Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology that combines physiology, molecular biology, developmental biology, mathematical modeling and psychology to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons and neural circuits; the understanding of the biological basis of learning, behavior and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the "ultimate challenge" of the biological sciences. The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at different scales and the techniques used by neuroscientists have expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and cognitive tasks in the brain; the earliest study of the nervous system dates to ancient Egypt. Trepanation, the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a hole into the skull for the purpose of curing headaches or mental disorders, or relieving cranial pressure, was first recorded during the Neolithic period.
Manuscripts dating to 1700 BC indicate that the Egyptians had some knowledge about symptoms of brain damage. Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom onwards, the brain was removed in preparation for mummification, it was believed at the time. According to Herodotus, the first step of mummification was to "take a crooked piece of iron, with it draw out the brain through the nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of the rest by rinsing with drugs."The view that the heart was the source of consciousness was not challenged until the time of the Greek physician Hippocrates. He believed that the brain was not only involved with sensation—since most specialized organs are located in the head near the brain—but was the seat of intelligence. Plato speculated that the brain was the seat of the rational part of the soul. Aristotle, believed the heart was the center of intelligence and that the brain regulated the amount of heat from the heart.
This view was accepted until the Roman physician Galen, a follower of Hippocrates and physician to Roman gladiators, observed that his patients lost their mental faculties when they had sustained damage to their brains. Abulcasis, Avicenna and Maimonides, active in the Medieval Muslim world, described a number of medical problems related to the brain. In Renaissance Europe, René Descartes, Thomas Willis and Jan Swammerdam made several contributions to neuroscience. Luigi Galvani's pioneering work in the late 1700s set the stage for studying the electrical excitability of muscles and neurons. In the first half of the 19th century, Jean Pierre Flourens pioneered the experimental method of carrying out localized lesions of the brain in living animals describing their effects on motricity and behavior. In 1843 Emil du Bois-Reymond demonstrated the electrical nature of the nerve signal, whose speed Hermann von Helmholtz proceeded to measure, in 1875 Richard Caton found electrical phenomena in the cerebral hemispheres of rabbits and monkeys.
Adolf Beck published in 1890 similar observations of spontaneous electrical activity of the brain of rabbits and dogs. Studies of the brain became more sophisticated after the invention of the microscope and the development of a staining procedure by Camillo Golgi during the late 1890s; the procedure used a silver chromate salt to reveal the intricate structures of individual neurons. His technique was used by Santiago Ramón y Cajal and led to the formation of the neuron doctrine, the hypothesis that the functional unit of the brain is the neuron. Golgi and Ramón y Cajal shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 for their extensive observations and categorizations of neurons throughout the brain. In parallel with this research, work with brain-damaged patients by Paul Broca suggested that certain regions of the brain were responsible for certain functions. At the time, Broca's findings were seen as a confirmation of Franz Joseph Gall's theory that language was localized and that certain psychological functions were localized in specific areas of the cerebral cortex.
The localization of function hypothesis was supported by observations of epileptic patients conducted by John Hughlings Jackson, who inferred the organization of the motor cortex by watching the progression of seizures through the body. Carl Wernicke further developed the theory of the specialization of specific brain structures in language comprehension and production. Modern research through neuroimaging techniques, still uses the Brodmann cerebral cytoarchitectonic map anatomical definitions from this era in continuing to show that distinct areas of the cortex are activated in the execution of specific tasks. During the 20th century, neuroscience began to be recognized as a distinct academic discipline in its own right, rather than as studies of the nervous system within other disciplines. Eric Kandel and collaborators have cited David Rioch, Francis O. Schmitt, Stephen Kuffler as having played critical roles in establishing the field. Rioch originated the integration of basic anatomical and physiological research with clinical psychiatry at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, starting in the 1950s.
During the same period, Schmitt established a neuroscience research program within the Biology Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, bringing together biology, chemistry and mathematics. The first freestandin
Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc. It has been owned by Kalmbach Publishing since 2010. Discover was created through the efforts of Time magazine editor Leon Jaroff, he noticed. Jaroff interpreted this as a considerable public interest in science, in 1971, he began agitating for the creation of a science-oriented magazine; this was difficult, as a former colleague noted, because "Selling science to people who graduated to be managers was difficult". Jaroff's persistence paid off, Discover magazine published its first edition in 1980. Discover was launched into a burgeoning market for science magazines aimed at educated non-professionals, intended to be easier to read than Scientific American but more detailed and science-oriented than Popular Science. Shortly after its launch, the American Association for the Advancement of Science launched a similar magazine called Science 80, both Science News and Science Digest changed their formats to follow the new trend.
During this period, Discover featured in-depth science reporting on "hard science" and avoided fringe topics like extraterrestrial intelligence. Most issues contained an essay by a well-known scientist—such as Stephen Jay Gould, Jared Diamond, Stephen Hawking. Another common article was a biography linked with mentions of other scientists working in the field; the "Skeptical Eye" column sought to uncover pop-science scams, was the medium where James Randi released the results of Project Alpha. Jaroff said; the sudden appearance of so many magazines in the same market space led to some falling by the wayside, Discover was left alone in its market space by the mid-1980s, it decided to appeal to a wider audience, by including articles on psychology and psychiatry. Jaroff told the editor-in-chief that these were not "solid sciences", was sent back to Discover's parent, Inc. "Skeptical Eye" and other columns disappeared, articles covered more controversial, speculative topics. The new format was a great success, the new format remained unchanged for the next two decades.
Gilbert Rogin, a Sports Illustrated editor, was brought in 1985 to revive Discover. In 1986, Time purchased the subscription lists of the shuttered magazines Science Digest and Science 86 from their publishers. Circulation for the magazine reached 925,000 by May 1987 with revenue for 1986 being $6.9 million. But annual net loss were $10 million per year. In January 1987, Time appointed a new Discover publisher, Bruce A. Barnet publisher of Picture Week test magazine from August 1985 to replace James B. Hayes, appointed publisher of Fortune; the magazine changed hands several times. In 1987, Inc. sold Discover to Family Media, the owners of Health, Golf Illustrated, Homeowner, 1,001 Home Ideas and World Tennis, for $26 million. From January to July 1991, Discover magazine lost 15% of its advertising while still remaining profitable. Family Media closed down while suspending publication of all its magazines and place them up for sale. Family Media's last Discover issue was August 1991, with a circulation of 1.1 million copies.
In September 1991, The Walt Disney Company bought the magazine for its Disney Publishing's Magazine Group. The magazine's main office was moved to the Magazine Group office in Burbank while leaving one third behind in New York in a small editorial and advertising office. Disney was able to retain Family Media's editor-in-chief for Paul Hoffman. Disney increased the magazine's photography and its content budget to over come skipping 2 issues in Family Media's shutdown and ownership change. In 1993, Disney Magazine Publishing Inc. decided to launch a trade advertising campaign designed with advertising firm Ziff Marketing to raise awareness in the advertising field that the magazine is an accessible general interest magazine in the science category. In October 2005, Bob Guccione, Jr. founder of Spin and Gear magazines, some private equity partners purchased the magazine from Disney. Guccione oversaw a redesign for the April 2006 issue. However, Guccione was ousted as CEO in October 2007 in what was described as "a falling-out over philosophical differences with his financial backers".
Henry Donahue, Discover Media's chief financial officer, became the new CEO. In 2008, he assumed the role of publisher. In October 2008, Corey Powell, Discover’s executive editor, became editor-in-chief; as of April 2009, the magazine published combined issues in January/February and July/August, for a total of ten issues a year. In 2010 the magazine was sold to Kalmbach Publishing, whose books and magazines are about craft and hobby subjects such as modeling beadwork, the outdoors, it has Astronomy. In August 2012 Kalmbach announced that Discover would be moving from New York City to Kalmbach's headquarters in Wisconsin in January 2013. In December 2012, Stephen C. George became the editor-in-chief. Becky Lang is the current editor-in-chief; the Discover website includes a collection of blogs related to science, including Cosmic Variance, Carl Zimmer's The Loom, Melissa Lafsky's Reality Base. From 1983-1990, PBS aired Discover: The World of Science, a monthly hour-long news magazine featuring topics from the publication and hosted by Peter Graves.
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The visual cortex of the brain is that part of the cerebral cortex which processes visual information. It is located in the occipital lobe. Visual nerves run straight from the eye to the primary visual cortex to the Visual Association cortex. Visual information coming from the eye goes through the lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus and reaches the visual cortex; the part of the visual cortex that receives the sensory inputs from the thalamus is the primary visual cortex known as visual area 1, the striate cortex. The extrastriate areas consist of visual areas 2, 3, 4, 5. Both hemispheres of the brain contain a visual cortex; the primary visual cortex is located around the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. Each hemisphere's V1 receives information directly from its ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus that receives signals from the contralateral visual hemifield. Neurons in the visual cortex fire action potentials when visual stimuli appear within their receptive field. By definition, the receptive field is the region within the entire visual field that elicits an action potential.
But, for any given neuron, it may respond best to a subset of stimuli within its receptive field. This property is called neuronal tuning. In the earlier visual areas, neurons have simpler tuning. For example, a neuron in V1 may fire to any vertical stimulus in its receptive field. In the higher visual areas, neurons have complex tuning. For example, in the inferior temporal cortex, a neuron may fire only when a certain face appears in its receptive field; the visual cortex receives its blood supply from the calcarine branch of the posterior cerebral artery. V1 transmits information to two primary pathways, called the dorsal stream; the ventral stream begins with V1, goes through visual area V2 through visual area V4, to the inferior temporal cortex. The ventral stream, sometimes called the "What Pathway", is associated with form recognition and object representation, it is associated with storage of long-term memory. The dorsal stream begins with V1, goes through Visual area V2 to the dorsomedial area and Visual area MT and to the posterior parietal cortex.
The dorsal stream, sometimes called the "Where Pathway" or "How Pathway", is associated with motion, representation of object locations, control of the eyes and arms when visual information is used to guide saccades or reaching. The what vs. where account of the ventral/dorsal pathways was first described by Ungerleider and Mishkin. More Goodale and Milner extended these ideas and suggested that the ventral stream is critical for visual perception whereas the dorsal stream mediates the visual control of skilled actions, it has been shown that visual illusions such as the Ebbinghaus illusion distort judgements of a perceptual nature, but when the subject responds with an action, such as grasping, no distortion occurs. Work such as the one from Scharnowski and Gegenfurtner suggests that both the action and perception systems are fooled by such illusions. Other studies, provide strong support for the idea that skilled actions such as grasping are not affected by pictorial illusions and suggest that the action/perception dissociation is a useful way to characterize the functional division of labor between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways in the cerebral cortex.
The primary visual cortex is the most studied visual area in the brain. In mammals, it is located in the posterior pole of the occipital lobe and is the simplest, earliest cortical visual area, it is specialized for processing information about static and moving objects and is excellent in pattern recognition. The functionally defined primary visual cortex is equivalent to the anatomically defined striate cortex; the name "striate cortex" is derived from the line of Gennari, a distinctive stripe visible to the naked eye that represents myelinated axons from the lateral geniculate body terminating in layer 4 of the gray matter. The primary visual cortex is divided into six functionally distinct layers, labeled 1 to 6. Layer 4, which receives most visual input from the lateral geniculate nucleus, is further divided into 4 layers, labelled 4A, 4B, 4Cα, 4Cβ. Sublamina 4Cα receives magnocellular input from the LGN, while layer 4Cβ receives input from parvocellular pathways; the average number of neurons in the adult human primary visual cortex in each hemisphere has been estimated at around 140 million.
The tuning properties of V1 neurons differ over time. Early in time individual V1 neurons have strong tuning to a small set of stimuli; that is, the neuronal responses can discriminate small changes in visual orientations, spatial frequencies and colors. Furthermore, individual V1 neurons in humans and animals with binocular vision have ocular dominance, namely tuning to one of the two eyes. In V1, primary sensory cortex in general, neurons with similar tuning properties tend to cluster together as cortical columns. David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel proposed the classic ice-cube organization model of cortical columns for two tuning properties: ocular dominance and orientation. However, this model cannot accommodate the color, spatial frequency and many other features to which neurons are tuned; the exact organization of all these cortical columns within V1 remains a hot topic of current research. The mathematical modeling of this function has been compared t
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed