The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Everton Football Club is a football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club have competed in the top division for a record 116 seasons, missing the top division only four times since The Football League was created in 1888. Everton have won 15 major trophies: the League Championship nine times, the FA Cup five times and the UEFA Cup Winners Cup once. Formed in 1878, Everton were founding members of The Football League in 1888 and won their first League Championship two seasons later. Following four League Championship and two FA Cup wins, Everton experienced a lull in the immediate post World War Two period, until a revival in the 1960s, which saw the club win two League Championships and an FA Cup; the mid-1980s represented their most recent period of sustained success, with two League Championships, an FA Cup, the 1985 European Cup Winners' Cup. The club's most recent major trophy was the 1995 FA Cup; the club's supporters are known as Evertonians.
Everton have a rivalry with neighbours Liverpool, the two sides contest the Merseyside derby. The club has been based at Goodison Park in Walton, since 1892, after moving from Anfield following a row over its rent; the club's home colours are royal blue shirts with white socks. Everton were founded as St Domingo FC in 1878 so that members of the congregation of St Domingo Methodist New Connexion Chapel in Breckfield Road North, Everton could play sport year round – cricket was played in summer; the club's first game was a 1–0 victory over Everton Church Club. The club was renamed Everton in November 1879 after the local area, as people outside the congregation wished to participate; the club was a founding member of the Football League in 1888–89 and won their first League Championship title in the 1890–91 season. Everton won the FA Cup for the first time in 1906 and the League Championship again in 1914–15; the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 interrupted the football programme while Everton were champions, something that would again occur in 1939.
It was not until 1927. In 1925 the club signed Dixie Dean from Tranmere Rovers. In 1927–28, Dean set the record for top-flight league goals in a single season with 60 goals in 39 league games, a record that still stands, he helped. However, Everton were relegated to the Second Division two years during internal turmoil at the club; the club rebounded and was promoted at the first attempt, while scoring a record number of goals in the Second Division. On return to the top flight in 1931–32, Everton wasted no time in reaffirming their status and won a fourth League Championship at the first opportunity. Everton won their second FA Cup in 1933 with a 3–0 win against Manchester City in the final; the era ended in 1938–39 with a fifth League Championship. The outbreak of the Second World War again saw the suspension of league football, when official competition resumed in 1946, the Everton team had been split up and paled in comparison to the pre-war team. Everton were relegated for the second time in 1950–51 and did not earn promotion until 1953–54, when they finished as runners-up in their third season in the Second Division.
The club have been a top-flight presence since. Everton's second successful era started when Harry Catterick was made manager in 1961. In 1962–63, his second season in charge, Everton won the League Championship. In 1966 the club won the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday. Everton again reached the final in 1968, but this time were unable to overcome West Bromwich Albion at Wembley. Two seasons in 1969–70, Everton won the League Championship, finishing nine points clear of nearest rivals Leeds United. During this period, Everton were the first English club to achieve five consecutive years in European competitions – covering the seasons from 1961–62 to 1966–67. However, the success did not last. Harry Catterick retired, but his successors failed to win any silverware for the remainder of the 1970s despite finishing fourth in 1974–75 under manager Billy Bingham, third in 1977–78 and fourth the following season under manager Gordon Lee. Lee was sacked in 1981. Howard Kendall guided Everton to their most successful era.
Domestically, Everton won the FA Cup in 1984 and two League Championships in 1984–85 and 1986–87. In Europe, the club won its first, so far only, European trophy by securing the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1985; the European success came after first beating University College Dublin, Inter Bratislava and Fortuna Sittard. Everton defeated German giants Bayern Munich 3–1 in the semi-finals, despite trailing at half time, recorded the same scoreline over Austrian club Rapid Vienna in the final. Having won both the League and Cup Winners' Cup in 1985, Everton came close to winning a treble, but lost to Manchester United in the FA Cup final; the following season, 1985–86, Everton were runners-up to neighbours Liverpool in both the League and the FA Cup, but did recapture the League Championship in 1986–87. After the Heysel Stadium disaster and the subsequent ban of all English clubs from continental football, Everton lost the chance to compete for more European trophies. A large proportion of the title-winning side was broken up following the ban.
Kendall himself moved to Athletic Bilbao after the 1987 title triumph and was succeeded by assistant Colin Harvey. Harvey took Everton to the 1989 FA Cup Fi
Brookside is a British soap opera set in Liverpool, England. The series began on the launch night of Channel 4 on 2 November 1982, ran for 21 years until 4 November 2003. Intended to be called Meadowcroft, the series was produced by Lime Pictures and it was conceived by Phil Redmond who devised Grange Hill and Hollyoaks. Brookside became successful and was Channel 4's highest rated programme for a number of years in the mid-1980s and with audiences in excess of nine million viewers, it is notable for realistic and challenging storylines. From the mid-1990s it began raising more controversial subjects under the guidance of new producers such as Mal Young and Paul Marquess, it is well known for broadcasting the first pre-watershed lesbian kiss on British television in 1994, as well as a powerful domestic abuse storyline resulting in murder. In 1996, the series experienced an extreme backlash from viewers when it featured a hugely controversial storyline of a consensual incestuous sexual relationship between two sibling characters.
Although the series had a long and successful run, by 2000 its viewing figures were in terminal decline and low ratings led to its cancellation in June 2003. The final episode was watched by around two million viewers; the first episode of Brookside was repeated as part of Channel 4 at 25 on 1 October 2007. The episode aired on More4 in a season of celebratory Channel 4 programmes to mark the channel's first quarter-century. Several classic episodes have been available to view on All 4, an online service, since 2009. After years of campaigning by fans led by Lee Brady, a special DVD was released in November 2012, just over 30 years after the series began, titled Brookside Most Memorable Moments, it features episodes from the programme's 21-year history. A British Rail Class 86 electric locomotive No.86402 was named Brookside on 10/8/87 with an associated plaque. It was renumbered 86632 on the 30/9/89 and carried its number until 30/6/99 appearing on trains in Liverpool and the North West. Brookside differed from other soap operas because it was filmed in real, brand-new houses, in a real cul-de-sac, situated off Deysbrook Lane in the North West city of Liverpool.
Built by Broseley Homes, the houses were custom built in an attempt by the producers to add to the show's realism. In early 1982, Mersey Television, with Phil Redmond at the helm, bought thirteen houses altogether, six of which would be seen on-screen as sets; the remaining seven properties housed administration and canteen facilities for the cast and crew. Phil Redmond was enthusiastic about purchasing an entire'close' of houses as a means of achieving the desired realism of Brookside, but in order to maintain total control of his creation. Brookside had a smaller ensemble cast than other soaps focusing on six households; the early cast featured just 16 characters and it would be a full 12 months before the six houses in Brookside Close became occupied. This was intentional, as Redmond wanted to reflect the pace of real life'new-build' estate occupancy. Therefore, introductory episodes concentrated on the development of the anchor Grant family, with Sheila and Bobby who had moved up the social ladder to a big, four-bedroomed house on the'middle-class' Brookside Close from a run-down council estate.
The Grants were the first family to have moved onto the Close and they lived at number 5 and were the focus of earliest advertising campaigns promoting the programme. Only three of the six new-builds were occupied by characters and Episode 1 saw the arrival of the Collins family led by Annabelle Collins, the first actor to be seen in the first episode and Paul Collins. In contrast to the Grants, the Collinses were on their way down the social ladder, downsizing from their lavish home on the upmarket Wirral, to the smaller, more modest, number 8, Brookside Close following Paul's redundancy; the contrast between the families was featured Bobby's left wing and Paul's right wing views. Other characters included Heather and Roger Huntington, two young professionals residing at semi-detached number 9 who took an instant dislike to the Grants. Low class newly-weds Gavin and Petra Taylor moved into number 10 during early episodes, memorably selling stolen cookers from the front lawn, infuriating their new neighbours.
The first episode was watched by 4.2 million viewers but the initial reaction to the serial was far from positive. Critics were quick to point out various technical problems as well as the profanity now being screened before the watershed; as viewing figures plummeted, stabilising at around 1 million, the production team and writers started to iron out Brookside's teething troubles. Soundproof panels were placed on the ceilings of the houses to contain sound and eliminate echoing, the scriptwriters toned down the language and removed a couple of poor performing supporting actors; the show's atmosphere changed with the arrival of new characters such as Alan Partridge who moved into the bungalow in April 1983, while pensioners Harry and Edna Cross, who bought number 7, arrived in November. Their opening storyline involved the mysterious movement of their garden gnomes; these new characters expanded the cast whilst helping to bring humour and balance to the existing cast during 1983. Further cast changes during 1983 saw the arri
To Buy or Not to Buy
To Buy or Not to Buy is a British reality television series made between 2003 and 2010 for BBC One in the UK. The final series was the eleventh and contained 90 episodes, in one of two formats—either 30 or 45 minutes in length, it aired on both BBC1 and BBC2. The show airs on Saturday mornings on RTÉ One in Ireland; the show is based on the concept of housing programmes such as Location, Location. The idea is to try to find a house for the participants and allow them to test it out before deciding if they want to put in an offer for the house; the episodes follow a set pattern. After introducing the prospective buyers and their idea of an ideal home, including location and price range, each of the two presenters selects a property they feel fits that ideal. A third property, the so-called'wild card', may not fit this wish list, but is believed to be adequate by the presenters; the prospective buyers are given the opportunity to inspect each property, discussing its flaws and merits with the presenters before guessing the property's price.
They are allowed to choose one property for an in-depth'try before you buy' segment, where they can test drive the property more leisurely. A'mystery' surveyor then looks at the property and finds some defects, which are communicated by the presenters; the episode concludes with a final conversation with the prospective buyers, asking them whether they are in fact interested in purchasing the property. Throughout the programme, both presenters engage in mildly disparaging yet good-natured banter, both among themselves and with the participants; the final presenters were Simon O'Brien, Rani Price, Garold Howesington and Ed Hall. The original presenter teams was Dominic Littlewood with Kristian Digby, who were joined by Sarah Walker at the end of the first series, as 10 hour-long'specials' were made, with Walker doing makeover on the contributing couples' house as they househunted with Digby and Littlewood. For the second series and Walker paired-up, Littlewood was joined by Melissa Porter, in the first half of 2005 more changes kicked in.
Simon Rimmer and Walker made two series together and Digby presented with Simon O'Brien before moving on to his current co-star Ed Hall, until Digby's death 1 March 2010 aged 32. Rani Price, Simon O'Brien, Jonnie Irwin, Ed Hall, Jonny Benarr, Nikki Bedi, Kristian Digby, Dominic Littlewood, Melissa Porter, Simon Rimmer, Sarah Walker, Ian Blandford, Melinda Messenger, Sid Owen To Buy or Not to Buy at BBC Online To Buy or Not to Buy on IMDb
BBC One is the first and principal television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service, was the world's first regular television service with a high level of image resolution, it was renamed BBC TV in 1960, using this name until the launch of the second BBC channel BBC2 in 1964, whereupon the BBC TV channel became known as BBC1, with the current spelling adopted in 1997. The channel's annual budget for 2012–13 was £1.14 billion. The channel is funded by the television licence fee together with the BBC's other domestic television stations, shows uninterrupted programming without commercial advertising, it is the most watched television channel in the United Kingdom, ahead of its traditional rival for ratings leadership, ITV. As of June 2013 the channel controller for BBC One was Charlotte Moore, who succeeded Danny Cohen as an Acting Controller from May 2013; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932.
The BBC Television Service began regular broadcasts on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of the Alexandra Palace in London. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning, with one of the last programmes to be shown before the suspension of the service being a Mickey Mouse cartoon. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00. Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying, "Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?". The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later; the BBC held a statutory monopoly on television broadcasting in the United Kingdom until the first Independent Television station began to broadcast on 22 September 1955, when ITV started broadcasting. The competition forced the channel to change its identity and priorities following a large reduction in its audience; the 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, that ITV lacked any serious programming.
It therefore decided that Britain's third television station should be awarded to the BBC. The station, renamed BBC TV in 1960, became BBC1 when BBC2 was launched on 20 April 1964 transmitting an incompatible 625-line image on UHF; the only way to receive all channels was to use a complex "dual-standard" 405- and 625-line, VHF and UHF, with both a VHF and a UHF aerial. Old 405-line-only sets became obsolete in 1985, when transmission in the standard ended, although standards converters have become available for enthusiasts who collect and restore such TVs. BBC1 was based at the purpose-built BBC Television Centre at White City, London between 1960 and 2013. Television News continued to use Alexandra Palace as its base—by early 1968 it had converted one of its studios to colour—before moving to new purpose-built facilities at Television Centre on 20 September 1969. In the weeks leading up to 15 November 1969, BBC1 unofficially transmitted the occasional programme in its new colour system, to test it.
At midnight on 15 November with ITV and two years after BBC2, BBC1 began 625-line PAL colour programming on UHF with a broadcast of a concert by Petula Clark. Colour transmissions could be received on monochrome 625-line sets until the end of analogue broadcasting. In terms of audience share, the most successful period for BBC1 was under Bryan Cowgill between 1973 and 1977, when the channel achieved an average audience share of 45%; this period is still regarded by many as a golden age of the BBC's output, with the BBC achieving a high standard across its entire range of series, plays, light entertainment and documentaries. On 30 December 1980, the BBC announced their intention to introduce a new breakfast television service to compete with TV-am; the BBC stated it would start broadcasting before TV-am, but made clear their hands were tied until November 1981 when the new licence fee income became available, to help finance extending broadcast hours, with the hope of starting in 1982. On 17 January 1983, the first edition of Breakfast Time was shown on BBC1, becoming the first UK wide breakfast television service and continued to lead in the ratings until 1984.
In 1984, Bill Cotton become managing director of Television at the BBC, set about overhauling BBC1, slated for poor home grown shows, its heavy reliance on US imports, with Dallas and The Thorn Birds being BBC1's highest rated programmes and ratings being over 20% behind ITV. Cotton recruited Michael Grade to become Controller of BBC1, the first time the Corporation had recruited someone outside of the BBC, replacing Alan Hart, criticised for his lack of knowledge in general entertainment, as he was head of BBC Sport prior to 1981; the first major overhaul was to axe the unpopular Sixty Minutes current affairs programme: this was a replacement for the news and magazine show Nationwide. Its replacement was the BBC Six O'Clock News, a straight new programme in a bid to shore up its failing early evening slot, it was believed the BBC were planning to cut short the evening news and move more light entertainment programming in from the 18:20 slot, but this was dismissed. The Miss Great Britain contest was dropped, being described as verging on the too offensive after the January 1985 contest, with Worlds Strongest Man and International Superstar being axed.
BBC1 was relaunched on 18 February 1985 with a new look, new programming including Wogan, EastEnders and a revised schedule to help streamline and maintain viewers thr
York is a historic walled city in North Yorkshire, England. At the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the historic county town of the historic county of Yorkshire. York Minster and a variety of cultural and sporting activities make it a popular tourist destination; the city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, of the kingdoms of Deira, Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained. In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre; the economy of York is now dominated by services. The University of York and National Health Service are major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy; the City of York local government district includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.
In 2011, it had a population of 198,051. The word York is derived from the Brittonic name Eburākon, a combination of eburos "yew-tree" and a suffix of appurtenance *-āko "belonging to-, place of-" meaning either "place of the yew trees"; the name Eboracum became the Anglian Eoforwic in the 7th century: a compound of Eofor-, from the old name, -wic a village by conflation of the element Ebor- with a Germanic root *eburaz. When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík; the Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as "Everwic" in works such as Wace's Roman de Rou. Jórvík, meanwhile reduced to York in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century; the form York was first recorded in the 13th century. Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Latinised Brittonic, Roman name; the 12th‑century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his fictional account of the prehistoric kings of Britain, Historia Regum Britanniae, suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus.
The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature. Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes; the Brigantian tribal area became a Roman client state, but its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber into Brigantian territory. The city was founded in 71 AD, when the Ninth Legion conquered the Brigantes and constructed a wooden military fortress on flat ground above the River Ouse close to its confluence with the River Foss; the fortress, whose walls were rebuilt in stone by the VI legion based there subsequent to the IX legion, covered an area of 50 acres and was inhabited by 6,000 legionary soldiers. The site of the principia of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster, excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns.
The Emperors Hadrian, Septimius Severus and Constantius I all held court in York during their various campaigns. During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, it is that it was he who granted York the privileges of a'colonia' or city. Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress. In 314 AD a bishop from York attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the province. While the Roman colonia and fortress were located on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss, the population reduced. York declined in the post-Roman era, was taken and settled by the Angles in the 5th century. Reclamation of parts of the town was initiated in the 7th century under King Edwin of Northumbria, York became his chief city; the first wooden minster church was built in York for the baptism of Edwin in 627, according to the Venerable Bede.
Edwin ordered the small wooden church be rebuilt in stone. In the following century, Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York, he had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York now known as St Peter's School, founded in 627 AD, as Charlemagne's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs. In 866, Northumbria was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York. Under Viking rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking trading routes throughout northern Europe; the last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe, was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred in his successful attempt to complete the unification
Fraggle Rock is a Canadian-British-American children's puppet television series about interconnected societies of Muppet creatures, created by Jim Henson. Fraggle Rock was co-produced by British television company Television South, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, U. S. pay Henson Associates. Unlike Sesame Street, created for a single market and adapted for international markets, Fraggle Rock was intended from the start to be an international production and the entire show was constructed with this in mind. Fraggle Rock debuted in 1983 as one of the first shows involving the collaboration of Henson International Television, the international arm of Jim Henson Productions; the co-production brought together British regional ITV franchise-holder Television South, CBC Television, United States pay-television service Home Box Office and Henson Associates. Filming took place on a Toronto sound-stage; the avant-garde poet bpNichol worked as one of the show's writers. In the early days of development, the script called the Fraggles "Woozles" pending the devising of a more suitable name.
Henson described the Fraggle Rock series as "a raucous musical romp. It's a lot of silliness. It's wonderful." The program proved accessible to audiences of all ages, used the fantasy creatures as an allegory to deal with serious issues such as prejudice, personal identity, the environment, social conflict. In 2009, as part of the Jim Henson Foundation's donation of puppets to the Center for Puppetry Arts, the Atlanta museum displayed many of the original puppet characters from Fraggle Rock in their exhibition Jim Henson: Wonders from his Workshop; the producers made the series with the intention of it airing in various forms internationally. That concept grew out of Jim Henson's experience adapting Sesame Street to the requirements of foreign markets; the human "wraparound" segments were produced separately in several countries, so the viewer could always relate to the world of the program. The series has appeared now in over languages; the head producer was Wesley James Tomlinson. The main version, filmed in Toronto, features an inventor named his dog Sprocket.
This wraparound was used in the USA, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the Republic Of Ireland, Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Dutch, Scandinavian and Eastern European shows were dubbed in their respective languages; the British inserts were filmed at the TVS Studios in Southampton, at the TVS Television Theatre in Gillingham and presents Fraggle Rock as a rocky sea-island with a lighthouse. Exterior footage was that of St Anthony's Lighthouse located near Falmouth in Cornwall; the lighthouse keeper is a retired sailor who lives with his faithful dog Sprocket. In the third season following the death of Fulton Mackay, the role was filled by John Gordon Sinclair as P. K. and in the fourth Simon O'Brien as B. J.. In 2014, 35 of these British wraparounds were still missing, believed wiped, although subsequent recoveries have reduced this number to one with 95 known to exist. Nickelodeon repeated it in the UK from 1993, as did Boomerang and Cartoonito in 2007; the episodes shown were the Canadian versions.
In the German version, the action takes place beneath the workshop of the inventor Doc. The series was named Die Fraggles with 85 of the 96 produced episodes being presented in German. In France, the wraparound segments take place in a bakery with its version of Doc who worked as a baker and a French alter-ego for Sprocket called Croquette. Doc inherited the home from his eccentric Uncle Georges. Thus, when the frame story required the use of a mechanical device, Doc would find yet another of Uncle Georges's machines. Plot-lines frequently involved the elegant but unseen Madame Pontaven. Not all of the 96 episodes were produced in French. There are four main intelligent anthropomorphic species in the Fraggle Rock environment: Fraggles, Doozers and Silly Creatures; the Fraggles and Doozers live in a system of natural caves called Fraggle Rock that are filled with all manner of creatures and features and which connect to at least two different areas: The Land of the Gorgs which they consider part of the "Universe".
"Outer Space" where the "silly creatures" live. One of the main themes of the series is that, although the three species depend on the other for their survival, they fail to communicate due to vast differences in their biology and culture; the series follows the adventures of five Fraggles with five personalities: pragmatic Gobo, artistic Mokey, indecisive Wembley, superstitious Boober, adventurous Red. Some of the character's names are film industry in-jokes. For example, Uncle Travelling Matt is a reference to the travelling matte technique used with blue screen to give the impression a character is somewhere they are not. Fraggles are small anthropomorphic creatures 18 inches tall, that come in a variety of colors and have fur tuft tipped tails. Fraggles live a carefree life, spending most of their time (they have a thirty-minute work w