and Rabbi Yannai. Dean of the Yeshiva at Tiberias. Primary author of the Jerusalem Talmud. Samuel ben Nahman Shila of Kefar Tamarta Isaac Nappaha Anani ben Sason Rabbah, disciple of Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Rav Yosef, disciple of Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Rav Zeira Rav Chisda, disciple of Rav and Rav Huna. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Simon ben Pazzi Rav Sheshet Rav Nachman, disciple of Rav and Rabbah bar Avuha. Did not head his own yeshiva, but was a regular participant in the discussions at the Yeshivot of Sura and Mahuza. Rabbi Abbahu, disciple of Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva in Caesarea. Hamnuna — Several rabbis in the Talmud bore this name, the most well-known being a disciple of Shmuel. Judah III, disciple of Rabbi Johanan bar Nappaha. Son and successor of Gamaliel IV as NASI, grandson of Judah II. Rabbi Ammi Rabbi Assi Hanina ben Pappa Raba bar Rav Huna Rami bar Hama Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah Abaye, disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, Rav Nachman.
Dean of the Yeshiva in Pumbedita. Rava, disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, Rav Nachman, Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva at Mahuza. Hillel II. Creator of the present-day Hebrew calendar. Son and successor as Nasi of Judah Nesiah, grandson of Gamaliel IV. Abba the Surgeon Bebai ben Abaye Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, disciple of Abaye and Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Rav Papa, disciple of Abaye and Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva at Naresh. Rav Kahana, teacher of Rav Ashi Rav Hama Rav Huna berai d'Rav Yehoshua Rav Ashi, disciple of Rav Kahana. Dean of the Yeshiva in Mata Mehasia. Primary redactor of the Babylonian Talmud. Ravina I, disciple of Abaye and Rava. Colleague of Rav Ashi in the Yeshiva at Mata Mehasia, where he assisted in the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud. Mar bar Rav Ashi. Ravina II, disciple of Ravina I and Rav Ashi. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Completed the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud; the "Stammaim" is a term used by some modern scholars, such as Halivni, for the rabbis who composed the anonymous statements and arguments in the Talmud, some of whom may have worked during the period of the Amoraim, but who made their contributions after the amoraic period.
See Savoraim. Gemara in the Talmud Map – University of Calgary Jewish Encyclopedia article for Amora
Rabbi Meir or Rabbi Meir Baal HaNes was a Jewish sage who lived in the time of the Mishna. He was considered one of the greatest of the Tannaim of the fourth generation, he is the third most mentioned sage in the Mishnah. His wife Bruriah is one of the few women cited in the Gemara, he was born in Asia Minor. According to the Talmud, his father was a descendant of the Roman Emperor Nero who, it is said, escaped death at the time of his deposition and became subsequently a convert to Judaism. Twenty four thousand students of Rabbi Akiva died in a plague, he went and found five new students and Rabbi Meir was one of them. The four others were: Rabbi Judah ben Ilai, Rabbi Eleazar ben Shammua, Rabbi Jose ben Halafta, Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai. Meir began to study early in life. At first he entered the school of Rabbi Akiba, finding himself not sufficiently prepared to grasp the lectures of that great master, he went to the school of Rabbi Ishmael, where he acquired an extensive knowledge of the Law, he returned to Akiba, recognizing his dialectical powers, ordained him over the heads of his other disciples.
This ordination, considered invalid on account of Meir's youth, was confirmed by Judah ben Baba. Unlike his master Akiba, Meir seems to have kept aloof from the revolutionary movement of Bar Kokhba, he suffered from its consequences. His father-in-law, Hananiah ben Teradion, fell a martyr to the Hadrianic persecutions, his sister-in-law was taken to Rome and sold to a brothel. A story is told of. During the Hadrianic persecutions Meir lived abroad, but he returned to Judea after the repeal of the oppressive edicts, took a prominent part in the reestablishment of the Sanhedrin in the city of Usha. Shortly afterward Simeon ben Gamaliel II was elected patriarch, Meir was raised to the dignity of hakham, in which office he was charged with the duty of preparing the subjects to be discussed in the Sanhedrin. To his activity and influence was due the adoption of the laws known as the "Institutions of Usha." To his duties in connection with the Sanhedrin Meir added the establishment of academies of his own in Bethsan, Ammaus near Tiberias, etc. where he successively lived and lectured.
Once, on the eve of Purim, Meir found himself in a small Jewish community where no copy of the Book of Esther could be found. The part of Meir's life was saddened by many misfortunes. In one day he lost two promising sons, who died on a Sabbath while he was at the house of study. A story is related of the fortitude shown on that occasion by Beruriah. Controlling her feelings, she withheld the knowledge of their death from her husband during the Sabbath in order that the day should not be profaned by weeping and lamentation, on the conclusion of the Sabbath sought to console her husband with a parable. Shortly after the death of his sons Meir lost his wife. According to a legend, she committed suicide after having been dishonored by one of her husband's pupils; the last years of Meir's life were passed in Asia Minor. He was induced to leave Palestine because of the conflict that arose between the patriarch; the origin of this conflict was the change introduced by Simeon in the ceremonial of the Sanhedrin.
Custom required its members to rise when the president, the judge, or the reader entered the academy. Simeon issued an order that the assembly should rise as a body only on his own entrance, while on the entrance of the judge only the first row, on that of the reader only the second row, should rise. Meir and Nathan felt justly offended at this new arrangement and determined to show Simeon's unfitness for his office by puzzling him with difficult halakic questions which he would be unable to answer. Informed of this conspiracy, Simeon expelled them from the Sanhedrin, but he could not prevent them from writing difficult questions and distributing them among its members. Compelled to readmit both Nathan and Meir, he contrived that their names should not be recorded in the ordinances enacted by him. Nathan submitted, but Meir continued to embarrass the patriarch by addressing to him difficult questions. When, at last, the patriarch threatened excommunication, he answered, "I do not care for your sentence unless you can prove to me on whom, on what grounds, under what conditions excommunication may be imposed," and left the Sanhedrin.
An instance of Meir's humility and love of peace is related in the Midrash. Among his hearers was a woman who never missed a lecture of his. Once, the discourse being more prolonged than usual, the woman returned home late in the evening; this infuriated her husband, who turned her out-of-doors and swore that he would not take her in until she had spat in Meir's face. Refusing to do this, she lived separated from her husband; when Meir was informed of the incident he went to the woman and, pretending to have a sore eye, requested her to spit in it to heal it. Meir's generosity and confidence in God are illustrated by the following details of his private life given in the Midrash; as a public scribe, he earned three shekels a week. Of these, two were spent on his household and one was given to poor fellow students; when asked why he did not save something for his children he answered, "If my children are good the Lord will provide for them, for it is said,'I was young and I am old, yet I have never seen the righteous forsaken nor his seed demanding bread'.
If my children are not good they deserve nothing, it would be aiding the enemies of the Lord if I left them wealth." Meir's sobriquet "Master of the Miracle" is based on the following sto
A ketubah is a special type of Jewish prenuptial agreement. It is considered an integral part of a traditional Jewish marriage, outlines the rights and responsibilities of the groom, in relation to the bride. In modern practice, the ketubah has no agreed monetary value, is never enforced, except in Israel; the rabbis in ancient times insisted on the marriage couple entering into the ketubah as a protection for the wife. It acted as a replacement of the biblical mohar – the price paid by the groom to the bride, or her parents, for the marriage; the ketubah served as a contract, whereby the amount due to the wife came to be paid in the event of the cessation of marriage, either by the death of the husband or divorce. The biblical mohar created a major social problem: many young prospective husbands could not raise the mohar at the time when they would be expected to marry. So, to enable these young men to marry, the rabbis, in effect, delayed the time that the amount would be payable, when they would be more to have the sum.
The mechanism adopted was to provide for the mohar to be a part of the ketubah. Both the mohar and the ketubah amounts served the same purpose: the protection for the wife should her support by her husband cease; the only difference between the two systems was the timing of the payment. A modern secular equivalent would be the entitlement to alimony in the event of divorce; the ketubah amount served as a disincentive for the husband contemplating divorcing his wife: he would need to have the amount in order to be able to pay to his wife. Over two hundred ketubot were discovered, in the Cairo Geniza, they date between the 6th and 19th centuries and, whilst many consist of plain text, there are examples that use decorative devices such as micrography and illumination to elaborate them. The content of the ketubah is in essence a one-way contract that formalizes the various requirements by Halakha of a Jewish husband vis à vis his wife; the Jewish husband takes upon himself in the ketubah the obligation that he will provide to his wife three major things: clothing and conjugal relations, that he will pay her a pre-specified amount of cash in the case of a divorce.
Thus the content of the ketubah dictates the wife's rights in the marriage and provides for her security and protection. The Mishna and Talmud Bavli record that the "Beth-Din of Kohanim" would oversee that the Ketubah of a Bat-Kohen would contract the amount of four hundred Zuz in the event the Bat-Kohen would be given a Get – the increase was written as the base amount due the Bat-Kohen and not as a bonus; the Talmud Yerushalmi opines that the Bat-Kohen who marries a non-Kohen receives that standard two hundred Zuz amount, as a penalty for not marrying within the greater family of Kohanim. Based on the research of A. Epstien, in his work "Toldot HaKetubah B'Yisrael", the recording of Four hundred Zuz in the Ketubah of the Bat-Kohen was well in effect during the Amora period, but from thence onward, no mentioning of the increased amount is found in Rabbinic sources; the ketubah is a significant popular form of Jewish ceremonial art. Ketubot have been made in a wide range of designs following the tastes and styles of the era and region in which they are made.
Many couples follow the Jewish tradition of hiddur mitzvah which calls for ceremonial objects such as the ketubah to be made as beautiful as possible. Traditional ketubot are not written in the Hebrew language, but in Aramaic, the lingua franca of Jews at the time ketubot became standardized; this was done in order to make sure the bride and groom understood the contract, being signed. Many contemporary ketubot have translations into English or other vernacular languages or an accompanying vernacular text. Many Conservative Jews and other non-Orthodox Jews use ketubot written in Hebrew rather than in Aramaic. Others may use Aramaic ketubot but have an additional official version in Hebrew. In recent years kettubot have become available in a variety of formats as well as the traditional Aramaic text used by the Orthodox community. Available texts include Conservative text, using the Lieberman Clause, Reform and Interfaith texts; some congregations have texts available for same sex couples too. In addition, Secular Humanist and Anniversary texts are available today.
In a traditional Jewish wedding ceremony, the ketubah is signed by two witnesses and traditionally read out loud under the chuppah. Friends or distant relatives are invited to witness the ketubah, considered an honour; the witnesses must be halakhically valid witnesses, so cannot be a blood relative of the couple. In Orthodox Judaism, women are not considered to be valid witnesses; the ketubah is handed to the bride for safekeeping. Ketubot are hung prominently in the home by the married couple as a daily reminder of their vows and responsibilities to each other. However, in some communities, the ketubah is either displayed in a private section of the home or is not displayed at all. Various reasons given for this include the fact that the details specify personal details, prominent display may invite jealousy or fears of the evil eye; the ketubah specified whether the bride was a virgin. In Sephardic communities, it still specifies the actual contribu
Tu B'Av is a minor Jewish holiday. In modern-day Israel, it is celebrated as a holiday of love, similar to Valentine's Day, it has been said to be a "great day for weddings". According to the Mishna, Tu B'Av was a joyous holiday in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem, marking the beginning of the grape harvest. Yom Kippur marked the end of the grape harvest. On both dates the unmarried girls of Jerusalem dressed in white garments, went out to dance in the vineyards; that same section in the Talmud states that there were no holy days as happy for the Jews as Tu B'Av and Yom Kippur. The holiday celebrated. Josephus refers to it as the Feast of Xylophory. Various reasons for celebrating on Tu B'Av are cited by the Talmud and Talmudic commentators: While the Jews wandered in the desert for forty years, female orphans without brothers could only marry within their tribe to prevent their father's inherited territory in the Land of Israel from passing on to other tribes. On the fifteenth of Av, this ban was lifted and inter-tribal marriage was allowed.
That same year, the last of the generation of the sin of the spies, forbidden to enter the Promised Land, found that they were not destined to die. For forty years, every Tisha B'av night, the Jews made graves for themselves in which they slept on Tisha B'Av. In the 40th year, the fifteen thousand who had remained from the first generation went to sleep in the graves and woke up the next day to their surprise. Thinking they made a mistake with the date, they did this until they reached Tu B'Av and saw a full moon. Only did they know they were going to enter the Land of Israel with the new generation; the Tribe of Benjamin was allowed to intermarry with the other tribes after the incident of the Concubine of Gibeah. Cutting of the wood for the main altar in the Temple was completed for the year. King Hoshea of the northern kingdom removed the sentries on the road leading to Jerusalem, allowing the ten tribes to once again have access to the Temple; the nights, traditionally the ideal time for Torah study, are lengthened again after the summer solstice, permitting more study.
The Roman occupiers permitted burial of the victims of the massacre at Bethar during the Bar Kochba rebellion. Miraculously, the bodies had not decomposed, despite exposure to the elements for over a year. Tu B'Av marks an informal "high" to counter the "low" of The Three Weeks leading up to Tisha B'Av. Tu B'Av does not have many established religious rituals associated with its celebration; however Tachanun is not said—either at mincha the day before or on the day itself—and a bride and groom traditionally do not fast if their wedding falls on Tu B'Av. In modern times, it has become a romantic Jewish holiday compared to Valentine's Day, has been said to be a "great day for weddings, commitment ceremonies, renewal of vows, or proposing". "It is a day for romance, explored through singing, giving flowers, studying."
Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility and violence. In a social sense, peace is used to mean a lack of conflict and freedom from fear of violence between individuals or heterogeneous groups. Throughout history leaders have used peacemaking and diplomacy to establish a certain type of behavioral restraint that has resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or peace treaties; such behavioral restraint has resulted in the reduction of conflicts, greater economic interactivity, substantial prosperity. The avoidance of war or violent hostility can be the result of thoughtful active listening and communication that enables greater genuine mutual understanding and therefore compromise. Leaders benefit tremendously from the prestige of peace talks and treaties that can result in enhanced popularity. “Psychological peace” is less well defined yet a necessary precursor to establishing "behavioral peace."
Peaceful behavior sometimes results from a "peaceful inner disposition." Some have expressed the belief that peace can be initiated with a certain quality of inner tranquility that does not depend upon the uncertainties of daily life for its existence. The acquisition of such a "peaceful internal disposition" for oneself and others can contribute to resolving of otherwise irreconcilable competing interests; because psychological peace can be important to Behavioral peace, leaders sometimes de-escalate conflicts through compliments and generosity. Small gestures of rhetorical and actual generosity have been shown in psychological research to result in larger levels of reciprocal generosity; such benevolent selfless behavior can become a pattern that may become a lasting basis for improved relations between individuals and groups of people. Peace talks start without preconditions and preconceived notions, because they are more than just negotiating opportunities, they place attention on peace itself over and above what may have been perceived as the competing needs or interests of separate individuals or parties to elicit peaceful feelings and therefore produce benevolent behavioral results.
Peace talks are sometimes uniquely important learning opportunities for the individuals or parties involved. The Anglo-French term Pes itself comes from the Latin pax, meaning "peace, agreement, treaty of peace, absence of hostility, harmony." The English word came into use in various personal greetings from c.1300 as a translation of the Hebrew word shalom, according to Jewish theology, comes from a Hebrew verb meaning'to be complete, whole'. Although'peace' is the usual translation, however, it is an incomplete one, because'shalom,', cognate with the Arabic salaam, has multiple other meanings in addition to peace, including justice, good health, well-being, equity, good fortune, friendliness, as well as the greetings, "hello" and "goodbye". At a personal level, peaceful behaviors are kind, respectful and tolerant of others' beliefs and behaviors — tending to manifest goodwill; the term-'peace' originates most from the Anglo-French pes, the Old French pais, meaning "peace, silence, agreement".
This latter understanding of peace can pertain to an individual's introspective sense or concept of her/himself, as in being "at peace" in one's own mind, as found in European references from c.1200. The early English term is used in the sense of "quiet", reflecting calm and meditative approaches to family or group relationships that avoid quarreling and seek tranquility — an absence of disturbance or agitation. In many languages, the word for peace is used as a greeting or a farewell, for example the Hawaiian word aloha, as well as the Arabic word salaam. In English the word peace is used as a farewell for the dead, as in the phrase rest in peace. Wolfgang Dietrich in his research project which led to the book The Palgrave International Handbook of Peace Studies maps the different meanings of peace in different languages and from different regions across the world. In his Interpretations of Peace in History and Culture, he groups the different meanings of peace into five peace families: Energetic/Harmony, Moral/Justice, Modern/Security, Postmodern/Truth, Transrational, a synthesis of the positive sides of the four previous families and the society.
In ancient times and more peaceful alliances between different nations were codified through royal marriages. Two examples, Hermodike I c.800BC and Hermodike II c.600BC were Greek princesses from the house of Agamemnon who married kings from what is now Central Turkey. The union of Phrygia / Lydia with Aeolian Greeks resulted in regional peace, which facilitated the transfer of ground-breaking technological skills into Ancient Greece. Both inventions were adopted by surrounding nations through further trade and cooperation and have been of fundamental benefit to the progress of civilization. Since classical times, it has been noted that peace has sometimes been achieved by the victor over the vanquished by the imposition of ruthless measures. In his book Agricola the Roman historian Tacitus includes eloquent and vicious polemics against the rapacity and greed of Rome. One, that Tacitus says is by the Caledonian chieftain Calgacus, ends Auferre truc
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A