SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is a communication protocol for electronic mail transmission. As an Internet standard, SMTP was first defined in 1982 by RFC 821, updated in 2008 by RFC 5321 to Extended SMTP additions, the protocol variety in widespread use today. Mail servers and other message transfer agents use SMTP to receive mail messages. Proprietary systems such as Microsoft Exchange and IBM Notes and webmail systems such as Outlook.com and Yahoo! Mail may use non-standard protocols internally, but all use SMTP when sending to or receiving email from outside their own systems. SMTP servers use the Transmission Control Protocol on port number 25. User-level email clients use SMTP only for sending messages to a mail server for relaying, submit outgoing email to the mail server on port 587 or 465 as per RFC 8314. For retrieving messages, IMAP and POP3 are standard, but proprietary servers often implement proprietary protocols, e.g. Exchange ActiveSync. Various forms of one-to-one electronic messaging were used in the 1960s.

Users communicated using systems developed for specific mainframe computers. As more computers were interconnected in the U. S. Government's ARPANET, standards were developed to permit exchange of messages between different operating systems. SMTP grew out of these standards developed during the 1970s. SMTP traces its roots to two implementations described in 1971: the Mail Box Protocol, whose implementation has been disputed, but is discussed in RFC 196 and other RFCs, the SNDMSG program, according to RFC 2235, Ray Tomlinson of BBN invented for TENEX computers to send mail messages across the ARPANET. Fewer than 50 hosts were connected to the ARPANET at this time. Further implementations include FTP Mail and Mail Protocol, both from 1973. Development work continued throughout the 1970s, until the ARPANET transitioned into the modern Internet around 1980. Jon Postel proposed a Mail Transfer Protocol in 1980 that began to remove the mail's reliance on FTP. SMTP was published as RFC 788 in November 1981 by Postel.

The SMTP standard was developed around the same time as Usenet, a one to many communication network with some similarities. SMTP became used in the early 1980s. At the time, it was a complement to Unix to Unix Copy Program mail, better suited for handling email transfers between machines that were intermittently connected. SMTP, on the other hand, works best when both the sending and receiving machines are connected to the network all the time. Both are examples of push technology. Though Usenet's newsgroups are still propagated with UUCP between servers, UUCP as a mail transport has disappeared along with the "bang paths" it used as message routing headers. Sendmail, released with 4.1cBSD in 1982, soon after RFC 788 was published in November 1981, was one of the first mail transfer agents to implement SMTP. Over time, as BSD Unix became the most popular operating system on the Internet, Sendmail became the most common MTA; some other popular SMTP server programs include Postfix, Novell GroupWise, Novell NetMail, Microsoft Exchange Server and Oracle Communications Messaging Server.

Message submission and SMTP-AUTH were introduced in 1998 and 1999, both describing new trends in email delivery. SMTP servers were internal to an organization, receiving mail for the organization from the outside, relaying messages from the organization to the outside, but as time went on, SMTP servers, in practice, were expanding their roles to become message submission agents for Mail user agents, some of which were now relaying mail from the outside of an organization. This issue, a consequence of the rapid expansion and popularity of the World Wide Web, meant that SMTP had to include specific rules and methods for relaying mail and authenticating users to prevent abuses such as relaying of unsolicited email. Work on message submission was started because popular mail servers would rewrite mail in an attempt to fix problems in it, for example, adding a domain name to an unqualified address; this behavior is helpful when the message being fixed is an initial submission, but dangerous and harmful when the message originated elsewhere and is being relayed.

Cleanly separating mail into submission and relay was seen as a way to permit and encourage rewriting submissions while prohibiting rewriting relay. As spam became more prevalent, it was seen as a way to provide authorization for mail being sent out from an organization, as well as traceability; this separation of relay and submission became a foundation for modern email security practices. As this protocol started out purely ASCII text-based, it did not deal well with binary files, or characters in many non-English languages. Standards such as Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions were developed to encode binary files for transfer through SMTP. Mail transfer agents developed after Sendmail tended to be implemented 8-bit-clean, so that the alternate "just send eight" strategy could be used to transmit arbitrary text data via SMTP. Mojibake was still a problem due to differing character set mappings between vendors, although the email addresses themselves still allowed only ASCII. 8-bit-clean MTAs today tend to support the 8BITMIME extension, permitting binary files to be transmitted as as plain text.

The SMTPUTF8 extension was created to support UTF-8 text, allowing international content and addresses in non-La

Leonard Scott (musician)

Bishop Leonard Stephen Scott is an American gospel musician and pastor of Rock Community Church. He started his music career, in 1989, with Tyscot Records releasing Holy, they have released all of his albums. Scott has released eleven albums with three of those charting on the Billboard magazine Gospel Albums chart. Bishop Scott was born Leonard Stephen Scott, on February 28, 1949 in Indianapolis and founded the Tyscot Records label with L. Craig Tyson to facilitate the promotion of his church choir, Christ Church Apostolic Radio Choir, his music recording career started in 1989, with the release of Holy by his label Tyscot Records, he has released all eleven of his albums with that particular label. The breakthrough release upon the Billboard magazine Gospel Albums chart was Hymns for the Nation in 2004, which charted at No. 39. His album, Hymns & Church Songs Live from Alabama, was released in 2006, it charted at No. 29. The 2008 album, Be Lifted Up, charted at No. 18. Official website Bishop Leonard Scott Cross Rhythms Artist Profile

Jackals (paramilitary)

The Jackals were a Serbian paramilitary group that operated during the Kosovo War 1999. Nine members of the group were arrested on March 13, 2010 on suspicion of having committed war crimes in Ćuška on May 14, 1999. A trial in Belgrade started on 20 December 2010; the trial included: Srećko Popović Slaviša Kastratović Boban Bogićević Radoslav Brnović Vidoje Korićanin Veljko Korićanin Abdulah SokićThey are accused of committing murders and robberies in an "extremely brutal" way, with "the main goal to spread fear among Albanian civilians in order to force them to leave their homes and flee to Albania." Hasan Çeku, father of former Kosovo prime minister and wartime commander of the KLA, Agim Çeku, as well as several members of his family were among the murdered people. The leader, Nebojša Minić, was arrested in Argentina in 2005 under a warrant of the Hague Tribunal, but died shortly of AIDS after the arrest. Zoran Obradović was arrested in Germany on 25 December 2010. Milojko Nikolić, nickname Sumadija, was arrested on 28 December 2010 in Montenegro.

Serbia in the Yugoslav Wars Agim Çeku