AC Hotel Bella Sky Copenhagen
With 814 rooms, it is the largest hotel in Scandinavia. The hotel joined the AC Hotels division of Marriott International on December 15,2014, the hotel is designed by 3XN and consists of two towers which reach 76.5 metres up with an inclination of 15° in opposite directions. The height was determined by restrictions due to the proximity of Copenhagen Airport, Ramboll was consulting engineer on structures and earthworks. All calculations and drawings used by Ramboll on the project were extracted from a 3D model, the calculation programme ROBOT worked together with the design programme TEKLA. The hotel has five restaurants,30 meeting rooms and an 850 sq m wellness area, the 17th floor is specially designed for women, but welcomes men. The Bella Sky Bar is situated on the 23rd floor
Amagerbrogade is the main shopping street and thoroughfare of the part of Copenhagen, Denmark that is located on the island of Amager. The street marks the border between Amager Vest and Amager Øst, two of the ten districts of Copenhagen. It is one of four such -bro streets, om the 18th century the road network outside Amager Gate was generally limited and in a poor state. From 1780 to 1790 the main road to Store Magleby and Dragør was upgraded, the first part of the road was 20 ells broad while the rest was only 14 alls broad
Holmbladsgade is one of the most lively street in the Amagerbro district of Copenhagen, connecting Amagerbrogade to Strandlodsvej on the east coast of Amager. The surrounding neighbourhood is variously referred to as Holmbladsgadekvarteret, Amagerbro or Sundby North, the street was originally known as Køhlertsvej and was access road to Køhlerts textile manufactury which had been founded in about 1770. Christianshavn Iron Foundry and Machine Factory built an industrial complex at the road in the 1980s. The street received its current name in 1897 after Lauritz Peter Holmblad, a local industrialist and philanthropist, Nathanaels Church was inaugurated in 1899 and over the next decades many apartment buildings sprung up along the street, which became part of a dense working-class neigobourhood. Many new industrial enterprises established in the street, including Holmblads old glue factory, the Sadolin & Holmblad, other industrial establishments along the street was a meat-packing central, manufacturer of metal sheet goods and various storage buildings.
Christianshavn Iron Foundry and Machine Factory existed under various names until the 1960s when the complex was taken over by a galvanization facility, most of the industry disappeared towards the end of the century and many of its buildings were torn down to make way for modern ones. The iron foundry complex from the 1880s was demolished in 1979, Sadolin & Holmblads building was demolished in 2001 and replaced by Sadolin Parken, a mixed-use development, which was inaugurated in 2004. The street became subject to a comprehensive programme in 1897. The initiative received the German Bilfinger Berger Award as an urban development project. Nathanaels Churchs was completed in 1899 and its architect is Thorvald Jørgensen who designed the present Christiansborg Palace. The church took over Holmblads villa which was expanded and adapted in 1988 and is now known as Nathanaels Sognegård, the oldest surviving building in the street is the low building from 1859 at No.70. Dorte Mandrup designed two community centres in connection with the facelift of the area, prismen was inaugurated in 2006 and is a multifunctional sports and cultural venue.
A series of columns designed by Bjarne Schlæger was installed along the street in 2003. The horizontal lines represent Holmbladgades side streets while the lines represent Amager Beach on the coast at the far end of the street. The integrated lighting is intended to contribute a sense of place in the night time
8 House, known as Big House, is a large mixed-use development built in the shape of a figure 8 on the southern perimeter of the new suburb of Ørestad in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the largest private development ever undertaken in Denmark, commissioned by Store Frederikslund Holding, Høpfner A/S and Danish Oil Company A/S in 2006, it is Ingels third housing development in Ørestad, following VM Houses and Mountain Dwellings. This is achieved by stacking the various ingredients of an urban neighbourhood into layers and they are connected by a promenade and a cycle track which reach up to the 10th floor, allowing businesses and housing to co-exist. As a result, the different horizontal layers have achieved a quality of their own and this is emphasised by the shape of 8 House which is literally hoisted up in the northeast corner and pushed down at the southwest corner, allowing light and air to enter the southern courtyard. The scheme was based on the typology of a block but was squeezed in the middle to form a bowtie shape with two courtyards.
At the centre, there is a 10-metre-wide passage connecting the surrounding spaces, the area to the west. The retail and commercial area at the base consists of a café, the sloping, 10-storey building provides views over the fields and marshes of Kalvebod Faelled to the south. The unusual ramp looping around the complex is designed to foster a sense of community, in granting the 2011 Housing Winner award, the World Architecture Festival jury commented, The 8 House in the Copenhagen quarter of Orestad is an exemplar project. It combines retail, commercial row houses and apartments in untraditional ways, people really live in this newly created neighborhood with shopping, restaurants, an art gallery, office facilities, educational facilities and the sound of children playing. This is a complex and exemplary project of a new typology, Housing Building of the Year at the 2011 World Architecture Festival. The 2012 American Institute of Architects Honor Award for Architecture that recognises achievements that elevate the quality of the architectural practice.
The Huffington Post included 8 House as one of the 10 Best Architecture Moments of 2001-2010, the Infinite Happiness a feature-length film by Ila Bêka & Louise Lemoine Bjarke Ingels, Yes is More, An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution, Copenhagen 2009, ISBN9788799298808
Sundby is a neighbourhood on Amager in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is often referred to as Sundbyerne since a distinction is traditionally made between Sundbyvester and Sundbyøster, located on each their side of Amagerbrogade. Sundbyvester and Sundbyøster were originally two villages known from about 1100, in the second half of the 18th century, the area changed character when sailors and workers began to settle in the community which spread along the main road. Administratively, Sundby belonged to the parish of Tårnby. The differences between urban Sundby and rural Tårnby grew still larger and led to conflicts over such as schools, sewers. In the 1890 census, Sundbyerne had a population of 13,310, in 1895 when Sundby was finally disjoined from Tårnby. Sundbys status as an independent civil parish only lasted for seven years
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term referred to a unit composed of clay. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks, block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is usually larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate, fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, and have been used since circa 5000 BC. Air-dried bricks, known as mudbricks, have an older than fired bricks. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, the earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use.
The oldest discovered bricks, originally made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region, ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities. In pre-modern China, bricks were being used from the 2nd millennium BCE at a site near Xian, the carpenters manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze, Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, and built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, during the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks.
Examples of this style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Poland. A clear distinction between the two styles developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is clearly recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were increasingly preferred as building material to stone and it was at this time in London, that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production slowly took place during the first half of the nineteenth century. His mechanical apparatus soon achieved widespread attention after it was adopted for use by the South Eastern Railway Company for brick-making at their factory near Folkestone, the Bradley & Craven Ltd ‘Stiff-Plastic Brickmaking Machine’ was patented in 1853, apparently predating Clayton
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes and these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. The initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price and this is often what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials, for example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime.
It is said that, if it must be done, it must be done well, pollution costs can be macro and micro. An example of the aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution. Red List building materials are found to be harmful. Also the carbon footprint, the set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste, two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development. Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce, the long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal. The initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of building material manufacturing. These were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, and so forth, an extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung, usually cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure. This gives the more thermal mass and strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques, many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames
Bella Center is Scandinavias second largest exhibition and conference center, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Located in Ørestad between the city centre and Copenhagen Airport, it offers an area of 121,800 square metres and has a capacity of 20,000 people. Bella Center takes its name from Bellahøj in northern Copenhagen where the centre was first situated. Its first building was constructed in 1965 to the design of architect Erik Møller, at this stage, Bella Centers new premises were located in an undeveloped area outside the city on the former Amager Commons. With the development of Ørestad, as decided in 1992 with construction start from around the turn of the millennium, when the M1 line of the Copenhagen Metro opened in 2004, it was with a station named for the Bella Center located next to it. Various halls that can be used as congress and exhibition halls Shopping centre with a grocers shop, designed by Danish 3XN Architects, the hotel consists of two inclined towers, standing 76.5 m tall with an inclination in opposite directions of 15°.
The four-star Bella Hotel provides 814 rooms,32 conference rooms,3 restaurants, a sky bar, the foundation stone to Bella Hotel was laid September 17,2008, and the first phase was completed in spring 2011. Bella Center hosts a variety of trade fairs, conventions. Every year, it generally hosts 25-30 large exhibitions as well as around 1,300 meetings of varying sizes, Bella Center station on the M1 line of the Copenhagen Metro is located next to Bella Center. The regional Oresundtrains from Copenhagen and Malmö stop at Ørestad station nearby the Bella Center, from here it is possible to change to the Metro M1 line to go one stop to reach the Bella Center metro station. The Oresundtrains stop at Copenhagen Airport,5 min. from Ørestad station