Ghil'ad Zuckermann is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics and the study of language and identity. Zuckermann is professor of Linguistics and Endangered Languages at the University of Adelaide, Australia. Zuckermann was born in Giv'atayim, Israel on 1 June 1971, grew up in Eilat, he attended the United World College of the Adriatic in 1987–1989. He did his military service in the Israel Defense Forces in an elite cyberwarfare unit. In 1997 he received an M. A. in Linguistics at the Adi Lautman Interdisciplinary Programme for Outstanding Students of Tel Aviv University. In 1997–2000 he was Scatcherd European Scholar of the University of Oxford and Denise Skinner Graduate Scholar at St Hugh's College, receiving a D. Phil. in 2000. As Gulbenkian Research Fellow at Churchill College, Cambridge, he was affiliated with the Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Modern and Medieval Studies, University of Cambridge, he received a titular Ph. D. from the University of Cambridge in 2003.
He taught at the University of Cambridge, University of Queensland, National University of Singapore, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, East China Normal University, University of Miami, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and University of Pavol Jozef Šafárik. In 2010-2015 he was China's Ivy League Project 211 Distinguished Visiting Professor, "Shanghai Oriental Scholar" professorial fellow, at Shanghai International Studies University, he was Australian Research Council Discovery Fellow in 2007–2011 and was awarded research fellowships at the Rockefeller Foundation's Bellagio Study and Conference Center. He won a British Academy Research Grant, Memorial Foundation of Jewish Culture Postdoctoral Fellowship, Harold Hyam Wingate Scholarship and Chevening Scholarship. Zuckermann is professor of Linguistics and Endangered Languages at the University of Adelaide, he is elected member of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies and the Foundation for Endangered Languages.
He serves as Editorial Board member of the Journal of Language Contact, consultant for the Oxford English Dictionary, expert witness in lexicography and linguistics. He is President of the Australian Association for Jewish Studies, he was President of the Australasian Association of Lexicography in 2013-2015. In 2017 Zuckermann was awarded a five-year research project grant from the National Health and Medical Research Council "to explore the effects of Indigenous language reclamation on social and emotional wellbeing". Zuckermann is a hyperpolyglot. Zuckermann applies insights from the Hebrew revival to the revitalization of Aboriginal languages in Australia. According to Yuval Rotem, the ambassador of the State of Israel to the Commonwealth of Australia, Zuckermann's "passion for the reclamation and empowerment of Aboriginal languages and culture inspired and was indeed the driving motivator of" the establishment of the Allira Aboriginal Knowledge IT Centre in Dubbo, New South Wales, Australia, on 2 September 2010.
He proposes "Native Tongue Title", compensation for language loss, because "linguicide" results in "loss of cultural autonomy, loss of spiritual and intellectual sovereignty, loss of soul". He uses the term sleeping beauty to refer to a no-longer spoken language and urges Australia "to define the 330 Aboriginal languages, most of them sleeping beauties, as the official languages of their region", to introduce bilingual signs and thus change the linguistic landscape of the country. "So, for example, Port Lincoln should be referred to as Galinyala, its original Barngarla name." His edX MOOC Language Revival: Securing the Future of Endangered Languages has had 11,043 learners from 185 countries. Zuckermann proposes a controversial hybrid theory of the emergence of Israeli Hebrew according to which Hebrew and Yiddish "acted equally" as the "primary contributors" to Modern Hebrew. Scholars including Yiddish linguist Dovid Katz, adopt Zuckermann's term "Israeli" and accept his notion of hybridity.
Others, for example author and translator Hillel Halkin, oppose Zuckermann's model. In an article published on 24 December 2004 in The Jewish Daily Forward, pseudonymous column "Philologos", Halkin accused Zuckermann of political agenda. Zuckermann's response was published on 28 December 2004 in The Mendele Review: Yiddish Literature and Language; as described by Reuters in a 2006 article, "Zuckermann's lectures are packed, with the cream of Israeli academia invariably looking uncertain on whether to endorse his innovative streak or rise to the defense of the mother tongue." According to Omri Herzog, Zuckermann "is considered by his Israeli colleagues either a genius or a provocateur". "In 2011 Zuckermann contacted the Barngarla community about helping to revive and reclaim the Barngarla language. This request was eagerly accepted by the Barngarla people and language reclamation workshops began in Port Lincoln and Port Augusta in 2012"; the reclamation is based on 170-year-old documents. Zuckermann is the founder and convener o
Blackadder is a series of four BBC1 pseudohistorical British sitcoms, plus several one-off instalments, which aired in the 1980s. All television episodes starred Rowan Atkinson as the anti-hero Edmund Blackadder, Tony Robinson as Blackadder's dogsbody, Baldrick; each series was set in a different historical period, with the two protagonists accompanied by different characters, though several reappear in one series or another, for example Melchett and Lord Flashheart. The first series, The Black Adder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson, while subsequent episodes were written by Curtis and Ben Elton; the shows were produced by John Lloyd. In 2000, the fourth series, Blackadder Goes Forth, ranked at 16 in the "100 Greatest British Television Programmes", a list created by the British Film Institute. In the 2004 TV poll to find "Britain's Best Sitcom", Blackadder was voted the second-best British sitcom of all time, topped by Only Fools and Horses, it was ranked as the 9th-best TV show of all time by Empire magazine.
Although each series is set in a different era, all follow the misfortunes of Edmund Blackadder, who in each is a member of a British family dynasty present at many significant periods and places in British history. It is implied in each series that the Blackadder character is a descendant of the previous one, although it is never specified how or when any of the Blackadders managed to father children. In series one, Edmund Blackadder is not bright, is much the intellectual inferior of his servant, Baldrick. However, in subsequent series, the positions are reversed; each incarnation of Blackadder and Baldrick is saddled with tolerating the presence of a dim-witted aristocrat. This role was taken in the first two series by Lord Percy Percy, played by Tim McInnerny; each series was set in a different period of British history, beginning in 1485 and ending in 1917, comprised six half-hour episodes. The first series, made in 1983, was called The Black Adder and was set in the fictional reign of "Richard IV".
The second series, Blackadder II, was set during the reign of Elizabeth I. Blackadder the Third was set during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the reign of George III, Blackadder Goes Forth was set in 1917 in the trenches of the Great War; the Black Adder, the first series of Blackadder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson and produced by John Lloyd. It aired on BBC1 from 15 June 1983 to 20 July 1983, was a joint production with the Australian Seven Network. Set in 1485 at the end of the British Middle Ages, the series is written as an alternative history in which King Richard III won the Battle of Bosworth Field only to be mistaken for someone else and murdered, is succeeded by Richard IV, one of the Princes in the Tower; the series follows the exploits of Richard IV's unfavoured second son Edmund, the Duke of Edinburgh in his various attempts to increase his standing with his father and his eventual quest to overthrow him. Conceived while Atkinson and Curtis were working on Not the Nine O'Clock News, the series dealt comically with a number of aspects of medieval life in Britain: witchcraft, Royal succession, European relations, the Crusades, the conflict between the Church and the Crown.
Along with the secret history, many historical events portrayed in the series were anachronistic. The filming of the series was ambitious, with a large cast and much location shooting; the series featured Shakespearean dialogue adapted for comic effect. Blackadder II is set in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, portrayed by Miranda Richardson; the principal character is Lord Blackadder, the great-grandson of the original Black Adder. During the series, he deals with the Queen, her obsequious Lord Chamberlain Lord Melchett – his rival – and the Queen's demented former nanny Nursie. Following the BBC's request for improvements, several changes were made; the second series was the first to establish the familiar Blackadder character: cunning and witty, in sharp contrast to the first series' bumbling Prince Edmund. To reduce the cost of production, it was shot with no outdoor scenes and several used indoor sets, such as the Queen's throne room and Blackadder's front room. A quote from this series ranked number three in a list of the top 25 television "putdowns" of the last 40 years by the Radio Times magazine: "The eyes are open, the mouth moves, but Mr. Brain has long since departed, hasn't he, Percy?"
Blackadder the Third is set in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, a period known as the Regency. In the series, Edmund Blackadder Esquire is the butler to the Prince of Wales. Despite Edmund's respected intelligence and abilities, he has no personal fortune to speak of, apart from his fluctuating wage packet (as well
Robert Burns known familiarly as Rabbie Burns, the National Bard, Bard of Ayrshire and the Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is regarded as the national poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide, he is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is in English and a light Scots dialect, accessible to an audience beyond Scotland. He wrote in standard English, in these writings his political or civil commentary is at its bluntest, he is regarded as a pioneer of the Romantic movement, after his death he became a great source of inspiration to the founders of both liberalism and socialism, a cultural icon in Scotland and among the Scottish diaspora around the world. Celebration of his life and work became a national charismatic cult during the 19th and 20th centuries, his influence has long been strong on Scottish literature. In 2009 he was chosen as the greatest Scot by the Scottish public in a vote run by Scottish television channel STV.
As well as making original compositions, Burns collected folk songs from across Scotland revising or adapting them. His poem "Auld Lang Syne" is sung at Hogmanay, "Scots Wha Hae" served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. Other poems and songs of Burns that remain well known across the world today include "A Red, Red Rose", "A Man's a Man for A' That", "To a Louse", "To a Mouse", "The Battle of Sherramuir", "Tam o' Shanter" and "Ae Fond Kiss". Burns was born two miles south of Ayr, in Alloway, the eldest of the seven children of William Burnes, a self-educated tenant farmer from Dunnottar in the Mearns, Agnes Broun, the daughter of a Kirkoswald tenant farmer, he was born in a house built by his father, where he lived until Easter 1766, when he was seven years old. William Burnes sold the house and took the tenancy of the 70-acre Mount Oliphant farm, southeast of Alloway. Here Burns grew up in poverty and hardship, the severe manual labour of the farm left its traces in a premature stoop and a weakened constitution.
He had little regular schooling and got much of his education from his father, who taught his children reading, arithmetic and history and wrote for them A Manual Of Christian Belief. He was taught by John Murdoch, who opened an "adventure school" in Alloway in 1763 and taught Latin and mathematics to both Robert and his brother Gilbert from 1765 to 1768 until Murdoch left the parish. After a few years of home education, Burns was sent to Dalrymple Parish School in mid-1772 before returning at harvest time to full-time farm labouring until 1773, when he was sent to lodge with Murdoch for three weeks to study grammar and Latin. By the age of 15, Burns was the principal labourer at Mount Oliphant. During the harvest of 1774, he was assisted by Nelly Kilpatrick, who inspired his first attempt at poetry, "O, Once I Lov'd A Bonnie Lass". In 1775, he was sent to finish his education with a tutor at Kirkoswald, where he met Peggy Thompson, to whom he wrote two songs, "Now Westlin' Winds" and "I Dream'd I Lay".
Despite his ability and character, William Burnes was unfortunate, migrated with his large family from farm to farm without being able to improve his circumstances. At Whitsun, 1777, he removed his large family from the unfavourable conditions of Mount Oliphant to the 130-acre farm at Lochlea, near Tarbolton, where they stayed until William Burnes's death in 1784. Subsequently, the family became integrated into the community of Tarbolton. To his father's disapproval, Robert joined a country dancing school in 1779 and, with Gilbert, formed the Tarbolton Bachelors' Club the following year, his earliest existing letters date from this time, when he began making romantic overtures to Alison Begbie. In spite of four songs written for her and a suggestion that he was willing to marry her, she rejected him. Robert Burns was initiated into masonic Lodge St David, Tarbolton, on 4 July 1781, when he was 22. In December 1781, Burns moved temporarily to Irvine to learn to become a flax-dresser, but during the workers' celebrations for New Year 1781/1782 the flax shop caught fire and was burnt to the ground.
This venture accordingly came to an end, Burns went home to Lochlea farm. During this time he befriended Captain Richard Brown who encouraged him to become a poet, he continued to write poems and songs and began a commonplace book in 1783, while his father fought a legal dispute with his landlord. The case went to the Court of Session, Burnes was upheld in January 1784, a fortnight before he died. Robert and Gilbert made an ineffectual struggle to keep on the farm, but after its failure they moved to the farm at Mossgiel, near Mauchline, in March, which they maintained with an uphill fight for the next four years. In mid-1784 Burns came to know a group of girls known collectively as The Belles of Mauchline, one of whom was Jean Armour, the daughter of a stonemason from Mauchline, his first child, Elizabeth "Bess" Burns, was born to his mother's servant, Elizabeth Paton, while he was embarking on a relationship with Jean Armour, who became pregnant with twins in March 1786. Burns signed a paper attesting his marriage to Jean, but her father "was in the greatest distress, fainted away".
To avoid disgrace, her parents sent her to live with her uncle in Paisley. Although Armour's father forbade it, they were married in 1788. Armour bore him nine childre
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. The first version, published in 1667, consisted of ten books with over ten thousand lines of verse. A second edition followed in 1674, arranged into twelve books with minor revisions throughout and a note on the versification, it is considered by critics to be Milton's major work, it helped solidify his reputation as one of the greatest English poets of his time. The poem concerns the biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton's purpose, stated in Book I, is to "justify the ways of God to men." In his introduction to the Penguin edition of Paradise Lost, the Milton scholar John Leonard notes, "John Milton was nearly sixty when he published Paradise Lost in 1667. The biographer John Aubrey tells us that the poem was begun in about 1658 and finished in about 1663. However, parts were certainly written earlier, its roots lie in Milton's earliest youth."
Leonard speculates that the English Civil War interrupted Milton's earliest attempts to start his "epic that would encompass all space and time."Leonard notes that Milton "did not at first plan to write a biblical epic." Since epics were written about heroic kings and queens, Milton envisioned his epic to be based on a legendary Saxon or British king like the legend of King Arthur. In the 1667 version of Paradise Lost, the poem was divided into ten books. However, in the 1672 edition, Paradise Lost contained twelve books. Having gone blind in 1652, Milton wrote Paradise Lost through dictation with the help of amanuenses and friends, he wrote the epic poem while he was ill, suffering from gout, despite the fact that he was suffering after the early death of his second wife, Katherine Woodcock, in 1658, the death of their infant daughter. The poem is divided into "books"; the Arguments at the head of each book were added in subsequent imprints of the first edition. The poem follows the epic tradition of starting in medias res, the background story being recounted later.
Milton's story has one about Satan and the other following Adam and Eve. It begins after Satan and the other rebel angels have been defeated and banished to Hell, or, as it is called in the poem, Tartarus. In Pandæmonium, the capital city of Hell, Satan employs his rhetorical skill to organize his followers. Belial and Moloch are present. At the end of the debate, Satan volunteers to corrupt the newly created Earth and God's new and most favoured creation, Mankind, he braves the dangers of the Abyss alone in a manner reminiscent of Aeneas. After an arduous traversal of the Chaos outside Hell, he enters God's new material World, the Garden of Eden. At several points in the poem, an Angelic War over Heaven is recounted from different perspectives. Satan's rebellion follows the epic convention of large-scale warfare; the battles between the faithful angels and Satan's forces take place over three days. At the final battle, the Son of God single-handedly defeats the entire legion of angelic rebels and banishes them from Heaven.
Following this purge, God creates the World, culminating in his creation of Eve. While God gave Adam and Eve total freedom and power to rule over all creation, he gave them one explicit command: not to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil on penalty of death; the story of Adam and Eve's temptation and fall is a fundamentally different, new kind of epic: a domestic one. Adam and Eve are presented as having a romantic and sexual relationship while still being without sin, they have distinct personalities. Satan, disguised in the form of a serpent tempts Eve to eat from the Tree by preying on her vanity and tricking her with rhetoric. Adam, learning that Eve has sinned, knowingly commits the same sin, he declares to Eve that since she was made from his flesh, they are bound to one another – if she dies, he must die. In this manner, Milton portrays Adam as a heroic figure, but as a greater sinner than Eve, as he is aware that what he is doing is wrong. After eating the fruit and Eve have lustful sex.
At first, Adam is convinced that Eve was right in thinking that eating the fruit would be beneficial. However, they soon fall asleep and have terrible nightmares, after they awake, they experience guilt and shame for the first time. Realizing that they have committed a terrible act against God, they engage in mutual recrimination. Meanwhile, Satan returns triumphantly amid the praise of his fellow fallen angels, he tells them about how their scheme worked and Mankind has fallen, giving them complete dominion over Paradise. As he finishes his speech, the fallen angels around him become hideous snakes, soon enough, Satan himself turned into a snake, deprived of limbs and unable to talk. Thus, they share the same punishment. Eve appeals to Adam for reconciliation of their actions, her encouragement enables them to approach God, sue for grace, bowing on supplicant knee, to receive forgiveness. In a vision shown to him by the angel Michael, Adam witnesses everything that will happen to Mankind until the Great Flood.
Adam is upset by this vision of the future, so Michael tells him about Mankind's potential redemption from original sin through Jesus Christ. Adam and Eve are cast out of Eden, Michael says that Adam may find "a
A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may identify hidden similarities between two ideas. Antithesis, hyperbole and simile are all types of metaphor. One of the most cited examples of a metaphor in English literature is the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It: This quotation expresses a metaphor because the world is not a stage. By asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world and the behavior of the people within it; the Philosophy of Rhetoric by rhetorician I. A. Richards describes a metaphor as having two parts: the tenor and the vehicle; the tenor is the subject. The vehicle is the object. In the previous example, "the world" is compared to a stage, describing it with the attributes of "the stage". Other writers employ the general terms figure to denote the tenor and the vehicle.
Cognitive linguistics uses source, respectively. Psychologist Julian Jaynes contributed the terms metaphrand, metaphier and paraphier to the understanding of how metaphors evoke meaning thereby adding two additional terms to the common set of two basic terms. Metaphrand is equivalent to metaphor theory terms tenor and ground. Metaphier is equivalent to metaphor theory terms vehicle and source. Paraphier is any attribute, characteristics, or aspect of a metaphier, whereas any paraphrand is a selected paraphier which has conceptually become attached to a metaphrand through understanding or comprehending of a metaphor. For example, if a reader encounters this metaphor: "Pat is a tornado," the metaphrand is "Pat," the metaphier is "tornado." The paraphiers, or characteristics, of the metaphier "tornado" would include: storm, wind, danger, destruction, etc. However, the metaphoric use of those attributes or characteristics of a tornado is not one-for-one; the English metaphor derived from the 16th-century Old French word métaphore, which comes from the Latin metaphora, "carrying over", in turn from the Greek μεταφορά, "transfer", from μεταφέρω, "to carry over", "to transfer" and that from μετά, "after, across" + φέρω, "to bear", "to carry".
Metaphors are most compared with similes. It is said, for instance, that a metaphor is'a condensed analogy' or'analogical fusion' or that they'operate in a similar fashion' or are'based on the same mental process' or yet that'the basic processes of analogy are at work in metaphor', it is pointed out that'a border between metaphor and analogy is fuzzy' and'the difference between them might be described as the distance between things being compared'. A simile is a specific type of metaphor. A metaphor asserts the objects in the comparison are identical on the point of comparison, while a simile asserts a similarity. For this reason a common-type metaphor is considered more forceful than a simile; the metaphor category contains these specialized types: Allegory: An extended metaphor wherein a story illustrates an important attribute of the subject. Antithesis: A rhetorical contrast of ideas by means of parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences. Catachresis: A mixed metaphor, sometimes by accident.
Hyperbole: Excessive exaggeration to illustrate a point. Metonymy: A figure of speech using the name of one thing in reference to a different thing to which the first is associated. In the phrase "lands belonging to the crown", the word "crown" is metonymy for monarch. Parable: An extended metaphor told as an anecdote to illustrate or teach a moral or spiritual lesson, such as in Aesop's fables or Jesus' teaching method as told in the Bible. Pun: Similar to a metaphor, a pun alludes to another term. However, the main difference is that a pun is a frivolous allusion between two different things whereas a metaphor is a purposeful allusion between two different things. Metaphor, like other types of analogy, can be distinguished from metonymy as one of two fundamental modes of thought. Metaphor and analogy work by bringing together concepts from different conceptual domains, while metonymy uses one element from a given domain to refer to another related element. A metaphor creates new links between otherwise distinct conceptual domains, while a metonymy relies on the existing links within them.
A dead metaphor is a metaphor. The phrases "to grasp a concept" and "to gather what you've understood" use physical action as a metaphor for understanding; the audience does not need to visualize the action. Some distinguish between a dead metaphor and a cliché. Others use "dead metaphor" to denote both. A mixed metaphor is a metaphor that leaps from one identification to a second inconsistent with the first, e.g.: I smell a rat but I'll nip him in the bud"-Irish politician Boyle Roche This form is used as a parody of metaphor itself: If we can hit that bull's-eye the rest of the dominoes will fall like a house of cards... Checkmate. An extended metaphor, or conceit, sets up a principal subject wit
Analogy is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject to another, or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or an argument from one particular to another particular, as opposed to deduction and abduction, in which at least one of the premises, or the conclusion, is general rather than particular in nature; the term analogy can refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy. Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, as well as decision making, perception, memory, invention, emotion, conceptualization and communication, it lies behind basic tasks such as the identification of places and people, for example, in face perception and facial recognition systems. It has been argued that analogy is "the core of cognition". Specific analogical language comprises exemplification, metaphors, similes and parables, but not metonymy.
Phrases like and so on, the like, as if, the word like rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message including them. Analogy is important not only in ordinary language and common sense but in science, philosophy and the humanities; the concepts of association, correspondence and morphological homology, iconicity, metaphor and similarity are related to analogy. In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor may be equivalent to that of analogy. Analogy is a basis for any comparative arguments as well as experiments whose results are transmitted to objects that have been not under examination. Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists and lawyers; the last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, most notably in cognitive science. With respect to the terms source and target there are two distinct traditions of usage: The logical and cultures and economics tradition speaks of an arrow, mapping, or morphism from what is the more complex domain or source to what is the less complex codomain or target, using all of these words in the sense of mathematical category theory.
The tradition in cognitive psychology, in literary theory, in specializations within philosophy outside of logic, speaks of a mapping from what is the more familiar area of experience, the source, to what is the more problematic area of experience, the target. In ancient Greek the word αναλογια meant proportionality, in the mathematical sense, it was indeed sometimes translated to Latin as proportio. From there analogy was understood as identity of relation between any two ordered pairs, whether of mathematical nature or not. Kant's Critique of Judgment held to this notion. Kant argued that there can be the same relation between two different objects; the same notion of analogy was used in the US-based SAT tests, that included "analogy questions" in the form "A is to B as C is to what?" For example, "Hand is to palm as foot is to ____?" These questions were given in the Aristotelian format: HAND: PALM:: FOOT: ____ While most competent English speakers will give the right answer to the analogy question, it is more difficult to identify and describe the exact relation that holds both between pairs such as hand and palm, between foot and sole.
This relation is not apparent in some lexical definitions of palm and sole, where the former is defined as the inner surface of the hand, the latter as the underside of the foot. Analogy and abstraction are different cognitive processes, analogy is an easier one; this analogy is not comparing all the properties between a hand and a foot, but rather comparing the relationship between a hand and its palm to a foot and its sole. While a hand and a foot have many dissimilarities, the analogy focuses on their similarity in having an inner surface. A computer algorithm has achieved human-level performance on multiple-choice analogy questions from the SAT test; the algorithm measures the similarity of relations between pairs of words by statistical analysis of a large collection of text. It answers SAT questions by selecting the choice with the highest relational similarity. Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle used a wider notion of analogy, they saw analogy as a shared abstraction. Analogous objects did not share a relation, but an idea, a pattern, a regularity, an attribute, an effect or a philosophy.
These authors accepted that comparisons, metaphors and "images" could be used as arguments, sometimes they called them analogies. Analogies should make those abstractions easier to understand and give confidence to the ones using them; the Middle Age saw theorization of analogy. Roman lawyers had used analogical reasoning and the Greek word analogia. Medieval lawyers distinguished analogia legis and analogia iuris. In Islamic logic, analogical reasoning was used for the process of qiyas in Islamic sharia law and fiqh jurisprudence. In Christian theology, analogical arguments were accepted in order to explain the
Va tacito e nascosto
"Va tacito e nascosto" is an aria written for alto castrato voice in act 1 of George Frideric Handel's opera Giulio Cesare in Egitto, composed in 1724 to a libretto by Nicola Francesco Haym. Sung by the character Julius Caesar, it features extensive solos for natural horn; the first verse of the text is used for final sections of the aria. Both verses have an identical rhyming scheme; the form of the verses is based on the style perfected by Metastasio, including the placement of poetic stress. Each line has seven sung syllables. George Frideric Handel composed his opera Giulio Cesare in Egitto in 1724 to a libretto by Nicola Francesco Haym."Va tacito e nascosto" is set as a da capo aria sung by the character Julius Caesar in act 1, scene 9 of the opera, is scored for strings and natural horn in F major. The vocal part is written for alto castrato voice, was sung at the premiere by the celebrated performer Senesino, it is now sung in modern productions by a countertenor voice, but has been sung in productions and recordings by both males and females, in registers from bass to soprano.
The ritornello for horn obbligato at the outset prefigures the melody sung by Caesar. The horn subsequently echoes Caesar every time the word "cacciator" is sung; as pointed out by Richard Taruskin, the use of a natural instrument such as the horn "sets... narrow limits on the harmony confining it to... the "primary" chords – tonic, subdominant", this is reflected in the harmony and orchestration of the aria. The opening and closing sections are in F major; the music is appropriate to Caesar's situation, "having a curious, creeping effect... carrying out the idea of the words." Handel's original draft of the first act prepared the aria for a different character. The character of Berenice was subsequently deleted from the libretto; the horn, to feature prominently in 18th century compositions centred on dramatic themes of hunting or nobility symbolizes here the hunt, a recreation, reserved for the wealthy and privileged. The virtuosic horn line underlines this perspective; the aria has been claimed as a early example of the horn's use in opera.
Handel began to feature the horn in his 1708 serenata Aci, Galatea e Polifemo, first used the horn as part of an opera orchestra in Rinaldo. The score of Giulio Cesare calls for four horns in the orchestra, this would seem to be the first appearance in music of the'horn quartet' which would become a standard feature of orchestral scores of the music of the romantic period a century later; the only other noted use by Handel of a horn obbligato in an aria occurs in his pastoral ode L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato, where the text, "Mirth, admit me" refers to hunting. Earlier versions of the thematic material of the aria can be traced in Handel's Acis and Galatea and in an early trio sonata. Many of Handel's Nine German Arias, which were written between 1724 and 1726, share features with his operas of the period, in particular the aria "Die ihr aus dunkeln Grüften" has a ritornello and pace close to "Va tacito"; the aria has been cited as an example of a "simile aria", because the words and the music both reflect, in metaphor, the situation of the character.
Caesar, at Tolomeo's palace in Alexandria, compares himself to a stealthy hunter tracking his prey. The aria follows a scene in which both Caesar have complimented each other; the aria was performed in 1784 at the Handel Commemoration Festival in Westminster Abbey. Present in the audience was the music historian Charles Burney, who wrote "The French-horn part, a perfect echo to the voice, has never been equalled in any Air, so accomplished, that I remember."In the 2005 production of Giulio Cesare at Glyndebourne Festival Opera directed by David McVicar, the aria was choreographed with a "sinister court dance" underscoring the diplomatic manoeuvering and machination to which the text alludes. In addition to appearing on recordings of Giulio Cesare, the aria features on several recital albums, including: Georg Friedrich Händel: Heroic Arias. James Bowman, The King's Consort. Label: Hyperion David Daniels, Handel Operatic Arias. David Daniels, Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment. Label: Veritas G. F. Haendel: Ombra mai fù: Airs, scènes célèbres et musique instrumentale.
Andreas Scholl, Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin. Label: Harmonia Mundi Handel: Arias, Bryn Terfel. Scottish Chamber Orchestra. Label: Deut