Newport, New South Wales
Newport is a suburb in northern Sydney, placed on Sydney's Northern Beaches in the state of New South Wales, Australia, in the local government area of Northern Beaches Council. It is part of the Northern Beaches region. Newport derived its name from being a "new port" for steamers carrying passengers and cargo such as local shell lime and firewood. Bungan Castle is a medieval-style stone castle on Bungan Head built in 1919 by Adolph Albers, a German art dealer. In 1978, the area came to national attention due to the disappearance of Trudie Adams. Newport sits between the Pacific Ocean to the Pittwater to the west. A major road along the peninsula is Barrenjoey Road, its ocean beach is patrolled by Newport Surf Life Saving Club. On the shores of Pittwater are several marinas and small shipyards, including the Royal Prince Alfred Yacht Club and the Royal Motor Yacht Club, serving pleasure craft. Newport features many cafes and restaurants, as well as the Newport Arms Hotel on the shore of Pittwater.
Pittwater Presbyterian Church has been ministering to the people of Newport and the surrounding suburbs since 1967. In mid June 2014 Rob Lamont started as Ministry Coordinator after 23 years of ministry from Phil Rawlings, they meet on Sundays at 9:30am. Rob Lamont is the chaplain at Newport Surf Club. Newport Anglican Church meets right next to the Post Office at 9.30am on Sundays. The Senior Minister is Rev. Jason Ramsay since 2007; the Link Church meets at its North Campus the first Wednesday of every Month at the Newport Community Centre. Service begins at 7pm; the Link Church runs Sunday morning and evening Services at Cromer and Narrabeen respectively. Newport Breakers Rugby Club Newport Breakers Netball Club Newport Public Primary School Bungan Head Salt Pan Cove
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Brookvale, New South Wales
Brookvale is a suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Brookvale is 16 kilometres north-east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of Northern Beaches Council, it is part of the Northern Beaches region. The first development in the area was in 1836 when 64 hectares of farmland was granted to William Frederick Parker. In this period further land was sold to the Malcolm and Miles families. In 1883, Sydney Alexander Malcolm built what became known as'Brookvale House', it was sold in 1961 to the Hooker Investment Corporation paving the way for the construction of Warringah Mall, the largest shopping complex in the area. Brookvale had two post offices. Brookvale Post Office opened on 1 June 1888 and closed on 1 November 2013; the post office included a mail & parcel delivery & a collection service operated by Mailplus operates in that post office. Warringah Mall Post Office opened on 3 April 1963 as a second post office for Brookvale. After World War II, much of the surrounding land was bought by immigrants, many of whom were Italian.
The Curulli and Bombardieri families own a large percentage of the land in Brookvale. Brookvale developed from farmland to manufacturing, in recent years there has been significant office space development; because of the large presence of Pazzano immigrants, a little village of southern Italy, Brookvale is called by them "Pazzaniedu": Little Pazzano in calabrian dialect. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 3,161 residents in Brookvale. 53.7% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 5.5%, China 4.8% and New Zealand 3.5%. 65.0% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 4.1% and Italian 3.4%. The most common responses for religion in Brookvale were No Religion 33.5%, Catholic 26.4% and Anglican 10.4%. Brookvale has a fast-growing business community, is a major industrial area. Westfield Warringah Mall is a large indoor/outdoor shopping centre in the southern part of the suburb. A number of car dealerships and related vehicle services are located in Brookvale.
Many printing and signage businesses are located in Brookvale, such as Innovative Print Solutions, located on Short Street. Sydney Buses' Brookvale Bus Depot is located on Pittwater Road. Brookvale Oval is the home ground of the Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles National Rugby League team. Manly Leagues Club is located nearby; the land for Brookvale Oval was given to the people of Warringah for their recreational use in 1911 by Jane Try of Brookvale House. Known as "Fortress Brookvale" to Sea Eagles fans, the ground has a spectator capacity of 23,000 and includes the Jane Try Stand on the western side, the Fulton-Menzies stand at the southern end with "The Hill" on the east and north. Brookvale has four television standard light towers to allow for night games. In 2014, the North Harbour Rays announced Brookvale Oval as their home ground for the inaugural National Rugby Championship season. 1st Brookvale Scout group, formed in 1947, still meets at the scout hall in Winbourne Road. The group merged with 1st North Curl Curl in the early 2000s and is now known as Brookvale Curl Curl Scout Group.
Brookvale has two schools - St Augustine's College. Brookvale has a TAFENSW college located on Old Pittwatter Road. Maree Weicks. "Brookvale". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 25 September 2015
A surfboard shaper is someone who builds and designs surfboards by hand. Made from wood, most modern surfboards are made from pre-formed polyurethane blanks or styrofoam and fine shaped by the shaper using an array of tools ranging from surforms, sanding machines and power planers; when the form is sculpted in the foam core, the shaper may complete the build by layering fiberglass sheets over the deck and bottom and laminating these with a thermosetting resin such as polyester. Most shapers today design surfboards using computer programs to generate data that can be supplied to a computer cutting facility which will mill the raw foam blank within 90% of the finished shape, leaving the shaper to fine-tune the blank to its final state before glassing; this method allows the shaper to have a exacting and reproducible design which can be fine-tuned and adjusted. Wooden surfboards are making a comeback as an eco-friendly alternative, requiring ultra-light boatbuilding skills. Many professional shapers outsource the specialized task of lamination to specialized "glassers", who laminate fiberglass to the foam core of the surfboard using thermosetting resins like polyester or epoxy.
Fins and assorted plugs are installed after this process and the final product is fine sanded and glossed with buffing compound and special glossing resin. When shaping, the shaper takes into account the specifications of the client surfer, molds his medium to best accommodate the user's personal surfing style and wave of choice. Shapers play a design role in some companies. In modern-day surfing, we see tiny, fiberglass boards that range from 6 to 7 feet, hardly taller than the surfers themselves. Considering that surfboards are simple things, being made out of fiberglass and foam, it may be difficult to imagine just how far surfboard technology has come since the first recorded surfboards seen in Hawaii. In 1778, Captain James Cook of the HMS Discovery had just begun his third discovery voyage and came across the Sandwich Islands, now known as the Hawaiian Islands, it was there he saw the natives riding large pieces of wood on the faces of waves. In the early days of Hawaiian surfing, surfing was a religious and spiritual affair for the natives.
The art of surfing itself, praying for good surf, the process of making a surfboard were all much more than recreation for the early Hawaiians. Surfboards were valued so that the type of surfboard someone rode was an indication of their social standing; the chiefs and noblemen would be seen riding boards called “Olo”, while the commoners would ride boards known as “Alii”. The main distinction between the two boards was the length. “Olo” would range from about 14–25 feet, while the “Alii” paled in comparison measuring only about 10–12 feet. The boards were constructed of either the Wili Wili, the Ula or the Koa tree and weighed anywhere from 140 to over 200 pounds depending on the size; the largest technological change to date came in 1926 when Tom Blake, one of the pioneers of surfboard innovation decided to drill hundreds of small holes in the board and sandwich it in between two thin pieces of wood in the pursuit of weight savings. The first hollow board was 15 feet long, 19” wide, 4” thick and weighed 100 pounds.
This was a huge step for surfboard innovation as it decreased the weight of most surfboards by 50 to 100 pounds. The boards design was ridiculed by surfers, but when they saw how much faster the board traveled through the water. In 1930, the hollow board became the first mass-produced surfboard the world had seen and were hugely successful. In 1936 the board saw the addition of the fixed fin; this gave surfers increased stability and maneuverability in the water and opened the doors to coming innovation. As surfers began realizing the potential for maneuverability with the addition of the new lightweight construction and the fin, they realized that shaping the tail of the surfboard allowed for more agility. By shaving off parts of the tail and shaping the rails of the board, it allowed surfers to not only pull more extreme maneuvers but pull into the “curl”, or the most powerful section of the wave that just begins to curl over the face, ride inside the barrel. Seeing as weight savings led to increased agility and overall ease of use, people began building their surfboards out of balsa wood as opposed to the original redwood.
The trend began in South America in the 1930s when surfers began making boards of balsa and saw significant weight savings of up to 50% dropping the boards to 40 pounds. However, at that time it was difficult to acquire large amounts of balsa. So they began using redwood to form boards. Balsa was lightweight but redwood was much stronger and more durable, so they used balsa to make the center of the board and formed the rails of the board out of redwood to increase rigidity. Taking it another step further, Pete Peterson decided to utilize fibreglass in the construction of surfboards; the second World War prompted this decision as materials such as plastics and most notably fibreglass. The addition of these new materials led to boards being smaller and gave manufacturers the ability to shape the boards. Once surfboards began being shaped from foam and fibreglass, the public saw the direction of rocker, new fin orientation, leashes; the addition of rocker has been among the most innovative designs added to the surfboard and has forever changed how surfers could maneuver through the water.
Rocker is the bend in the board from the nose to the tail. As board becam
Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (Australia)
The Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet is an Australian Government public service central department of state with broad ranging responsibilities, primary of, for intergovernmental and whole of government policy coordination and assisting the Prime Minister of Australia in managing the Cabinet of Australia. The PM&C was established in 1971 and traces its origins back to the Prime Minister's Department established in 1911; the role of PM&C is to support the policy agendas of the Prime Minister and Cabinet through high quality policy advice and the coordination of the implementation of key government programs, to manage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander policy and programs and to promote reconciliation, to provide leadership for the Australian Public Service alongside the Australian Public Service Commission, to oversee the honours and symbols of the Commonwealth, to provide support to ceremonies and official visits, to set whole of government service delivery policy, to coordinate national security, counterterrorism, regulatory reform, population and women's policy.
The department is similar but not analogous to the United States Executive Office of the President, the United Kingdom Cabinet Office, the Canadian Privy Council Office, the New Zealand Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Before 1911, the Prime Minister had no department of his own as such; the Prime Minister was concurrently the Minister for External Affairs, used the services of the Department of External Affairs. On 1 July 1911, the Prime Minister's Department was created. On 11 March 1968, a separate Department of the Cabinet Office was created. On 12 March 1971, these two departments were merged to create the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet; the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet portfolio includes the following ministers: The Secretary of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet is the head of the department known as the Secretary, of the level of Senior Executive Service Band 4 in the Australian Public Service as per the Public Service Act 1999.
The secretary of the department is the equivalent of the Cabinet Secretary in the United Kingdom or the Clerk of the Privy Council in Canada. The position of Secretary of the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet should not be confused with the ministerial position of Cabinet Secretary, a Cabinet Minister within the portfolio; the secretary is supported by a senior executive of the department, composed of the Senior Executive Service Band 3 officials, of the Associate Secretary, the Deputy Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Deputy Secretary, the Special Adviser to the Prime Minister on Cyber Security, the Commonwealth Counter-Terrorism Coordinator, the Deputy Secretary. In an Administrative Arrangements Order made on 1 September 2016 with an amendment on 27 October 2016, the functions of the department were broadly classified into the following matters: The structure of PM&C is organised along four policy and program groups: the Domestic Policy Group, the National Security and International Policy Group, the Governance Group, the Indigenous Affairs Group.
In addition to the National Office in Canberra, the department has 33 offices and an in-community presence in another 60 locations across Australia for the Indigenous Affairs regional network. Staff are employed as Australian Public Service officials under the Public Service Act 1999. In February 2014, The Canberra Times examined pay conditions and staffing records and found that PM&C is one of the public service's best-paid departments and among its least culturally diverse; the following month Secretary Ian Watt told his staff that the department was battling to balance its budget and deliver its programs, that staff would be cut and service delivery reviewed. The Domestic Policy Group has responsibilities for supporting the development of policy and coordinating implementation across economic policy, social policy, environmental policy; the Group coordinates the implementation of whole of government regulatory reform, supports government priorities for gender equality and the empowerment of women, coordinates the Council of Australian Governments arrangements, provides advice and support for Australian federal budget process, coordinates whole of government service delivery policy, formulates national policy on public data and cities.
The Group is led by Deputy Secretary, Deputy Secretary. The National Security and International Policy Group provides the Prime Minister with high quality advice on foreign policy, international trade, overseas aid, international treaties, engagement with foreign governments and international organisations, defence strategy, non-proliferation, information sharing, law enforcement, border security, crisis coordination and emergency management; the Group plays a coordinating role in the development of whole of government national security policy, provides secretariat functions to the National Security Committee of Cabinet, policy settings for the Australian Intelligence Community. The Group coordinates the foreign affairs and national security aspects of the Australian federal budget; the Group is led by the Deputy Secretary, the Commonwealth C
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are found in the ocean, but can be found in lakes or rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. However, surfers can utilize artificial waves such as those from boat wakes and the waves created in artificial wave pools; the term surfing refers to the act of riding a wave, regardless of whether the wave is ridden with a board or without a board, regardless of the stance used. The native peoples of the Pacific, for instance, surfed waves on alaia and other such craft, did so on their belly and knees; the modern-day definition of surfing, most refers to a surfer riding a wave standing up on a surfboard. Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, when a surfer rides a wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee, or sometimes standing up on a body board. Other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting, using foils.
Body surfing, where the wave is surfed without a board, using the surfer's own body to catch and ride the wave, is common and is considered by some to be the purest form of surfing. Three major subdivisions within stand-up surfing are stand-up paddling, long boarding and short boarding with several major differences including the board design and length, the riding style, the kind of wave, ridden. In tow-in surfing, a motorized water vehicle, such as a personal watercraft, tows the surfer into the wave front, helping the surfer match a large wave's speed, a higher speed than a self-propelled surfer can produce. Surfing-related sports such as paddle boarding and sea kayaking do not require waves, other derivative sports such as kite surfing and windsurfing rely on wind for power, yet all of these platforms may be used to ride waves. With the use of V-drive boats, Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged; the Guinness Book of World Records recognized a 78 foot wave ride by Garrett McNamara at Nazaré, Portugal as the largest wave surfed.
For hundreds of years, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture. Surfing may have first been observed by British explorers at Tahiti in 1767. Samuel Wallis and the crew members of HMS Dolphin who were the first Britons to visit the island in June of that year. Another candidate is the botanist Joseph Banks being part of the first voyage of James Cook on HMS Endeavour, who arrived on Tahiti on 10 April 1769. Lieutenant James King was the first person to write about the art of surfing on Hawaii when he was completing the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cook's death in 1779; when Mark Twain visited Hawaii in 1866 he wrote, In one place we came upon a large company of naked natives, of both sexes and all ages, amusing themselves with the national pastime of surf-bathing. References to surf riding on planks and single canoe hulls are verified for pre-contact Samoa, where surfing was called fa'ase'e or se'egalu, Tonga, far pre-dating the practice of surfing by Hawaiians and eastern Polynesians by over a thousand years.
In July 1885, three teenage Hawaiian princes took a break from their boarding school, St. Mathew’s Hall in San Mateo, came to cool off in Santa Cruz, California. There, David Kawānanakoa, Edward Keliʻiahonui and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole surfed the mouth of the San Lorenzo River on custom-shaped redwood boards, according to surf historians Kim Stoner and Geoff Dunn. George Freeth is credited as being the "Father of Modern Surfing", he is thought to have been the first modern surfer. In 1907, the eclectic interests of the land baron Henry E. Huntington brought the ancient art of surfing to the California coast. While on vacation, Huntington had seen Hawaiian boys surfing the island waves. Looking for a way to entice visitors to the area of Redondo Beach, where he had invested in real estate, he hired a young Hawaiian to ride surfboards. George Freeth decided to revive the art of surfing, but had little success with the huge 16-foot hardwood boards that were popular at that time; when he cut them in half to make them more manageable, he created the original "Long board", which made him the talk of the islands.
To the delight of visitors, Freeth exhibited his surfing skills twice a day in front of the Hotel Redondo. Another native Hawaiian, Duke Kahanamoku, spread surfing to both the U. S. and Australia, riding the waves after displaying the swimming prowess that won him Olympic gold medals in 1912 and 1920. In 1975, professional contests started; that year Margo Oberg became the first female professional surfer. Swell is generated when the wind blows over a large area of open water, called the wind's fetch; the size of a swell is determined by the strength of the wind and the length of its fetch and duration. Because of this, surf tends to be larger and more prevalent on coastlines exposed to large expanses of ocean traversed by intense low pressure systems. Local wind conditions affect wave quality since the surface of a wave can become choppy in blustery conditions. Ideal conditions include a light to moderate "offshore" wind, because it blows into the front of the wave, making it a "barrel" or "tube" wave.
Waves are Left Right Handed depending upon the breaking formation of the wave. Waves are recognized by the surfaces over which they break. For example, there are Reef breaks and Point breaks; the most important influence on