Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
Fast bowling is one of two main approaches to bowling in the sport of cricket, the other being spin bowling. Practitioners of pace bowling are known as fast bowlers, quicks, or pacemen, they can be referred to as a seam bowler or a'fast bowler who can swing it' to reflect the predominant characteristic of their deliveries. Speaking, a pure swing bowler does not need to have a high degree of pace, though dedicated medium-pace swing bowlers are seen at Test level these days; the aim of fast bowling is to deliver the ball in such a fashion as to cause the batsman to make a mistake. The bowler achieves this by making the hard cricket ball deviate from a predictable, linear trajectory at a speed that limits the time the batsman has to compensate for it. For deviation caused by the ball's stitching, the ball bounces off the pitch and deflects either away from the batsman's body, or inwards towards them. Swing bowlers on the other hand use the seam of the ball but in a different way. To'bowl swing' is to induce a curved trajectory of the cricket ball through the air.
Swing bowlers use a combination of seam orientation, body position at the point of release, asymmetric ball polishing, variations in delivery speed to affect an aerodynamic influence on the ball. The ability of a bowler to induce lateral deviation or'sideways movement' make it difficult for the batsman to address the flight of the ball accurately. Beyond this ability to create an unpredictable path of ball trajectory, the fastest bowlers can be potent by delivering a ball at such a rate that a batsman fails to react either or at all. A typical fast delivery has a speed in the range of 137–153 km/h, it is possible for a bowler to concentrate on speed when young, but as fast bowlers mature they pick up new skills and tend to rely more on swing bowling or seam bowling techniques. Most fast bowlers specialise in one of these two areas and are sometimes categorised as swing or seam bowler. However, this classification is not satisfactory because the categories are not mutually exclusive and a skilled bowler bowls a mixture of fast, swinging and cutting balls—even if he prefers one style to the others.
For simplicity, it is common to subdivide fast bowlers according to the average speed of their deliveries, as follows. There is a degree of subjectivity in the usage of these terms. For comparison, most spin bowlers in professional cricket bowl at average speeds of 70 to 90 km/h. Shoaib Akhtar, Brett Lee, Shaun Tait, Jeff Thomson and Mitchell Starc have clocked over 160 km/h and are categorised as "Ultra Fast" bowlers although bowling at speeds lower than this mark. While Steven Finn is classified as a fast-medium bowler by Cricinfo, he can bowl at around 145 km/h, with his fastest clocked at 151.9 km/h, making him the 10th fastest amongst active bowlers as of 3 January 2015 The first thing a fast bowler needs to do is to grip the ball correctly. The basic fast bowling grip to achieve maximum speed is to hold the ball with the seam upright and to place the index and middle fingers close together at the top of the seam with the thumb gripping the ball at the bottom of the seam; the image to the right shows the correct grip.
The first two fingers and the thumb should hold the ball forward of the rest of the hand, the other two fingers should be tucked into the palm. The ball is held quite loosely so. Other grips are possible, result in different balls – see swing and seam bowling below; the bowler holds their other hand over the hand gripping the ball until the latest possible moment so that the batsman cannot see what type of ball is being bowled. A fast bowler needs to take a longer run-up toward the wicket than a spinner, due to the need to generate the momentum and rhythm required to bowl a fast delivery. Fast bowlers measure their preferred run up in strides, mark the distance from the wicket, it is important for the bowler to know how long the run-up is because it must terminate behind the popping crease. A bowler who steps on or beyond this has bowled a no-ball, which affords the batsman immunity from dismissal, adds one run to the batting team's score, forces the bowler to bowl another ball in the over. At the end of the run-up the bowler brings his lead foot down on the pitch with the knee as straight as possible.
This can be dangerous due to the pressure it places on the joint. Knee injuries are not uncommon amongst fast bowlers: for example, the English pace bowler David Lawrence was sidelined for many months after splitting his kneecap in two; the pressure on the leading foot is such that some fast bowlers cut the front off their shoes to stop their toes from being injured as they are pressed against the inside of the shoe. The bowler brings the bowling arm up over their head and releases the ball at the height appropriate to where they want the ball to pitch. Again, the arm must be straight though this is a stipulation of the laws of cricket rather than an aid to speed. Bending the elbow and "chucking" the ball would make it too easy for the bowler to aim at the batsman's wicket and get them out. Fast bowlers tend to have an action that leaves them either side-on or chest-on at the end of the run up. A chest-on bowler has chest and hips aligned towards the batsman at the instant of back foot contact, while a side-on bowler has chest and hips aligned at ninety degrees to the batsman at the instant of back foot contact.
West Indian bowler Malcolm Marshall was a c
Cassell & Co is a British book publishing house, founded in 1848 by John Cassell, which became in the 1890s an international publishing group company. In 1995 Cassell & Co acquired Pinter Publishers. In December 1998 Cassell & Co was bought by the Orion Publishing Group. In January 2002 Cassell imprints, including the Cassell Reference and Cassell Military were joined with the Weidenfeld imprints to form a new division under the name of Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd. Cassell Illustrated survives as an imprint of the Octopus Publishing Group. John Cassell, in turn a carpenter, temperance preacher and coffee merchant turned to publishing, his first publication was on 1 July 1848, a weekly newspaper called The Standard of Freedom advocating religious and commercial freedom. The Working Man's Friend became another popular publication. In 1849 Cassell was dividing his time between his grocery business. In 1851 his expanding interests led to his renting part of La Belle Sauvage, a London inn, a playhouse in Elizabethan times.
The former inn was demolished in 1873 to make way for a railway viaduct, with the company building new premises behind. La Belle Sauvage was destroyed in 1941 by WWII bombing as well as many archives. Thomas Dixon Galpin who came from Dorchester in Dorset and George William Petter, born in Barnstaple in Devon were partners in a printing firm and on John Cassell's bankruptcy in June 1855 acquired the publishing company and Cassell's debts. Between 1855 and 1858 the printing firm operated as Petter and Galpin and their work was published by W. Kent & Co. John Cassell was relegated to being a junior partner after becoming insolvent in 1858, the firm being known as Cassell, Petter & Galpin. With the arrival of a new partner, Robert Turner, in 1878, it became Cassell, Galpin & Company. Galpin was the astute business manager. George Lock, the founder of Ward Lock, another publishing house, was Galpin's first cousin. Petter resigned in 1883 as a result of disagreement over publishing fiction, in 1888 the company name was changed to Cassell & Co, following Galpin's retirement and Petter's death.
Sir Thomas Wemyss Reid was general manager until 1905 when Arthur Spurgeon took over and revitalized the firm. Magazine publishers, Spurgeon concentrated on reviving the book business. In 1923 the company was floated on the Stock Exchange and a few years the magazines owned by the company were sold to Amalgamated Press following many industrial disputes. In 1969, Cassell was acquired by the American company Crowell Collier & Macmillan (later renamed Macmillan Publishers. Macmillan sold Cassell to CBS in 1982. CBS sold Cassell in a buyout in 1986. In October 1992, Cassell & Co bought Victor Gollancz Ltd from Houghton Mifflin. In December 1998 the company was taken over by Orion Publishing Group. In 1999, Cassell's academic and religious lists were merged with the American company Continuum to form the Continuum International Publishing Group. Cassell's Magazine Cassell’s Saturday Journal Cassell's Weekly T. P.'s & Cassell's Weekly Chums The Echo The Lady's World The Woman's World, edited by Oscar Wilde Little Folks, edited by Sam Hield Hamer The Illustrated Magazine of Art The Magazine of Art The New Magazine The New Penny Magazine The Penny Magazine, Cassell's Popular Magazine The Quiver Magazine The Story-Teller The Work Gustave Doré's illustrations for La Grande Bible de Tours Media related to Cassell & Co. at Wikimedia Commons
Glossary of cricket terms
This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cricket statistics and the naming of fielding positions is explained at fielding. Cricket is known for its rich terminology; some terms are thought to be arcane and humorous by those not familiar with the game. Across the line A batsman plays across the line when he moves his bat in a direction lateral to the direction of the incoming ball. Agricultural shot A swing across the line of the ball played without much technique. One that results in a chunk of the pitch being dug up by the bat, or that winds up with the ball going to cow corner. A type of a slog. Air When a spin bowler delivers a ball with a more looping trajectory than usual, he is said to be giving the ball some air. In combination with top spin, the objective is to lure the batsman into misreading the length of the ball.
In combination with off spin or leg spin, the objective is to give the ball more time to drift. All out When an innings ends due to ten of the eleven batsmen on the batting side being either dismissed or unable to bat because of injury or illness. All-rounder Traditionally, a player adept at both bowling. Good all-rounders in the modern game include Shane Watson, Ben Stokes, Shakib Al Hasan; some recent sources regard a wicket-keeper/batsman as another type of all-rounder, but this usage is not universal. Anchor A top-order batsman capable of batting for a long time. Batsmen at numbers 3 or 4 play such a role if there is a batting collapse. An anchor plays defensively, is the top scorer in the innings. Angler A type of late-swing delivery used by Bart King in the early 1900s. King, a right-arm fast bowler, delivered his inswinger with the right arm raised over the left ear, concealed the seam of the ball by starting his action with the ball held in both hands, in the manner of baseball pitchers.
It is unclear whether angler referred to his outswinger. Appeal A bowler or fielder shouting at the umpire to ask if his last ball took the batsman's wicket. Phrased in the form of howzat Common variations include'Howzee?', or turning to the umpire and shouting. The umpire cannot give a batsman out unless the fielding side appeals if the criteria for a dismissal have otherwise been met. However, batsmen who are out will leave the field without waiting for an appeal. Approach The motion of the bowler before bowling the ball, it is known as the run-up. The ground a bowler runs on during his run up. Arm ball A deceptive delivery bowled by an off spin bowler, not spun, so that, it travels straight on. A good bowler's arm ball might swing away from the batsman in the air. Around the wicket or round the wicket A right-handed bowler passing to the right of the non-striker's stumps in his run-up, vice versa for a left-handed bowler. Compare with over the wicket; the Ashes The perpetual prize in England v Australia Test match series.
The Ashes originated as a result of a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, The Sporting Times, in 1882 after a match at The Oval in which Australia beat England on an English ground for the first time. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, the body would be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia; the English press dubbed the next English tour to Australia as the quest to regain The Ashes. During that tour a small terracotta urn was presented to England captain Ivo Bligh by a group of Melbourne women; the contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of an item of a bail. Asking rate The run rate at which the team batting second needs to score to catch the opponents' score in a limited overs game. Same as'required run rate'. Attacking field A fielding configuration in which more fielders are close in to the pitch so as to take catches and dismiss batsmen more at the risk of allowing more runs to be scored should the ball get past them. Attacking shot An strong hit by the batsman designed to score runs.
Average A bowler's bowling average is defined as the total number of runs conceded by the bowler divided by the number of wickets taken by the bowler. A batsman's batting average is defined as the total number of runs scored by the batsman divided by the number of times he has been dismissed. Away swing see out swing Back foot In a batsman's stance, the back foot is the foot, closest to the stumps. A bowler's front foot is the last foot to contact the ground. Unless the bowler is bowling off the wrong foot, the bowling foot is the back foot. Back foot contact The position of the bowler at the moment when his back foot lands on the ground just before releasing the ball Back foot shot A shot played with the batsman's weight on his back foot. Back spin A delivery with a backward spin, so that after pitching the ball slows down, or bounces lower and skids on to the batsman. Backing up 1; the non-striking batsman leaving his crease during the delivery in order to shorten the distance to complete one run.
A batsman "backing up" too far runs the risk of being run out, either by a fielder in a conventional run out, or – in a "Mankad" – by the bowler. 2. A fielder w
A mobile app or mobile application is a computer program or software application designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch. Apps were intended for productivity assistance such as Email and contact databases, but the public demand for apps caused rapid expansion into other areas such as mobile games, factory automation, GPS and location-based services, order-tracking, ticket purchases, so that there are now millions of apps available. Apps are downloaded from application distribution platforms which are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the App Store or Google Play Store; some apps are free, others have a price, with the profit being split between the application's creator and the distribution platform. Mobile applications stand in contrast to desktop applications which are designed to run on desktop computers, web applications which run in mobile web browsers rather than directly on the mobile device. In 2009, technology columnist David Pogue said that newer smartphones could be nicknamed "app phones" to distinguish them from earlier less-sophisticated smartphones.
The term "app", short for "software application", has since become popular. Most mobile devices are sold with several apps bundled as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email client, mapping program, an app for buying music, other media, or more apps; some pre-installed apps can be removed by an ordinary uninstall process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps. Apps that are not preinstalled are available through distribution platforms called app stores, they began appearing in 2008 and are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store, BlackBerry App World. However, there are independent app stores, such as GetJar and F-Droid; some apps are free. They are downloaded from the platform to a target device, but sometimes they can be downloaded to laptops or desktop computers. For apps with a price a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider, the rest goes to the producer of the app.
The same app can, cost a different price depending on the mobile platform. Apps can be installed manually, for example by running an Android application package on Android devices. Mobile apps were offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, contacts, the stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as those handled by desktop application software packages; as with other software, the explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review and curation sources, including blogs and dedicated online app-discovery services. In 2014 government regulatory agencies began trying to regulate and curate apps medical apps; some companies offer apps as an alternative method to deliver content with certain advantages over an official website. With a growing number of mobile applications available at app stores and the improved capabilities of smartphones, people are downloading more applications to their devices.
Usage of mobile apps has become prevalent across mobile phone users. A May 2012 comScore study reported that during the previous quarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than browsed the web on their devices: 51.1% vs. 49.8% respectively. Researchers found that usage of mobile apps correlates with user context and depends on user's location and time of the day. Mobile apps are playing an ever-increasing role within healthcare and when designed and integrated can yield many benefits. Market research firm Gartner predicted that 102 billion apps would be downloaded in 2013, which would generate $26 billion in the US, up 44.4% on 2012's US$18 billion. By Q2 2015, the Google Play and Apple stores alone generated $5 billion. An analyst report estimates that the app economy creates revenues of more than €10 billion per year within the European Union, while over 529,000 jobs have been created in 28 EU states due to the growth of the app market. There are three kinds of apps — native and web-based. All apps targeted towards particular mobile platforms are known as native apps.
Therefore, an app meant for Apple device will never open in Android devices. This is. While developing native apps, professionals incorporate best-in-class user interface modules; this accounts for better performance and good user experience. Users benefit from wider access to APIs and make limitless use of all apps from the particular device. Further, they switch over from one app to another effortlessly; the main purpose behind creating such apps is to ensure best performance for specific mobile operating system. Concept of hybrid apps is a mix of web-based apps. Apps developed using Xamarin, React Native, Sencha Touch and other similar technology fall within this category; these are made to support web and native technologies across multiple platforms, hence the name hybrid. Moreover, these apps are faster to develop, it involves use of single code. Despite such advantages, hybrid apps are slower in performance. Apps fail to bear the same look n feel in different mobile op
Hodder & Stoughton
Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hachette. The firm has its origins in the 1840s, with Matthew Hodder's employment, aged fourteen, with Messrs Jackson and Walford, the official publisher for the Congregational Union. In 1861 the firm became Jackson and Hodder. Hodder & Stoughton published both religious and secular works, its religious list contained some progressive titles; these included George Adam Smith's Isaiah for its Expositor’s Bible series, one of the earliest texts to identify multiple authorship in the Book of Isaiah. There was a sympathetic Life of St Francis by Paul Sabatier, a French Protestant pastor. Matthew Hodder made frequent visits to North America, meeting with the Moody Press and making links with Scribners and Fleming H. Revell; the secular list only accepted fiction, it was still subject to "moral censorship" in the early part of the twentieth century. Matthew Hodder was doubtful about the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the company refused Michael Arlen's The Green Hat, a novel published by Collins in 1924.
In 1922, Hodder and Stoughton published an edition of Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, very controversial at the time given the fantastical nature of the work. The 1920s brought an explosion of commercial fiction at keen prices - Hodder's "Yellow jackets" series were the precursors of the first paperbacks, included bestsellers from John Buchan, Edgar Wallace, Dornford Yates and Sapper's Bulldog Drummond. In 1928, the company became the exclusive British hardback publisher of Leslie Charteris's adventure novel series, The Saint, publishing all 50 UK first editions of the series until 1983. In this decade they took over ownership of the medical journal, The Lancet. Hodder & Stoughton were the originators of the Teach Yourself line of self-instruction books, which are still published through Hodder Headline's educational division; as the company expanded at home and overseas, Hodder & Stoughton's list swelled to include the real life adventures in Peary's North Pole and several works by Winston Churchill.
During the war, Ralph Hodder Williams set up the Brockhampton Book Co. to sell off overstocks of theological works. The manager, Ernest Roker, had an interest in children's books and managed to persuade author Enid Blyton to write a series of books for them about four children and a dog. In 1942, the Famous Five series was born with Five on a Treasure Island. In 1962, Brockhampton took over the children's writer Elinor Lyon, whose novels the parent company had introduced in 1948. Hodder & Stoughton published the Biggles books by Captain W. E. Johns, after he moved publishers from the Oxford University Press during the Second World War. Hodder & Stoughton published their first original Biggles book in 1942 with "Biggles Sweeps the Desert" around Sept/Oct of that year and the Brockhampton Press published Johns' Gimlet books from 1947. From 1953 Brockhampton Press would publish Biggles books, alternating with Hodder & Stoughton and Captain W. E. Johns remained with them until his death in 1968, with the last Hodder & Stoughton Biggles book appearing in August 1965 and the last Brockhampton Press Biggles book appearing in July 1970.
Hodder & Stoughton published some of Johns' Worrals books. Hodder & Stoughton published 35 Biggles first editions and Brockhampton Press published a further 29 Biggles first editions. In 1953 they published Sir John Hunt's successful The Ascent of Everest, began their long association with thriller writer John Creasey. In the 1970s, they brought the Coronet imprints into common use; the latter is memorable for David Niven's much-celebrated autobiography The Moon's a Balloon. In the 1960s the Hodder and Stoughton fiction list broadened to include many quality commercial authors, including Mary Stewart whose works included Madam, Will You Talk? and sold millions of copies worldwide. The non-fiction publishing included Anthony Sampson's era-defining The Anatomy of Britain in 1962. Another notable title in the children's sphere was the 1969 Brockhampton Press publication of Asterix the Gaul by Goscinny and Uderzo. In 1974, John le Carré’s Tinker, Soldier, Spy was published to much critical acclaim, earning him a Literary Guild Choice.
The following year, previous employee John Attenborough published A Living Memory of Hodder. In 1981, the company acquired the New English Library, an imprint created by the American Times Mirror Company that published works from several genres including fantasy, science fiction and suspense and included books by James Herbert and Stephen King. In 1986, Hodder & Stoughton introduced Sceptre as a literary imprint to sit alongside mass-market imprints Coronet and NEL. Publishing in paperback only, early books on the Sceptre list included Thomas Keneally’s Schindler’s Ark which had won the Booker Prize in 1982. Hodder & Stoughton won the Booker Prize in 1985 with the publication of Keri Hulme’s The Bone People acquired from its New Zealand office. Other notable books on the Hodder & Stoughton list in this decade include Rosamunde Pilcher’s The Shell Seekers, Elizabeth George’s A Great Deliverance and the first novel in Jean M. Auel’s prehistoric fiction series Earth’s Children® The Clan of the Cave Bear, an international success and the series, completed with the publication of The Land of Painted Caves in 2011, has sold over 45 million copies worldwide.
In 1993, Headline bought Hodder & Stoughton and the company became a division of Hodder Headline Ltd. In 1997 Sceptre published Charles Frazier’s Co
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"