Sir Clement Raphael Freud was a British broadcaster, writer and chef. The grandson of Sigmund Freud and brother of Lucian Freud, he moved to the United Kingdom from Germany as a child and worked as a prominent chef and food writer before becoming known to a wider audience as a television and radio personality, he was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament in 1973, retaining his seat until 1987, when he received a knighthood. In 2016, seven years after his death, three women made public allegations of child sexual abuse and rape by Freud, which led to police investigations, he was born Clemens Rafael Freud in Berlin, the son of Jewish parents Ernst L. Freud and Lucie née Brasch, he was the brother of artist Lucian Freud. His family fled to Britain from Nazi Germany and his forenames were anglicised to Clement Raphael, he spent his childhood in Hampstead where he attended the Hall School, Hampstead, a preparatory school. He attended two independent schools: he boarded at Dartington Hall, went to St Paul's School, London.
He naturalised as a British subject on 4 September 1939, three days after the outbreak of World War II. During the war Freud served in the ranks, he acted as an aide to Field Marshal Montgomery. He worked in 1947 was commissioned as an officer, he married June Flewett in 1950, the couple had five children. Flewett had taken the stage name Jill Raymond in 1944, after her husband's knighthood, has been known as Lady Freud. Freud became an Anglican at the time of his marriage. Freud was one of Britain's first "celebrity chefs", he worked at the Dorchester Hotel, went on to run his own restaurant in Sloane Square at a young age. He appeared in a series of dog food advertisements in which he co-starred with a bloodhound called Henry which shared his trademark "hangdog" expression. In 1968, he wrote the children's book Grimble, followed by a sequel, Grimble at Christmas, six years later. Whilst running a nightclub, he met a newspaper editor. From there he became an award-winning drink writer, writing columns for many publications.
Freud stood in the 1973 Isle of Ely Parliamentary by-election, becoming the Liberal Member of Parliament for that constituency from 1973 to 1987. His departure from Parliament was marked by the award of a knighthood. In his column in the Racing Post of 23 August 2006, he wrote about his election to Parliament in a by-election: "Politically, I was an anti-Conservative unable to join a Labour party hell-bent on nationalising everything that moved, so when a by-election occurred in East Anglia, where I lived and live, I stood as a Liberal and was fortunate in getting in. Ladbrokes quoted me at 33-1 in this three-horse contest, so Ladbrokes paid for me to have rather more secretarial and research staff than other MPs, which helped to keep me in for five parliaments." His autobiography, Freud Ego, recalls his election win, shortly after, when asked by his wife June, "Why aren't you looking happier?", he wrote "It occurred to me that after nine years of fame I now had something solid about which to be famous... and cheered up no end."
During his time as a Member of Parliament, he visited China with a delegation of MPs, including Winston Churchill, the grandson of the wartime prime minister. When Churchill was given the best room in the hotel, on account of his lineage, Freud declared it was the first time in his life that he had been "out-grandfathered". In the last year of Callaghan's government it proposed reinventing the one year Lib-Lab Pact which lapsed in July 1978, to include introducing a freedom of information act, long proposed by the Liberals. Towards the end of the five-year term was a March 1979 Vote of No Confidence against Callaghan's government and Freud was expected to follow his party and vote with the Opposition. Due to by-election defeats Labour's Callaghan ran a minority government and sought support of members from opposing parties to support him that day, he declined the offer and voted as stated by his party, after the lapse of the Lib-Lab pact, for an immediate general election. Otherwise the government could have continued until October 1979.
For many, Freud was best known as a panellist on the long-running Radio 4 show Just a Minute. Freud performed a small monologue for the Wings 1973 album Band on the Run and appeared on the album's cover, he made the occasional film appearance, with acting roles in movies such as The Mini-Affair and The Best House in London. In 1974, he served two three-year terms. A generation in 2002, he was elected Rector of the University of St Andrews, beating feminist and academic Germaine Greer and local challenger Barry Joss, holding the position for one term, his son Matthew Freud founded the London public relations firm Freud Communications in 1985. He was married to Caroline Hutton, the second wife of Earl Spencer. Freud's daughter Emma Freud, a broadcaster
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
Chad the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south and Nigeria to the southwest, Niger to the west, it is the second-largest in Central Africa in terms of area. Chad has several regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanian Savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second-largest in Africa; the capital N'Djamena is the largest city. Chad's official languages are French. Chad is home to over 200 different linguistic groups; the most popular religion of Chad is Islam, followed by Christianity. Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium AD, a series of states and empires had risen and fallen in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region.
France incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979 the rebels put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves, he was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Since 2003 the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad. An uneven inclusion into the global political economy as a site for colonial resource extraction, a global economic system that does not promote nor encourage the development of Chadian industrialization, the failure to support local agricultural production has meant that the majority of Chadians live in daily uncertainty and hunger. While many political parties are active, power lies in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement.
Chad remains plagued by recurrent attempted coups d'état. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry. In the 7th millennium BC, ecological conditions in the northern half of Chadian territory favored human settlement, the region experienced a strong population increase; some of the most important African archaeological sites are found in Chad in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region. For more than 2,000 years, the Chadian Basin has been inhabited by agricultural and sedentary people; the region became a crossroads of civilizations. The earliest of these were the legendary Sao, descendants of the Hyksos who conquered Ancient Egypt known for skills in designing weapons and artifacts, they are known for their oral histories. After a century of rule, the Sao fell to the Kanem Empire, the first and longest-lasting of the empires that developed in Chad's Sahelian strip by the end of the 1st millennium AD. Two other states in the region, Sultanate of Bagirmi and Wadai Empire emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The power of Kanem and its successors was based on control of the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. These states, at least tacitly Muslim, never extended their control to the southern grasslands except to raid for slaves. In Kanem, about a third of the population were slaves. French colonial expansion led to the creation of the Territoire Militaire des Pays et Protectorats du Tchad in 1900. By 1920, France had secured full control of the colony and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa. French rule in Chad was characterised by an absence of policies to unify the territory and sluggish modernisation compared to other French colonies; the French viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton. The colonial administration in Chad was critically understaffed and had to rely on the dregs of the French civil service. Only the Sara of the south was governed effectively; the educational system was affected by this neglect. After World War II, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the National Assembly and a Chadian assembly.
The largest political party was the Chadian Progressive Party, based in the southern half of the colony. Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960 with the PPT's leader, Sara François Tombalbaye, as its first president. Two years Tombalbaye banned opposition parties and established a one-party system. Tombalbaye's autocratic rule and insensitive mismanagement exacerbated inter-ethnic tensions. In 1965, Muslims in the north, led by the National Liberation Front of Chad, began a civil war. Tombalbaye was overthrown and killed in 1975. In 1979 the rebel factions led by Hissène Habré took the capital, all central authority in the country collapsed. Armed factions, many from the north's rebellion, contended for power; the disintegration of Chad caused the collapse of France's position in the country. Libya moved to fill the power vacuum and became involved in Chad
World Wide Fund for Nature
The World Wide Fund for Nature is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, the reduction of human impact on the environment. It was named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. WWF is the world's largest conservation organization with over five million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1,300 conservation and environmental projects, they have invested over $1 billion in more than 12,000 conservation initiatives since 1995. WWF is a foundation with 55% of funding from individuals and bequests, 19% from government sources and 8% from corporations in 2014. WWF aims to "stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature." The Living Planet Report is published every two years by WWF since 1998. In addition, WWF has launched several notable worldwide campaigns including Earth Hour and Debt-for-Nature Swap, its current work is organized around these six areas: food, freshwater, wildlife and oceans.
WWF has been accused by BuzzFeed News, Kathmandu Post, the Rainforest Foundation Fund and Survival International of protecting paramilitary forces funded by the organization to fight poaching that have engaged in human rights abuses despite an internal report acknowledging them in 2015. They have attacked African and South Asian villages, torturing and killing villagers. Investigators revealed that the WWF engaged in cover ups and lobbied to release rangers when they were arrested; the Conservation Foundation, a precursor to WWF, was founded in 1948 by Fairfield Osborn as an affiliate of the New York Zoological Society with an aim of protecting the world's natural resources. The advisory council included leading scientists such as Charles Sutherland Elton, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Aldo Leopold, Carl Sauer, Paul Sears, it supported much of the scientific work cited by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, including that of John L. George, Roger Hale, Robert Rudd, George Woodwell; the idea for a fund on behalf of endangered animals was proposed by Victor Stolan to Sir Julian Huxley in response to articles he published in the British newspaper The Observer.
This proposal led Huxley to put Stolan in contact with Max Nicholson, a person who had had thirty years experience of linking progressive intellectuals with big business interests through the Political and Economic Planning think tank. Nicholson thought up the name of the organization. WWF was conceived on 29 April 1961, under the name of World Wildlife Fund, its first office was opened on 11 September that same year in Morges, Switzerland. WWF was conceived to act as a funding institution for existing conservation groups such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and The Conservation Foundation. Godfrey A. Rockefeller played an important role in its creation, assembling the first staff, its establishment was marked with the signing of the "Morges Manifesto", the founding document that sets out the fund's commitment to assisting worthy organizations struggling to save the world's wildlife: They need above all money, to carry out mercy missions and to meet conservation emergencies by buying land where wildlife treasures are threatened, in many other ways.
Money, for example, to pay guardians of wildlife refuges.... Money for education and propaganda among those who would care and help if only they understood. Money to send out experts to danger spots and to train more local wardens and helpers in Africa and elsewhere. Money to maintain a sort of'war room' at the international headquarters of conservation, showing where the danger spots are and making it possible to ensure that their needs are met before it is too late. Dutch Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first President in 1961. In 1963, the Foundation held a conference and published a major report warning of anthropogenic global warming, written by Noel Eichhorn based on the work of Frank Fraser Darling, Edward Deevey, Erik Eriksson, Charles Keeling, Gilbert Plass, Lionel Walford, William Garnett. In 1970, along with Duke of Edinburgh and a few associates, Prince Bernhard established the WWF's financial endowment The 1001: A Nature Trust to handle the WWF's administration and fund-raising.
1001 members each contributed $10,000 to the trust. Prince Bernhard resigned his post after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal. WWF has set up operations around the world, it worked by fundraising and providing grants to existing non-governmental organizations, based on the best-available scientific knowledge and with an initial focus on the protection of endangered species. As more resources became available, its operations expanded into other areas such as the preservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of natural resources, the reduction of pollution, climate change; the organization began to run its own conservation projects and campaigns, by the 1980s started to take a more strategic approach to its conservation activities. In 1986, the organization changed its name to World Wide Fund for Nature, while retaining the WWF initials. However, it continued at that time to operate under the original name in the United States and Canada; that year was the 25th anniversary of WWF's foundation, an event marked by a gathering in Assisi, Italy to which the organization's International President HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, invited religi
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development can be classified as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations. While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns; as the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations. It has been suggested that "the term'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium, while'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability".
Modern economies are endeavouring to reconcile ambitious economic development and obligations of preserving natural resources and ecosystems, as the two are seen as of conflicting nature. Instead of holding climate change commitments and other sustainability measures as a drug to economic development and leveraging them into market opportunities will do greater good; the economic development brought by such organized principles and practices in an economy is called Managed Sustainable Development. The concept of sustainable development has been—and still is—subject to criticism, including the question of what is to be sustained in sustainable development, it has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will lead to the exhaustion of earth's finite stock. It has been argued that the meaning of the concept has opportunistically been stretched from'conservation management' to'economic development', that the Brundtland Report promoted nothing but a business as usual strategy for world development, with an ambiguous and insubstantial concept attached as a public relations slogan.
Sustainability can be defined as the practice of maintaining processes of productivity indefinitely—natural or human made—by replacing resources used with resources of equal or greater value without degrading or endangering natural biotic systems. Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social and economic challenges faced by humanity. Sustainability science is the study of the concepts of sustainable development and environmental science. There is an additional focus on the present generations' responsibility to regenerate and improve planetary resources for use by future generations. Sustainable development has its roots in ideas about sustainable forest management which were developed in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. In response to a growing awareness of the depletion of timber resources in England, John Evelyn argued that "sowing and planting of trees had to be regarded as a national duty of every landowner, in order to stop the destructive over-exploitation of natural resources" in his 1662 essay Sylva.
In 1713 Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a senior mining administrator in the service of Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony published Sylvicultura oeconomica, a 400-page work on forestry. Building upon the ideas of Evelyn and French minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, von Carlowitz developed the concept of managing forests for sustained yield, his work influenced others, including Alexander von Humboldt and Georg Ludwig Hartig leading to the development of a science of forestry. This in turn influenced people like Gifford Pinchot, first head of the US Forest Service, whose approach to forest management was driven by the idea of wise use of resources, Aldo Leopold whose land ethic was influential in the development of the environmental movement in the 1960s. Following the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in 1962, the developing environmental movement drew attention to the relationship between economic growth and development and environmental degradation. Kenneth E. Boulding in his influential 1966 essay The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth identified the need for the economic system to fit itself to the ecological system with its limited pools of resources.
One of the first uses of the term sustainable in the contemporary sense was by the Club of Rome in 1972 in its classic report on the Limits to Growth, written by a group of scientists led by Dennis and Donella Meadows of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Describing the desirable "state of global equilibrium", the authors wrote: "We are searching for a model output that represents a world system, sustainable without sudden and uncontrolled collapse and capable of satisfying the basic material requirements of all of its people."Following the Club of Rome report, an MIT research group prepared ten days of hearings on "Growth and Its Implication for the Future" for the US Congress, the first hearings held on sustainable development. William Flynn Martin, David Dodson Gray, Elizabeth Gray prepared the hearings under the Chairmanship of Congressman John Dingell. In 1980 the International Union for the Conservation of Nature published a world conservation strategy that included one of the first references to sustainable development as a global priority and introduced the
United Nations Volunteers
The United Nations Volunteers programme is a United Nations organization that contributes to peace and development through volunteerism worldwide. Volunteerism is a powerful means of engaging people in tackling development challenges, it can transform the pace and nature of development. Volunteerism benefits both society at large and the individual volunteer by strengthening trust and reciprocity among citizens, by purposefully creating opportunities for participation. UNV contributes to peace and development by advocating for recognition of volunteers, working with partners to integrate volunteerism into development programming, mobilizing an increasing number and diversity of volunteers, including experienced UN Volunteers, throughout the world. UNV embraces volunteerism as universal and inclusive, recognizes volunteerism in its diversity as well as the values that sustain it: free will, commitment and solidarity. Based in Bonn, Germany, UNV is active in around 130 countries every year. UNV, with Field Units in 86 countries, is represented worldwide through the offices of the United Nations Development Programme and reports to the UNDP Executive Board.
In 1962, the US Peace Corps convened the International Conference on Middle Level Manpower in Puerto Rico, where the role of international volunteers helping to build skills in developing countries was promoted. As a result, the International Peace Corps Secretariat the International Secretariat for Volunteer Service, was created as a global organization to promote volunteer services for development around the world. A United Nations Volunteers initiative was proposed in a speech at Harvard University on June 13, 1968 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and UNV was established 1970 by the UN General Assembly. ISVS became instrumental in the establishment of UNV and was itself dissolved in 1976. UNV is administered by the United Nations Development Programme. UNV was headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1996, the headquarters moved to Bonn, Germany to Haus Carstanjen. UNV headquarters moved to the former offices of the German Parliament in 2007. UNV has liaison offices in Tokyo and New York City and representatives in more than 50 programme countries.
Executive Coordinators of UNV, their nationalities and their time in the role: Olivier Adam, 2 January 2017 to present Richard Dictus, 2 January 2013 through most of 2016 Flavia Pansieri February 2008 through most of 2012 Ad de Raad, November 2003, permanent in August 2004 through most of 2007 Sharon Capeling-Alakija, 1 January 1998 - November 2003 Brenda Gael McSweeney, 1988 - 1997 Edward White, exact dates unknown Hikmat Nabulsi, appointed 1977, exact dates unknown John Gordon, appointed 1974, exact dates unknown Assad K. Sadry, 1970 UNV directly mobilizes more than 7,700 people as UN Volunteers every year nationally and internationally, with 80 per cent coming from developing countries, more than 30 per cent volunteering within their own countries. UN Volunteers receive a Volunteer Living Allowance, a financial allowance intended to cover basic living expenses each month; the minimum age for UN Volunteers is 25 years. There is no upper age limit. UN Volunteers help to organize and run local and national elections and support a large number of peacekeeping and humanitarian projects.
UN Volunteers comprise one third of all international civilians working in UN peacekeeping operations. With the UNV programme, individuals can volunteer in their own country, in a country different from their country of origin, or through the Internet. In addition, UNV operates the Online Volunteering Service, a web-based virtual volunteering platform for non-governmental organizations or other civil society organizations, governments or other public institutions, United Nations agencies or other intergovernmental institution to involve online volunteers in various projects; the service was launched in 2000 as a part of NetAid, which hosted and co-managed the service until 2005. The service operates in English and Spanish. In 2014, all 16,134 online volunteering assignments offered by development organizations through the Online Volunteering service attracted applications from numerous qualified volunteers. About 60 percent of the 10,887 online volunteers were women, 60 percent came from developing countries.
An evaluation of the UNV Online Volunteering service assessed the service’s impact on organizations, beneficiaries and UNV, as well as on the UN Online Volunteers themselves. The 2014 evaluation found that the service has played a unique role in expanding and mainstreaming online volunteerism globally, is appreciated by organizations and volunteers. Online volunteers mobilized through the Online Volunteering service are volunteers for the organization with which they collaborate. Online Volunteers do not follow the same conditions of service than UN Volunteers e.g. they do not receive a contract from UNV as such, do not receive a VLA. Since 2012, integrating volunteerism into discussions around the post-2015 development agenda has been a priority for UNV. In 2014, UNV focused on supporting the second round of UNDG dialogues on implementation of the post-2015 development agenda; the dialogues were framed around six themes: localizing the post-2015 development agenda, helping to strengthen capacities and build effective institutions, participatory monitoring for accountability, partnerships with civil society, engaging with the private sector, culture and development.
UNV co-led the dialogues on partnerships with civil society and was engaged in the dialogue
Kevin Harry Dunion is the Convener of the Standards Commission for Scotland and was the first Scottish Information Commissioner 2003−2012. He is an Honorary Professor in the University of Dundee School of Law and a member of the Scottish Legal Complaints Commission, he was Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews 2008−11. Dunion was born in Bridge of Allan, his father Harry became a college lecturer and the family moved to Alloa and Glenrothes. He attended St Andrew's High School in Kirkcaldy, he was educated at the University of Edinburgh. Dunion spent periods in the civil university administration, he worked for the pro-devolution magazine Radical Scotland. He joined Oxfam as Campaigns Manager and took up the post of Chief Executive of Friends of the Earth Scotland. From 1996 to 2000 he served as Chairman of Friends of the Earth International, heading delegations to the United Nations and European Commission. Dunion was for many years a notable proponent for freedom of information, gave evidence to the Justice Committee scrutinising the passage of the Bill through the Scottish Parliament.
He wrote the book Troublemakers – The Struggle For Environmental Justice In Scotland. Dunion was appointed as the first Scottish Information Commissioner in February 2003, he was reappointed in 2008. Towards the end of his second term he proposed extra powers that he though that the next Commissioner would need, he left office on 23 February 2012 after two terms - a total of nine years in office, during which time he handled some 1,500 cases. He was elected Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews in October 2008, he was installed on 3 March 2009. His term ran until 2011. In 2012 Dunion was appointed Honorary Professor in the University of Dundee School of Law, he is executive director of their Freedom of Information Centre. In 2012 he was appointed by the President of the World Bank as a member of the bank's Access to Information Appeals Board. In April 2013 he was appointed as a non-lawyer member of the Scottish Legal Complaints Commission, he became a member of the Standards Commission for Scotland on 1 September 2015.
In November 2016 it was announced that he would become the Convener of the Commission, taking up the position on 1 February 2017. In 2000 he was awarded an OBE for his work with Friends of the Earth. In 2011 he was awarded LLD, by the University of St Andrews. Dunion is married to Linda Malloch, married to Iain Gray, the former leader of the Labour Group in the Scottish Parliament. Archive of website of the Rector of the University of St Andrews profile at Dundee Law School