Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps; the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping, it is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, hiking means walking outdoors on a trail, or off trail, for recreational purposes. A day hike refers to a hike. However, in the United Kingdom, the word walking is used, as well as rambling, while walking in mountainous areas is called hillwalking.
In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, as fell is the common word for both features there. Hiking is sometimes referred to as such; this refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes, where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete is used to clear a pathway; the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are walking or bushwalking. Trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America and the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking in some places. In North America, multi-day hikes with camping, are referred to as backpacking; the idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th century, arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature associated with the Romantic movement.
In earlier times walking indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide. To this end he included various'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to enjoy the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude, his famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a walking tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District.
John Keats, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th century, of which the most famous is Robert Louis Stevenson's journey through the Cévennes in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours"; the subgenre of travel writing produced many classics in the subsequent 20th century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf, a posthumous published account of a long botanizing walk, undertaken in 1867. Due to industrialisation in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were cramped and unsanitary, they would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England around the urban areas of Manchester and Sheffield, was owned and trespass was illegal.
Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north and began politically campaigning for the legal'right to roam'. One of the first such clubs, was'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879; the first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was patronized by the peerage. Access to Mountains bills, that would have legislated the public's'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament from 1884 to 1932 without success. In 1932, the Rambler’s Right Movement organized a mass trespass on Kinder Scout in Derbyshire. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead it was achieved due to massive publicity; however the Mountain Access Bill, passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers' organizations, including The Ramblers, who felt that it did not
Sigurd or Siegfried is a legendary hero of Germanic mythology, who killed a dragon and was murdered. It is possible he was inspired by one or more figures from the Frankish Merovingian dynasty, with Sigebert I being the most popular contender. Older scholarship sometimes connected him with Arminius, victor of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, he may have a purely mythological origin. Sigurd's story is first attested on a series of carvings, including runestones from Sweden and stone crosses from the British Isles, dating from the eleventh century. In both the Norse and continental Germanic tradition, Sigurd is portrayed as dying as the result of a quarrel between his wife and another woman, whom he has tricked into marrying the Burgundian king Gunnar/Gunther, his slaying of a dragon and possession of the hoard of the Nibelungen is common to both traditions. In other respects, the two traditions appear to diverge; the most important works to feature Sigurd are the Nibelungenlied, the Völsunga saga, the Poetic Edda.
He appears in numerous other works from both Germany and Scandinavia, including a series of medieval and early modern Scandinavian ballads. Richard Wagner used the legends about Sigurd/Siegfried in his operas Götterdämmerung. Wagner relied on the Norse tradition in creating his version of Siegfried, his depiction of the hero has influenced many subsequent depictions. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Siegfried became associated with German nationalism; the Thidrekssaga finishes its tale of Sigurd by saying veryone said that no man now living or after would be born who would be equal to him in strength, in all sorts of courtesy, as well as in boldness and generosity that he had above all men, that his name would never perish in the German tongue, the same was true with the Norsemen. The names Siegfried do not share the same etymology. Both have the same first element, Proto-Germanic * sigi -; the second elements of the two names are different, however: in Siegfried, it is Proto-Germanic *-frið, meaning peace.
Although they do not share the same second element, it is clear that surviving Scandinavian written sources held Siegfried to be the continental version of the name they called Sigurd. The normal form of Siegfried in Middle High German is Sîvrit or Sîfrit, with the *sigi- element contracted; this form of the name had been common outside of heroic poetry since the ninth century, though the form Sigevrit is attested, along with the Middle Dutch Zegevrijt. In Early Modern German, the name develops to Seufrid; the modern form Siegfried is not attested until the seventeenth century, after which it becomes more common. In modern scholarship, the form Sigfrid is sometimes used; the Old Norse name Sigurðr is contracted from an original *Sigvǫrðr, which in turn derives from an older *Sigi-warðuR. The Danish form Sivard derives from this form originally. Hermann Reichert notes that the form of the root -vǫrðr instead of -varðr is only found in the name Sigurd, with other personal names instead using the form -varðr.
There are competing theories as to. Names equivalent to Siegfried are first attested in Anglo-Saxon Kent in the seventh century and become frequent in Anglo-Saxon England in the ninth century. Jan-Dirk Müller argues that this late date of attestation means that it is possible that Sigurd more represents the original name. Wolfgang Haubrichs suggests that the form Siegfried arose in the bilingual Frankish kingdom as a result of romance-language influence on an original name *Sigi-ward. According to the normal phonetic principles, the Germanic name would have become Romance-language *Sigevert, a form which could represent a Romance-language form of Germanic Sigefred, he further notes that *Sigevert would be a plausible Romance-language form of the name Sigebert from which both names could have arisen. As a second possibility, Haubrichs considers the option the metathesis of the r in *Sigi-ward could have taken place in Anglo-Saxon England, where variation between -frith and -ferth is well documented.
Hermann Reichert, on the other hand, notes that Scandinavian figures who are attested in pre-twelfth-century German and Irish sources as having names equivalent to Siegfried are systematically changed to forms equivalent to Sigurd in Scandinavian sources. Forms equivalent to Sigurd, on the other hand, do not appear in pre-eleventh-century non-Scandinavian sources, older Scandinavian sources sometimes call persons Sigfroðr Sigfreðr or Sigfrǫðr who are called Sigurðr, he argues from this evidence that a form equivalent to Siegfried is the older form of Sigurd's name in Scandinavia as well. Unlike many figures of Germanic heroic tradition, Sigurd cannot be identified with a historical figure; the most popular theory is that Sigurd has his origins in one or several figures of the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks: the Merovingians had several kings whose name began with the element *sigi-. In particular, the murder of Sigebert I, married to Brunhilda of Austrasia, is cited as a inspiration for the figure, a theory, first proposed in 1613.
Sigibert was murdered by his brother Chilperic I at the instigation of Chilperic's wife queen Fredegunda. If this theory is correct in the legend and Brunhilda appear to have switched roles, while Chilperic has been replaced with Gunther; these parallels are, not exact and n
Beowulf is an Old English epic poem consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines. It is arguably one of the most important works of Old English literature; the date of composition is a matter of contention among scholars. The author was an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet, referred to by scholars as the "Beowulf poet"; the story is set in Scandinavia. Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, the king of the Danes, whose mead hall in Heorot has been under attack by a monster known as Grendel. After Beowulf slays him, Grendel's mother attacks the hall and is also defeated. Victorious, Beowulf goes home to Geatland and becomes king of the Geats. After a period of fifty years has passed, Beowulf defeats a dragon, but is mortally wounded in the battle. After his death, his attendants erect a tower on a headland in his memory; the full story survives in the manuscript known as the Nowell Codex. It has no title in the original manuscript, but has become known by the name of the story's protagonist.
In 1731, the manuscript was badly damaged by a fire that swept through Ashburnham House in London that had a collection of medieval manuscripts assembled by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton. The Nowell Codex is housed in the British Library; the events in the poem take place over most of the sixth century, after the Anglo-Saxons had started migrating to England and before the beginning of the seventh century, a time when the Anglo-Saxons were either newly arrived or were still in close contact with their Germanic kinsmen in Northern Germany and southern Scandinavia. The poem may have been brought to England by people of Geatish origins. Many suggest that Beowulf was first composed in the 7th century at Rendlesham in East Anglia, that the Sutton Hoo ship-burial shows close connections with Scandinavia, that the East Anglian royal dynasty, the Wuffingas, may have been descendants of the Geatish Wulfings. Others have associated this poem with the court of King Alfred the Great or with the court of King Cnut the Great.
The poem deals with legends, was composed for entertainment, does not separate between fictional elements and historic events, such as the raid by King Hygelac into Frisia. Though Beowulf himself is not mentioned in any other Anglo-Saxon manuscript, scholars agree that many of the other figures referred to in Beowulf appear in Scandinavian sources.. This concerns not only individuals, but clans and certain events. In Denmark, recent archaeological excavations at Lejre, where Scandinavian tradition located the seat of the Scyldings, i.e. Heorot, have revealed that a hall was built in the mid-6th century the time period of Beowulf. Three halls, each about 50 metres long, were found during the excavation; the majority view appears to be that people such as King Hroðgar and the Scyldings in Beowulf are based on historical people from 6th-century Scandinavia. Like the Finnesburg Fragment and several shorter surviving poems, Beowulf has been used as a source of information about Scandinavian figures such as Eadgils and Hygelac, about continental Germanic figures such as Offa, king of the continental Angles.
19th-century archaeological evidence may confirm elements of the Beowulf story. Eadgils was buried at Uppsala according to Snorri Sturluson; when the western mound was excavated in 1874, the finds showed that a powerful man was buried in a large barrow, c. 575, on a bear skin with two dogs and rich grave offerings. The eastern mound was excavated in 1854, contained the remains of a woman, or a woman and a young man; the middle barrow has not been excavated. The protagonist Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, king of the Danes, whose great hall, Heorot, is plagued by the monster Grendel. Beowulf kills Grendel with his bare hands and Grendel's mother with a giant's sword that he found in her lair. In his life, Beowulf becomes king of the Geats, finds his realm terrorized by a dragon, some of whose treasure had been stolen from his hoard in a burial mound, he attacks the dragon with the help of his thegns or servants. Beowulf decides to follow the dragon to its lair at Earnanæs, but only his young Swedish relative Wiglaf, whose name means "remnant of valour", dares to join him.
Beowulf slays the dragon, but is mortally wounded in the struggle. He is cremated and a burial mound by the sea is erected in his honour. Beowulf is considered an epic poem in that the main character is a hero who travels great distances to prove his strength at impossible odds against supernatural demons and beasts; the poem begins in medias res or "in the middle of things,", a characteristic of the epics of antiquity. Although the poem begins with Beowulf's arrival, Grendel's attacks have been an ongoing event. An elaborate history of characters and their lineages is spoken of, as well as their interactions with each other, debts owed and repaid, deeds of valour; the warriors form a kind of brotherhood linked by loyalty to their lord. What is unique about "Beowulf" is that the poem begins and ends with a funeral. At the beginning of the poem, the king, Shield Shiefson dies and there is a huge funeral for him. At the end of the poem when Beowulf dies, there is a massive funeral for Beowulf. Beowulf begins with the story of Hrothgar, who constructed the great hall Heorot for himself and his warriors.
In Norse mythology, Sigmund is a hero whose story is told in the Völsunga saga. He and his sister, Signý, are the children of his wife Hljod. Sigmund is best known as the father of Sigurð the dragon-slayer, though Sigurð's tale has no connections to the Völsung cycle. In the Völsunga saga, Signý marries the king of Gautland. Völsung and Sigmund are attending the wedding feast, when Odin, disguised as a beggar, plunges a sword into the living tree Barnstokk around which Völsung's hall is built; the disguised Odin announces. Only Sigmund is able to free the sword from the tree. Siggeir is smitten with desire for the sword, he tries to buy it but Sigmund refuses. Siggeir invites Sigmund, his father Völsung and Sigmund's nine brothers to visit him in Gautland to see the newlyweds three months later; when the Völsung clan arrive, they are attacked by the Gauts. Signý beseeches her husband to put them in stocks instead of killing them; as Siggeir thinks that the brothers deserve to be tortured before they are killed, he agrees.
He lets his shapeshifting mother turn into a wolf and devour one of the brothers each night. During that time, Signý fails every time until only Sigmund remains. On the ninth night, she has a servant smear honey on Sigmund's face and when the she-wolf arrives, she starts licking the honey off and sticks her tongue into Sigmund's mouth, whereupon Sigmund bites her tongue off, killing her. Sigmund escapes his bonds and hides in the forest. Signý brings Sigmund everything. Bent on revenge for their father's death, she sends her sons to him in the wilderness, one by one, to be tested; as each fails, she urges Sigmund to kill them, until one day when he refuses to continue killing innocent children. In despair, she comes to him in the guise of a völva and conceives a child by him, Sinfjötli. Sinfjötli, born of their incest, passes the test. Sigmund and his son/nephew, Sinfjötli, grow wealthy as outlaws. In their wanderings, they come upon men sleeping in cursed wolf skins. Upon killing the men and putting on the wolf skins, they are cursed with a type of lycanthropy.
They avenge the death of Völsung. After Signý dies and Sinfjötli go harrying together. Sigmund marries a woman named Borghild and has two sons, one of them named Helgi. Sinfjötli slays Borghild's brother while vying for a woman. Borghild avenges her brother by poisoning Sinfjötli. Sigmund marries a woman named Hjördís. After a short time of peace, Sigmund's lands are attacked by King Lyngi. In battle, Sigmund matches up against an old man, Odin in disguise. Odin shatters Sigmund's sword, Sigmund falls at the hands of others. Dying, he tells Hjördís that she is pregnant and that her son will one day make a great weapon out of the fragments of his sword; that son was to be Sigurd. Sigurd himself had a son named Sigmund, killed when he was three years old by a vengeful Brynhild. Sigmund/Siegmund is the name of Sigurd/Siegfried's father in other versions of the Sigurd story, but without any of the details about his life or family that appear in Norse Völsung tales and poems. On the other hand, the Old English poem Beowulf includes Sigemund the Wælsing and his nephew Fitela in a tale of dragon slaying told within the main story.
Herein the story of Sigemund is told to Beowulf, a warrior from Gautland. Parallels to Sigmund's pulling the sword from the tree can be found in other mythologies. Sinfjötli and Mordred share the characteristic of being nephew and son to the main characters; the story of Sigmund, beginning with the marriage of Signy to Siggeir and ending with Sigmund's vengeance on Siggeir, was retold in the novelette "Vengeance" by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur, which appeared in the magazine Adventure, June 30, 1925. Brodeur was a professor at Berkeley and became well known for his scholarship on Beowulf and Norse sagas. Simonside Hills Orchard, Andy. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-34520-2
Rothbury is a town and civil parish in Northumberland, England. It is located on the River Coquet, 13.5 miles northwest of Morpeth and 26 miles north-northwest of Newcastle upon Tyne. At the time of the 2001 UK Census, Rothbury had a population of 1,740, increasing to 2,107 at the 2011 Census. Rothbury emerged as an important town in the historic district of Coquetdale because of its situation at a crossroads over a ford along the River Coquet. Turnpike roads leading to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Alnwick and Morpeth allowed for an influx of families and the enlargement of the settlement during the Middle Ages. Rothbury was chartered as a market town in 1291, became a centre for dealing in cattle and wool for the surrounding villages well into the Early Modern Period. Today, the town is used as a staging point for recreational walking. Points of interest around Rothbury include: the Victorian mansion Cragside, the Simonside Hills and Northumberland National Park; the area around Rothbury was populated during the prehistoric period, as evidenced by finds dating from the Mesolithic period and although all the known finds are from beyond the outer edges of the modern town.
Sites include a cairnfield, standing stone and cup marked rock on Debdon Moor to the north of the town, a well-preserverd circular cairn some 26 feet in diameter, a late Neolithic or Bronze Age standing stone, an extensive hillfort, covering an area 165 by 125 metres and associated cairnfield to the west of the town. No evidence of the Roman period has been found because the town was a considerable distance beyond Hadrian's Wall. Fragments from an Anglo-Saxon cross dating from the 9th century, are the only surviving relics pre-dating the Norman conquest, they were discovered in 1849, when part of the church was demolished, in 1856. They are now in the University of Newcastle Museum; the first documentary mention of Rothbury, according to a local history, was in around the year 1100, as Routhebiria, or "Routha's town". The village was retained as a Crown possession after the conquest, but in 1201 King John signed the Rothbury Town Charter and visited Rothbury four years when the rights and privileges of the manor of Rothbury were given to Robert Fitz Roger, the baron of Warkworth.
Edward I visited the town in 1291, when Fitz Roger obtained a charter to authorise the holding of a market every Thursday, a three-day annual fair near St Matthew's Day, celebrated on 21 September. Rothbury was not significant at the time, with records from 1310 showing that it consisted of a house, a garden, a bakehouse and a watermill, all of which were leased to tenants; when the line of Fitz Roger died out, the village reverted to being a crown possession, but in 1334 Edward III gave it to Henry de Percy, given the castle and baronry of Warkworth six years earlier. Despite the Scottish border wars, the village rose in prosperity during the 14th century, had become the village with the highest parochial value in Northumberland by 1535. Feuds still dominated local affairs, resulting in some parishioners failing to attend church because of them in the 16th century, at other times, gathering in armed groups in separate parts of the building. Rothbury became a important village in Coquetdale, being a crossroads situated on a ford of the River Coquet, with turnpike roads leading to Newcastle upon Tyne, Alnwick and Morpeth.
After it was chartered as a market town in 1291, it became a centre for dealing in cattle and wool for the surrounding villages. A market cross was erected in 1722, but demolished in 1827. In the 1760s, according to Bishop Pococke, the village had a small craft industry, including hatters. At that time, the village's vicarage and living was in the gift of the Bishop of Carlisle, worth £500 per year. Rothbury has had a bloody history. In the 15th and 16th centuries the Coquet Valley was a pillaging ground for bands of Reivers who attacked and burned the town with terrifying frequency. Near the town's All Saints' Parish Church stands the doorway and site of the 17th century Three Half Moons Inn, where the Earl of Derwentwater stayed with his followers in 1715 prior to marching into a heavy defeat at the Battle of Preston. Hill farming has been a mainstay of the local economy for many generations. Names such as Armstrong and Robson remain well represented in the farming community, their forebears, members of the reiver'clans', were in constant conflict with their Scots counterpart.
The many fortified farms, known as bastle houses, are reminders of troubled times which lasted until the unification of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1603. There is two stories of Gilpin at Rothbury's Church; the first is that two rival gangs were threatening each other during his sermon Realizing that they might break into fighting Gilpin stood between them asking them to reconcile. They agreed as long. Another story is that Gilpin ask the sexton about it, he told him. Gilpin thus took the glove and put it in his pocket and carried his sermon and no one challenged him. Rothbury is the site of Cragside, a Victorian country house built for the industrialist Sir William Armstrong Lord Armstrong of Cragside; the house was built as a "shooting box" between 1862 and 1865 extended as a "fairy palace" between 1869 and 1900. The house and its estate are now in the possession of the National Trust and are open to the public; the Rothbury Electoral Division is in the parliamentary constituency of Berwick-upon-Tweed.
At the 2011 census it had a population of 5,316. Rot
Tosson Hill is the highest hill in the Simonside Hills to the south of Rothbury in Northumberland, England. The summit lies about 2 kilometres west of the best-known summit of the Simonside Hills; the summit is about 1 kilometre west of the edge of the Forestry Commission-owned Simonside Forest, unlike the rest of the Simonside hills there was no public access to the summit. This has now changed, as the area is ‘access land’ under the terms of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000; the sandstone crags at Ravensheugh on the northern side of Tosson Hill offer a variety of short rock climbing routes. They are less busy than crags within the Simonside Forest
The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem from around 1200 written in Middle High German. Its anonymous poet was from the region of Passau; the Nibelungenlied is based on an oral tradition that has some of its origin in historic events and individuals of the 5th and 6th centuries and that spread throughout all of Germanic-speaking Europe. Parallels to the German poem from Scandinavia are found in the heroic lays of the Poetic Edda and in the Völsunga saga; the poem is split into two parts: in the first part, Siegfried comes to Worms to acquire the hand of the Burgundian princess Kriemhild from her brother King Gunther. Gunther agrees to let Siegfried marry Kriemhild if Siegfried helps Gunther acquire the warrior-queen Brünhild as his wife. Siegfried does marries Kriemhild. In the second part, the widow Kriemhild is married to king of the Huns, she invites her brother and his court to visit Etzel's kingdom intending to kill Hagen. Her revenge results in the death of all the Burgundians who came to Etzel's court as well as the destruction of Etzel's kingdom and the death of Kriemhild herself.
The Nibelungenlied was the first heroic epic put into writing in Germany, helping to found a larger genre of written heroic poetry. The poem's tragedy appears to have bothered its medieval audience, early on a sequel was written, the Nibelungenklage, which made the tragedy less final; the poem was forgotten after around 1500, but was rediscovered in 1755. Dubbed the "German Iliad", the Nibelungenlied began a new life as the German national epic; the poem was appropriated for nationalist purposes and was used in anti-democratic and National-Socialist propaganda before and during the Second World War. Its legacy today is most visible in Richard Wagner's operatic cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen, however, is based on Old Norse sources. In 2009, the three main manuscripts of the Nibelungenlied were inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in recognition of their historical significance, it has been called "one of the most impressive, the most powerful, of the German epics of the Middle Ages."
The poem in its various written forms was lost by the end of the 16th century, but manuscripts from as early as the 13th century were re-discovered during the 18th century. There are thirty-seven known manuscripts of its variant versions. Eleven of these manuscripts are complete; the oldest version seems to be the one preserved in manuscript "B". Twenty-four manuscripts are in various fragmentary states of completion, including one version in Dutch; the text contains 2,400 stanzas in 39 Aventiuren. The title under which the poem has been known since its discovery is derived from the final line of one of the three main versions, "hie hât daz mære ein ende: daz ist der Nibelunge liet". Liet here means lay, tale or epic rather than song, as it would in Modern German; the manuscripts' sources deviate from one another. Philologists and literary scholars designate three main genealogical groups for the entire range of available manuscripts, with two primary versions comprising the oldest known copies: *AB and *C.
This categorization derives from the signatures on the *A, *B, *C manuscripts as well as the wording of the last verse in each source: "daz ist der Nibelunge liet" or "daz ist der Nibelunge nôt". Nineteenth-century philologist Karl Lachmann developed this categorisation of the manuscript sources in Der Nibelunge Noth und die Klage nach der ältesten Überlieferung mit Bezeichnung des Unechten und mit den Abweichungen der gemeinen Lesart; the famous opening of the Nibelungenlied is thought to be an addition by the editor of the "C" version of the Nibelungenlied, as it does not appear in the oldest manuscripts. It may have been inspired by the prologue of the Nibelungenklage. Original Uns ist in alten mæren || wunders vil geseit von helden lobebæren,|| von grôzer arebeit, von fröuden, hôchgezîten, || von weinen und von klagen, von küener recken strîten || muget ir nu wunder hœren sagen. Modern German Uns ist in alten Geschichten viel Staunenswertes gesagt von ruhmwürdigen Helden, von großer Mühsal, von Freuden und Festen, von Weinen und Klagen, vom Kampf kühner Helden könnt ihr jetzt viel Staunenswertes sagen hören.
English In ancient tales many marvels are told us: of renowned heroes worthy of praise, of great hardship, of joys, festivities, of weeping and lamenting, of bold warriors' battles—now you may hear such marvels told. The original version instead began with the introduction of the protagonist of the work; the epic is divided into two parts, the first dealing with the story of Siegfried and Kriemhild, the wooing of Brünhild and the death of Siegfried at the hands of Hagen, Hagen's hiding of the Nibelung treasure in the Rhine. The second part deals with Kriemhild's marriage to Etzel, her plans for revenge, the journey of the Burgundians to the court of Etzel, their last stand in Etzel's hall; the first chapter introduces the court of Burgundy. Kriemhild has a dream of a falcon, killed by two eagles, her mother interprets this to mean that Kriemhild's future husband will die a violent death, Kriemhild resolves to remain unmarried. The second chapter tells of the background of Siegfried, crown prince of