Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Alfa Romeo 8C
The Alfa Romeo 8C was a range of Alfa Romeo road and sports cars of the 1930s. In 2004 Alfa Romeo revived the 8C name for a V8-engined concept car which made it into production for 2007, the 8C Competizione; the 8C designates 8 cylinders, a straight 8-cylinder engine. The Vittorio Jano designed 8C was Alfa Romeo's primary racing engine from its introduction in 1931 to its retirement in 1939. In addition to the two-seater sports cars it was used in the world's first genuine single-seat Grand Prix racing car, the Monoposto'Tipo B' - P3 from 1932 onwards. In its development it powered such vehicles as the twin-engined 1935 6.3-litre Bimotore, the 1935 3.8-litre Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, the Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B Mille Miglia Roadster. It powered top-of-the-range coach-built production models, including a Touring Spider and Touring Berlinetta. In 1924, Vittorio Jano created his first straight-eight-cylinder engine for Alfa Romeo, the 1987 cc P2, with common crankcase and four plated-steel two-cylinder blocks, which won the first World Championship in 1925.
Although it was a straight-8, the 8C designation was not used. The 8C engine, first entered at the 1931 Mille Miglia road race through Italy, had a common crankcase, now with two alloy four-cylinder blocks, which incorporated the heads; the bore and stroke, were the same as the 6C 1750. There was no separate head, no head gasket to fail, but this made valve maintenance more difficult. A central gear tower drove the overhead camshafts and ancillaries; as far as production cars are concerned, the 8C engine powered two models, the 8C 2300 and the more rare and expensive 8C 2900, bore increased to 68 mm and stroke to 100 mm. At the same time, since racing cars were no longer required to carry a mechanic, Alfa Romeo built the first single seater race car; as a first attempt, the 1931 Monoposto Tipo A used a pair of 6-cylinder engines fitted side by side in the chassis. As the resulting car was too heavy and complex, Jano designed a more suitable and successful racer called Monoposto Tipo B for the 1932 Grand Prix season.
The Tipo B proved itself the winning car of its era, winning straight from its first outing at the 1932 Italian Grand Prix, was powered with an enlarged version of the 8C engine now at 2,665 cc, fed through a pair of superchargers instead of a single one. Alfa Romeo announced that the 8C was not to be sold to private owners, but by autumn 1931 Alfa sold it as a rolling chassis in Lungo or Corto form with prices starting at over £1000; the chassis were fitted with bodies from a selection of Italian coach-builders such as Zagato, Carrozzeria Touring, Carrozzeria Castagna, Carrozzeria Pinin Farina and Brianza though Alfa Romeo did make bodies. Some chassis were clothed by coach-builders such as Graber and Tuscher of Switzerland and Figoni of France. Alfa Romeo had a practice of rebodying cars for clients, some racing vehicles were sold rebodied as road vehicles; some of the famous first owners include Baroness Maud Thyssen of the Thyssen family, the owner of the aircraft and now scooter company Piaggio Andrea Piaggio, Raymond Sommer, Tazio Nuvolari.
The first model was the 1931'8C 2300', a reference to the car's 2.3 L engine designed as a racing car, but produced in 188 units for road use. While the racing version of the 8C 2300 Spider, driven by Tazio Nuvolari won the 1931 and 1932 Targa Florio race in Sicily, the 1931 Italian Grand Prix victory at Monza gave the "Monza" name to the twin seater GP car, a shortened version of the Spider; the Alfa Romeo factory added the name of events won to the name of a car.'8C 2300 tipo Le Mans' was the sport version of the'8C 2300' and it had a successful debut in the 1931 Eireann Cup driven by Henry Birkin. It won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1931; the 8C 2300 Le Mans model on display at the Museo Alfa Romeo was bought by Sir Henry Birkin in 1931 for competition use, but it is not the car in which Birkin and Howe won the 1931 Le Mans 24 hours. A 1933 8C 2300 Le Mans, chassis #2311201, is part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, US; the car was owned by Lord Howe who campaigned it in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1934 as well as in 1935 when it set the fastest lap before retiring.
In 1933 the supercharged dual overhead cam straight-8 engine, enlarged to 2.6 litres for the Tipo B, was fitted to the Scuderia Ferrari 8C Monzas. Scuderia Ferrari had become the "semi-official" racing department of Alfa Romeo, who were no longer entering races as a factory effort due to the poor economic situation of the company. With the initial 215 hp of the 2.6 engine, the Monoposto Tipo B racer could accelerate to 60 mph in less than 7 seconds and could reach 135 mph. For 1934 the race engines became 2.9 litres. Tazio Nuvolari won the 1935 German GP at the Nürburgring at the wheel of a 3.2 L Tipo B against the more powerful Silver Arrows from Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union. Eight 3.8-litre versions, sharing no castings with the earlier blocks, were individually built for racing in five months, most being used in the Alfa Romeo Monoposto 8C 35 Type C, as raced by Scuderia Ferrari. The 3.8 produced 330 bhp at 5500 rpm, had 320 lb⋅ft from 900 rpm to 5500 rpm. It had 15.5-inch drum brakes all round, using Pirelli 5.25 or 5.50 x 19 tyres at the front and 7.00 or 7.50 x 19 tyres at the rear.
The Stutz Bearcat was a well-known American sports car of the pre– and post–World War One period. The Bearcat was a shorter, lighter version of the standard Stutz passenger car's chassis, it was powered by a 390-cubic-inch, 60-horsepower straight-four engine produced by the Wisconsin Motor Manufacturing Company. Common with racing and sports cars of the period, it featured minimal bodywork consisting of a "dog house" hood, open bucket seats, a tiny "monocle" windscreen in front of the driver, a cylindrical fuel tank on a short rear deck. Production Bearcats differed from the factory "White Squadron" racers by having fenders, lights and a trunk. According to factory literature from 1913 the Bearcat "was designed to meet the needs of the customer desiring a car built along the lines of a racing car with a higher gear ratio than our normal torpedo roadster, has met with great favor with motor car owners and meets the demand for a car of this class." The original production Bearcat was introduced in the Series A of 1912.
The first public mention of the car is in an advertisement in the 1912 program for the Indianapolis 500 mile race. This ad was the first to use the soon to be famous Stutz slogan "The Car that made good in a day" referring to the Stutz racer's 11th-place finish in the 1911 Indianapolis 500; the Series E of 1913 brought electric starter. A six-cylinder option was available for an extra $250.00. The doorless body style lasted through 1916. A sales catalog lists the available colors for the Series E as vermillion, monitor gray, Mercedes red. Wire wheels were listed as a $125 option; the Series S Bearcat of 1917 brought the first large change to the model. While it retained the 120-inch wheelbase, its body now featured an enclosed cockpit with step-over sides, it continued to be right-hand drive with external brake levers. The main change was a new Stutz-designed 360-cubic-inch 16-valve four-cylinder engine, it was cast in a single block had camshafts. For 1919, the Series G was similar, but the mid-1919 Series H bodies featured cut-down sides to make cockpit entrance easier.
The H introduced new colors, including yellow, royal red, elephant gray. By the end of 1919, price for a Bearcat had risen to $3,250; the 1920 Series K was again similar, but prices rose to $3,900 in the wake of a postwar auto sales boom. The 1921 series K featuring a new "DH" engine with a detachable head was introduced, but a switch to left-hand drive in the following KLDH meant the end of the Bearcat, since its narrow front seat and cockpit did not leave room for centrally located gear and brake levers. By 1922, the famed Bearcat name was missing from sales literature. For 1923, the roadster was renamed the Bearcat, but the name would again disappear in 1924; the Bearcat name was reintroduced in 1931. The depression had not been kind to Stutz; the new Bearcat had the DV-32 eight-cylinder engine and each car came with an affidavit saying the car had been tested at 100 mph. It was a small coupe featuring dual side-mount spare tires and a rakish dip in the doors, similar to contemporary sports cars.
The car lasted through 1933. The same year, the model range was enhanced by the DV-32 powered "Super Bearcat", which offered full weather protection and higher performance. Sitting on a 116-inch wheelbase, it featured a lightweight fabric body built by Weymann. Stutz production ended in 1934. Overall, its low weight and power made it an excellent racer. In 1912, Stutz Bearcats won 25 of the 30 auto races. In 1915 a stock Bearcat was driven by Erwin "Cannon Ball" Baker from California to New York in eleven days, seven hours, fifteen minutes, shattering the previous record and inspiring the Cannonball Run race and film spin-offs; the Stutz "White Squadron" factory racing team won the 1913 and 1915 championships. Owning a Stutz Bearcat became a famous status symbol for the wealthy of the era. In 1914 it was priced at $2,000 four times that of the basic American made Model T; the colorful history and rakish image of the Stutz Bearcat made it one of the better known antique cars to generations of Americans.
It was associated with the "Roaring 20s" and college students of that period. It was mentioned with stereotypical accoutrements of the period such as raccoon coats and illicit "bathtub gin"; the Velvet Underground's 1970 song "Sweet Jane" mentions a Stutz Bearcat to illustrate the bygone times described in the song. That fame persisted well into the late 20th century and the car's name was used by way of comparison by modern makes of cars including Nash and Mercury. A Triumph ad asked the question "Is the TR 3 the Stutz Bearcat of the 60s?" and showed a Triumph driver, complete with raccoon coat, next to an early'20s Bearcat, in a campus setting. The Nash ad from the early 1950s has the line "For the boy who wanted a Stutz Bearcat." Oklahoma City businessman Howard D. Williams attempted to capitalize on the model's fame. In the late 1960s, he built and marketed a fiber-glass replica of the car, based on the chassis of an International Harvester Scout utility vehicle, it was broadly similar in outline but differed from the original in having left hand drive and many visual differences.
It was aimed at luxury car buyers as a unique ru
Hudson Motor Car Company
The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson and other brand automobiles in Detroit, from 1909 to 1954. In 1954, Hudson merged with Nash-Kelvinator to form American Motors Corporation; the Hudson name was continued through the 1957 model year. The name "Hudson" came from Joseph L. Hudson, a Detroit department store entrepreneur and founder of Hudson's department store, who provided the necessary capital and gave permission for the company to be named after him. A total of eight Detroit businessmen formed the company on February 20, 1909, to produce an automobile which would sell for less than US$1,000. One of the chief "car men" and organizer of the company was Roy D. Chapin, Sr. a young executive who had worked with Ransom E. Olds.. The company started production, with the first car driven out of a small factory in Detroit on July 3, 1909 at Mack Avenue and Beaufait Street in Detroit, occupying the old Aerocar factory; the new Hudson "Twenty" was one of the first low-priced cars on the American market and successful with more than 4,000 sold the first year.
The 4,508 units made in 1910 was the best first year's production in the history of the automobile industry and put the newly formed company in 17th place industry-wide, "a remarkable achievement at a time" when there were hundreds of makes being marketed. Successful sales volume required a larger factory. A new facility was built on a 22-acre parcel at Jefferson Avenue and Conner Avenue in Detroit's Fairview section, diagonally across from the Chalmers Automobile plant; the land was the former farm of D. J. Campau; until the late 1920s, bodies for Hudson cars were built by Smart. On 1 July 1926, Hudson's new $10 million body plant was completed where the automaker could now build the all-steel closed bodies for both the Hudson and Essex models, it was designed by the firm of renowned industrial architect Albert Kahn with 223,500 square feet and opened on October 29, 1910. Production in 1911 increased to 6,486. For 1914 Hudsons for the American market were now left hand drive; the company had a number of firsts for the auto industry.
The Super Six was the first engine built by Hudson Hudson had developed engine designs and had them manufactured by Continental Motors Company. Most Hudsons until 1957 had straight-6 engines; the dual brake system used a secondary mechanical emergency brake system, which activated the rear brakes when the pedal traveled beyond the normal reach of the primary system. Hudson transmissions used an oil bath and cork clutch mechanism that proved to be as durable as it was smooth. At their peak in 1929, Hudson and Essex produced a combined 300,000 cars in one year, including contributions from Hudson's other factories in Belgium and England. Hudson was the third largest U. S. car maker that year, after Ford Motor Company and Chevrolet. In 1919, Hudson introduced the Essex brand line of automobiles; the Essex found great success by offering one of the first affordable sedans, combined Hudson and Essex sales moved from seventh in the U. S. to third by 1925. In 1932, Hudson began phasing out its Essex nameplate for the modern Terraplane brand name.
The new line was launched on July 1932, with a promotional christening by Amelia Earhart. For 1932 and 1933, the restyled cars were named Essex-Terraplane. Hudson began assembling cars in Canada, contracting Canada Top and Body to build the cars in their Tilbury, plant. In England Terraplanes built at the Brentford factory were still being advertised in 1938. An optional accessory on some 1935-1938 Hudson and Terraplane models was a steering column-mounted electric gear pre-selector and electro-mechanical automatic shifting system, known as the "Electric Hand", manufactured by the Bendix Corporation; this required conventional clutch actions. Cars equipped with Electric Hand carried a conventional shift lever in clips under the dash, which could be pulled out and put to use in case the Electric Hand should fail. Hudson was noted for offering an optional vacuum-powered automatic clutch, starting in the early 1930s. For the 1930 model year Hudson debuted a new flathead inline eight cylinder engine with block and Crankcase cast as a unit and fitted with two cylinder heads.
A 2.75 inch bore and 4.5 inch stroke displaced 218.8 cubic inches developing 80 horsepower at 3,600 rpm with the standard 5.78:1 compression ratio. The 5-main bearing crankshaft had 8 integral counterweights, an industry first, employed a Lanchester vibration damper. Four rubber blocks were used at engine mount points. A valveless oil pump improved the Hudson splash lubrication system; the new eights were the only engine offering in the Hudson line, supplanting the Super Six, which soldiered on in the Essex models. At the 1931 Indianapolis 500, Buddy Marr's #27 Hudson Special finished tenth. In 1936, Hudson revamped its cars, introducing a new "radial safe
The Nissan 300ZX is a sports car in the Nissan Z-car family, produced across two similar but unique generations. As with all other versions of the Z, the 300ZX was sold within the Japanese domestic market under the name Fairlady Z. Sold in Japan from 1983 to 2001 and in the United States from 1984 through 1996, the 300ZX name followed the numerical convention initiated with the original Z car, the Nissan S30, marketed in the U. S. as the 240Z. The addition of the "X" to the car's name was a carryover from its predecessor, the 280ZX, signified the presence, either standard or optional, of rear seats. Despite the presence of that additional equipment, the first generation "Z31" variant of the 300ZX continued in the tradition of the original S30 as a mid-priced model; the second generation "Z32" was driven up-market, being faster, more capable, more advanced, much higher priced than its predecessor, with consecutive price increases each model year of availability. As such, the Z31 was the more accessible, the more popular model, selling over 100,000 more units in total than the Z32.
In 1983-1984 the Nissan 300ZX Turbo brand new priced around $12,000-$18,000 Car and Driver placed the Z32 on its Ten Best list for 7 consecutive years, each model year of its availability in the United States. Motor Trend awarded it as the 1990 Import Car of the Year; the Nissan 350Z the Z33 generation Z-Car, succeeded the 300ZX in 2003. The Z31 chassis designation was first introduced in 1983 as a 1984 Nissan/Datsun 300ZX in the U. S. market. The 300ZX, as its predecessors, was known as a Nissan in other parts of the world; this continued in the U. S. until the 1985 model year when Nissan standardized their brand name worldwide and dropped the Datsun badge. All publications for the Z31 chassis 300ZX and its predecessors were copyright Nissan North America. Designed by Kazumasu Takagi and his team of developers, the 300ZX improved aerodynamics and increased power when compared to its predecessor, the 280ZX; the newer Z-car had a drag coefficient of 0.30 and was powered by Japan's first mass-produced V6 engine instead of an inline 6.
According to Nissan, the V6 engine was supposed to re-create the spirit of the original Fairlady Z. The Z31 generation featured five engine options. A turbocharged dual over head cam 2.0 L straight-six, a turbocharged single over head cam 2.0 L V6, a aspirated single over head cam 3.0 L V6, a turbocharged single over head cam 3.0 L V6 and a aspirated dual over head cam 3.0 L V6. The Z31 had electronic fuel injection, was rear wheel drive; the Z31 was available in either left or right hand drive. Two Special Edition versions of the Z31 generation model were produced. Unlike its predecessors, the Z31 featured a V6 engine in the 200Z/ZS/ZG, 300ZX and 300ZR, the only Z31 to come with an Inline 6 cylinder engine was the Fairlady 200ZR, only available in Japan; the new V6 Single overhead cam engine was available as a aspirated VG30E or a turbocharged VG30ET producing 160 hp and 200 hp respectively. The engine was either a type A or type B sub-designation from 1984 to March 1987, while models from April 1987 to 1989 had a W sub-designation.
The W-series engines featured redesigned water jackets for additional cooling, floating piston wrist pins. The 1984 to 1987 turbo models featured a Garrett T3 turbocharger with a 7.8:1 compression ratio, whereas 1988 to 1989 models featured a low inertia T25 turbocharger with an increased 8.3:1 compression ratio and more power—165 hp aspirated and 205 hp turbocharged. These engines were equipped with self-adjusting hydraulic valve lifters; the transmissions were an optional 4-speed automatic. All Z31s were equipped with a Nissan R200 rear differential, April 1987 and turbo models received an R200 clutch limited-slip differential except 1988 Shiro Specials which had a Viscous-type limited slip. There were three trim models available: SF, GL and GLL; the SF model was only available in Canada. Select 300ZX models could be equipped with a digital gauge cluster that utilized a "Voice Warning System"; the Voice Warning System used the vehicle's radio and driver's door speaker to mute the radio and provide a vocal warning whenever a door was ajar, the exterior lights were left on after the vehicle was turned off, the key was left in the vehicle's ignition when the driver's door was opened, or the fuel level was low.
The system operated using a small box that integrated a small phonograph with a "needle" that dropped onto a plastic "record" and played the appropriate message, unlike the similar Electronic Voice Alert system in select K-Platform vehicles from Chrysler and Plymouth that used an electronic chipset developed by Texas Instruments. Since the Voice Warning System utilized the 300ZX's factory radio to play the vocal warnings, the system would no longer function if an aftermarket head unit was installed into the vehicle. Other technological features in the 300ZX included a "Body Sonic" audio system that utilized a separate amplifier and speakers in the vehicle's front seats that allowed bass from music to be felt by the vehicle's occupants, a digital climate control sy
National Motor Vehicle Company
The National Motor Vehicle Company was an American manufacturer of automobiles in Indianapolis, between 1900 and 1924. One of its presidents, Arthur C. Newby, was one of the investors who created the Indianapolis Motor Speedway; the company first soon began producing gasoline-engined cars. National produced a range of four and twelve-cylinder passenger vehicles, as well as numerous successful racing cars. In 1923, National was merged into Associated Motor Industries, which subsequently went out of business in 1924. National's first vehicle was the tiller-steered electric runabout Style A in 1900; the single electric motor was situated at the rear of the car. A 4-speed herring bone transmission was fitted; the reinforced wood-framed car could reach 15 mph. In 1903, the company began producing internal combustion-engined cars with four-cylinder engines made by Rutenber. Electric cars were dropped from production in 1905. For 1905, a circular radiator became a styling signature of the National brand.
National introduced one of the first six-cylinder engines in the 1906 model range, which remained available until the breakup of the company. Peak production for National was reached with over 1,800 cars produced. For 1916, the company introduced the Highway Twelve, a 12-cylinder engine of the company's own design and changed its name to National Motor and Vehicle Corporation. Curiously, the 6-cylinder engine option was priced higher than the 12-cylinder because National outsourced the 6-cylinder to Continental under the "Continental Red Seal" moniker. Forced to raise their asking prices to counteract the effects of wartime inflation, National ended up in a higher price range in which they could not compete. For 1920, National issued a new model -- the Sextet; the Sextet used a Continental side-valve six-cylinder, modified by National engineers with an overhead valve head. The company was merged to form Associated Motor Industries in 1922 along with Dixie Flyer and Jackson. Associated was renamed the National Motors Corporation in 1923, few cars were made until the company ceased production in 1924.
National had the most enviable and successful career of all of the American pre-World War I race cars. For instance, in 1911, in a combination of road races, speedway races, hill climbs and dirt track races, they won a total of 84 times, came in second 48 times and third 30 times; the Elgin National Trophy race as well as the Illinois Trophy was won by a National 6-cylinder in 1911. In 1912, Joe Dawson won the Indianapolis 500 in a National with an average speed of 78.7 mph. This was the first and only time a stock car won the Indianapolis 500. Frank Leslie's Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925. New York: Bonanza Books, 1950. List of automobile manufacturers List of defunct automobile manufacturers
SS Jaguar 100
The SS Jaguar 100 is a British 2-seat sports car built between 1936 and 1941 by SS Cars Ltd of Coventry, England. The manufacturer's name'SS Cars' used from 1934 maintained a link to the previous owner, Swallow Sidecar, founded in 1922 by Walmsley and Lyons to build motorcycle sidecars. In March 1945 the S. S. Cars shareholders agreed to change the name to Jaguar Cars Limited. In common with many products of the thirties the adoption of an animal name was deemed appropriate and the model name "Jaguar" was given to a new SS saloon car in 1935, to all new SS models. The'100' was for the theoretical 100 mph maximum speed of the vehicle; the chassis had a wheelbase of 8 feet 8 inches, was a shortened version of the one designed for the 2.5-litre saloon, a car produced in much greater numbers, first seen in the SS 90 of 1935. When leaving the factory it fitted 5.50 or 5.25 × 18 inch tyres on 18 inch wire wheels. Suspension was on half-elliptical springs all round with rigid axles; the engine was a development of the old 2.5-litre Standard pushrod unit converted from side valve to overhead valve with a new cylinder head designed by William Heynes and Harry Weslake.
The power output was increased from 70 bhp to 100 bhp. Twin SU carburettors were bolted directly to the cylinder head. In 1938 the engine was further enlarged to the power increased to 125 bhp; the four-speed gearbox had synchromesh on the top 3 ratios. Brakes were by Girling; the complete car weighed just over 23 cwt. On test by the Autocar magazine in 1937 the 2.5-litre car was found, with the windscreen lowered, to have a maximum speed of 95 mph and a 0–60 mph time of 13.5 seconds. With the 3.5-litre the top speed reached the magic 100 mph with a best of 101 mph over the quarter mile and the 0–60 mph coming down to 10.4 seconds. In 1937 the 2.5-litre car cost £395 and in 1938 the 3.5-litre £445. The fixed head coupé, of which only one was made, was listed at £595. A few examples were supplied as chassis-only to external coachbuilders. Considered one of the most aesthetically pleasing sporting cars of the 1930s the SS100 is very rare, with only 198 2.5-litre and 116 3.5-litre models made. While most stayed on the home market, 49 were exported.
Cars in good condition will now fetch in excess of £300,000. A near concours example was auctioned by Bonhams at the 2007 Goodwood Festival of Speed for £199,500. Due to its rarity, auction prices for the SS100 have since risen strongly. More a beautifully restored former Pebble Beach concours winning 1937 S. S. Jaguar 100 3½ Litre Roadster - was sold by Gooding & Co. at their August 2010 Pebble Beach auction. It fetched a noteworthy £666,270, it was on an SS100 that the famous Jaguar'leaper', the marque's signature feline hood ornament, was first displayed. In mid 1936 the first version of the Jaguar mascot was reputedly described by Sir William Lyons, founder of the company, as "looking like a cat shot off a fence". A publicity photograph of the new Model 100 "Jaguar" parked outside the offices of SS Cars Ltd in early 1937 shows a revised Jaguar'leaper' mounted on the radiator cap, it is this more stylised'leaper' that became the trade mark for Jaguar Cars, Ltd. remaining in use to this day. The unnamed owner of the Belgravia vintage car dealer in James Leasor's'Aristo Autos' novels,'They Don't Make Them Like That Any More','Never Had a Spanner on Her' and'Host of Extras', drives an SS100, the car features prominently in the books.
The late Alan Clark MP owned an SS Jaguar 100, during his time in Margaret Thatcher's government was to be seen piloting his SS100 away from the House of Commons after late Parliamentary sittings. Of the 49 exported models, one notable example, CNP 947, was driven and raced by pioneering American television host Dave Garroway, his white 3 1/2 Litre car still bears the alligator hide trim on its instrument panel, seat surfaces and steering wheel from his ownership. Jaguar Motorcars provided Garroway the first XK 3.8 litre engine sold a race prepared unit which remains with the car. At Gooding's January 2017 auction in Scottsdale, the Garroway SS100, with both the XK engine and a correct 3 1/2 litre Standard engine, sold for £493,000. A number of Jaguar SS100 replicas and recreations of varying material quality and execution have been manufactured since the 1960s. Significant makers include the Birchfield Motor Company, the Steadman Motor Company, Suffolk Sportscars and the Finch Motor Company.
In recent years these replicas bring in excess of £50,000. In 1982, the first Birchfield Sports was produced. A company called Shapecraft in Northampton, UK developed the concept further as a production-run vehicle using Jaguar XJ6 mechanicals, with the looks of the SS Jaguar. Due to the complexity of the design, the advanced degree of engineering knowledge needed to deal with the Jaguar parts, the car was not successful as a kit car. For this reason, only 18 were produced in the UK. After production ceased in the UK, a Shapecraft employee emigrated to Australia taking with him the Birchfield drawings and the last production car to use as a pattern. By 2004, at least two cars had been completed in Australia and two more were in production; the Steadman TS100 manufactured during the late 1980s and early 1990s by Ottercraft Ltd in Hayle, United Kingdom, is described as a'reproduction' of the SS100. The actual build numbers for this car are unknown, but it is thought that a maximum of twenty-eight of these vehicles were assembled, were