The Eider is the longest river in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The river starts near Bordesholm and reaches the southwestern outskirts of Kiel on the shores of the Baltic Sea, but flows to the west, ending in the North Sea; the lower part of the Eider was used as part of the Eider Canal until that canal was replaced by the modern Kiel Canal. In the Early Middle Ages the river is believed to have been the border between the related Germanic tribes, the Jutes and the Angles, who along with the neighboring Saxons crossed the North Sea from this region during this period and settled in England. During the High Middle Ages the Eider was the border between the Saxons and the Danes, as reported by Adam of Bremen in 1076. For centuries it divided the Holy Roman Empire. Today it is the border between Schleswig and Holstein, the northern and southern parts of the modern German state of Schleswig-Holstein; the Eider flows through the following towns: Bordesholm, Rendsburg, Friedrichstadt and Tönning.
Near Tönning it flows into the North Sea. The estuary has brackish water; the mouth of the river is crossed by the Eider Barrage. A tidal lock provides access for boats through the Eider Barrage; the fishing port of Tönning lies 11 kilometres upstream of the barrier, while Friedrichstadt is 15 kilometres further upstream. At Friedrichstadt a lock gives access to the River Treene; the Eider remains tidal as far as the lock at Nordfeld, 6 kilometres above Friedrichstadt. There is a further lock named Lexfähre near Wrohm, 52 kilometres upstream of Nordfeld. A further 3 kilometres beyond Lexfähre is the junction with the short Gieselau Canal, which provides a navigable link to the Kiel Canal at Oldenbüttel; the Eider therefore provides an alternative route from the North Sea to the Kiel Canal, avoiding the tides of the estuary of the Elbe. The head of navigation lies a further 23 kilometres upstream at Rendsburg. Although it is adjacent to the Kiel Canal, through passage is no longer possible. Eider-Treene Depression List of rivers of Schleswig-Holstein
Sylt is an island in northern Germany, part of Nordfriesland district, Schleswig-Holstein, well known for the distinctive shape of its shoreline. It is the largest island in North Frisia; the northernmost island of Germany, it is known for its tourist resorts, notably Westerland and Wenningstedt-Braderup, as well as for its 40-kilometre-long sandy beach. It is covered by the media in connection with its exposed situation in the North Sea and its ongoing loss of land during storm tides. Since 1927, Sylt has been connected to the mainland by the Hindenburgdamm causeway. In latter years, it has been a resort for the German jet set and tourists in search of occasional celebrity sightings. With 99.14 square kilometres, Sylt is the fourth-largest German island and the largest German island in the North Sea. Sylt is located from 9 to 16 kilometres off the mainland, to which it is connected by the Hindenburgdamm. Southeast of Sylt are the islands of Föhr and Amrum, to the north lies the Danish island of Rømø.
The island of Sylt extends for 38 kilometres in a north-south direction. At its northern point at Königshafen, it is only 320 metres wide, its greatest width, from the town of Westerland in the west to the eastern Nössespitze near Morsum, measures 12.6 kilometres. On the western and northwestern shore, there is a 40-kilometre-long sandy beach. To the east of Sylt, is the Wadden Sea, which belongs to the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park and falls dry during low tide; the island's shape has shifted over time, a process, still ongoing today. The northern and southern spits of Sylt are made up of infertile sand deposits, while the central part with the municipalities of Westerland, Wenningstedt-Braderup and Sylt-Ost consists of a geestland core, which becomes apparent in the form of the Red Cliff of Wenningstedt; the geestland facing the Wadden Sea turns into fertile marshland around Sylt-Ost. Sylt has only been an island since the Grote Mandrenke flood of 1362; the so-called Uwe-Düne is the island's highest elevation with 52.5 metres above sea level.
The island in its current form has only existed for about 400 years. Like the mainland geestland, it was formed of moraines from the older ice ages, thus being made up of a till core, now apparent in the island's west and centre by the cliff and beach; this sandy core began to erode as it was exposed to a strong current along the island's steep basement when the sea level rose 8000 years ago. During the process, sediments were accumulated south of the island; the west coast, situated 10 kilometres off today's shore, was thus moved eastward, while at the same time the island began to extend to the north and south. After the ice ages, marshland began to form around this geestland core. In 1141, Sylt is recorded as an island, yet before the Grote Mandrenke flood it belonged to a landscape cut by tidal creeks and, at least during low tide, it could be reached on foot, it is only since this flood that the creation of a spit from sediments began to form the current characteristic shape of Sylt. It is the northern and southern edges of Sylt which were, still are, the subject of greatest change.
For example, Listland was separated from the rest of the island in the 14th century and from the 17th century onwards the Königshafen began to silt up as the "elbow" spit began to form. In addition to the constant loss of land, the inhabitants during the Little Ice Age were constrained by sand drift. Dunes shifting to the east threatened settlements and arable land and had to be stopped by the planting of marram grass in the 18th century. Though, material breaking off the island was washed away and the island's extent continued to decrease. Records of the annual land loss exist since 1870. According to them, Sylt lost an annual 0.4 metres of land in the north and 0.7 metres in the south from 1870 to 1951. From 1951 to 1984, the rate increased to 0.9 metres and 1.4 metres while shorelines at the island's edges at Hörnum and List are more affected. Severe storm surges of the last decades have endangered Sylt to the point of breaking in two, e.g. Hörnum was temporarily cut off from the island in 1962.
Part of the island near Rantum, only 500m wide is threatened. Measures of protection against the continuous erosion date back to the early 19th century when groynes of wooden poles were constructed; those were built at right angles into the sea from the coast line. They were replaced by metal and by armoured concrete groynes; the constructions did not have the desired effect of stopping the erosion caused by crossways currents. "Leeward erosion", i.e. erosion on the downwind side of the groynes prevented sustainable accumulation of sand. In the 1960s breaking the power of the sea was attempted by installing tetrapods along the groyne bases or by putting them into the sea like groynes; the four-armed structures, built in France and many tons in weight, were too heavy for Sylt's beaches and were unable to prevent erosion. Therefore, they were removed from the Hörnum west beach in 2005. Since the early 1970s the only effective means so far has been flushing sand onto the shore. Dredging vessels are used to pump a mixture of sand and water to a beach where it is spread by bulldozers.
Thus storm floods would only erase the artificial accumulation of sand, while the shoreline proper remains intact and erosion is slowed down. Thi
The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany. Formed at Hannoversch Münden by the confluence of the rivers Fulda and Werra, it flows through Lower Saxony reaching the Hanseatic city of Bremen, before emptying 50 km further north at Bremerhaven into the North Sea. On the opposite bank is the town of Nordenham at the foot of the Butjadingen Peninsula; the Weser has an overall length of 452 km. Together with its Werra tributary, which originates in Thuringia, its length is 744 km. Linguistically, the names of both rivers and Werra, go back to the same source, the differentiation being caused by the old linguistic border between Upper and Lower German, which touched the region of Hannoversch Münden; the name Weser parallels the names of other rivers, such as the Wear in England and the Vistula in Poland, all of which are derived from the root *weis- "to flow", which gave Old English/Old Frisian wāse "mud, ooze", Old Norse veisa "slime, stagnant pool", Dutch waas "haze. The Weser River lies within German national territory, making it the longest such river.
The upper part of its course leads through a hilly region called the Weserbergland. It extends from the confluence of the Fulda and the Werra to the Porta Westfalica, where it runs through a gorge between two mountain chains, the Wiehengebirge in the west and the Weserbergland in the east. Between Minden and the North Sea, humans have canalised the river, permitting ships up to 1,200 tons to navigate it. Eight hydroelectric dams stand along its length, it is linked to the Dortmund-Ems Canal via the Coastal Canal, another canal links it at Bremerhaven to the Elbe River. A large reservoir on the Eder River, the main tributary of the Fulda, is used to regulate water levels on the Weser so as to ensure adequate depth for shipping throughout the year; the dam, built in 1914, was bombed and damaged by British aircraft in May 1943, causing massive destruction and about 70 deaths downstream, but was rebuilt within four months. As of 2013, the Edersee Reservoir, a major summer resort area, provides substantial hydroelectricity.
The Weser enters the North Sea in the southernmost part of the German Bight. In the North Sea, it splits into two arms representing the ancient riverbed at the end of the last ice age; these sea arms are called Neue Weser. They represent the major waterways for ships heading for the harbors of Bremerhaven and Bremen; the Alte Weser lighthouse marks the northernmost point of the Weser. This lighthouse replaced the historic and famous Roter Sand lighthouse in 1964; the largest tributary of the Weser is the Aller. The tributaries of the Weser and the Werra are: Modes of the list: Listed upstream, but sides seen with the flow Distances from the hydrographical limit towards the sea "II", "III"and "IV" mark distances of secondary/tertiary tributaries from the confluence with the Weser etc. After the names and basin sizes are given. Lengths with longer affluents are given behind the slash, lengths including an upper course with another name with "or" List: km 19, right: Geeste, 42.5 km, 338 km² km 33, right: Lune, 43 km, 383 km² km 35.9, right: Drepte, 37.6 km, 101 km² km 52.8, left: Hunte, 189 km, 2.785 km² II: km 125.7: Lake Dümmer km 67.6, right: Lesum, 9.9 or 131.5, 2,188 km² II: km 9.9, right Hamme, 48.5 km, 549 km² ↑ main stream: Wümme, 118 / 120, 1,585 km² km 72.5, left: Ochtum, 25.6 or 45 km, 917 km² II: km 25.6: left Hache, 33 km, 118 km² km 125.6, right: Aller, 260 km, 15,744 km² II: km 63.6, left: Leine, 278 km, 5,617 km², stronger than river Aller above III: km 112.7, right: Innerste, 99.7 km, 1,264 km² III: km 192.8, right: Rhume, 44 km, 1,193 km², stronger than river Leine above IV: km 15.6, right: Oder, 56 km, 385 km², headwater of the strongest waterway of Aller system II: km 97.3, right: Örtze, 62 / 70 km, 760 km² II: km 140.7, left: Oker, 218 km, 1822 km², stronger than river Aller above km 184.6, right: Steinhuder Meerbach ↑ km II: 29 lake Steinhuder Meer km 188.7, left: Große Aue, 84.5 km, 1,522 km² km 261.3, left: Werre, 71.9 km, 1485 km² II: km 12.7, left: Else, 34.6 km, 416 km², branch of the Hase, an affluent of Ems km 287.7, left: Exter, 26.1 km, 109 km² km 323.3, left: Emmer, 61.8 km, 535 km² km 387.5, left: Nethe, 50.4 km, 460 km² km 406.5, left: Diemel, 110.5 km, 1,762 km² km 451.5, left: Fulda, 220.4 km, 6.947 km²II: km 45.3, left: Eder, 176.1 km, 3,361 km², headwater of the strongest waterway of Weser system III: km 17.1, left: Schwalm, 97.1 km, 1.299 km² ↑ III: km 49.4–70.5: Edersee reservoir II: 120.1, right: Haune, 66.5 km, 500 km²↑ main stream above km 451.5: Werra, 299.6 km, 5.497 km² km 566.5, righht: Hörsel, 55.2 or 64.3, 784 km² km 9.8, right: Nesse, 54.5 km, 426 km² km 513.1, left: Ulster, 57.2 km, 421 km² km 604.4, right: Schleuse, 34.2 km, 283 km² Towns along the Weser, from the confluence of Werra and Fulda to the mouth, include: Hann.
Münden, Beverungen, Höxter, Bodenwerder, Hessisch Oldendorf, Vlotho, Bad Oeynhausen, Porta Westfalica, Petershagen, Achim, Brake, Bremerhaven. Dieter Berger: Geographische Namen in Deutschland. Duden-Verlag, Mannheim 1999. Hans Krahe: Sprache und Vorzeit. Quelle & Meyer, Heidelberg 1954. Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Francke, Bern 1959. Karsten Meinke: Die Entwicklung der Weser im Nordwestdeutschen Flachland während des jüngeren Pleistozäns. Diss. Göttingen 1992. Mit Bodenprofi
Nordic megalith architecture
Nordic megalith architecture is an ancient architectural style found in Northern Europe Scandinavia and North Germany, that involves large slabs of stone arranged to form a structure. It emerged in northern Europe, predominantly between 3500 and 2800 BC, it was a product of the Funnelbeaker culture. Amongst its researchers, Ewald Schuldt in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania excavated over 100 sites of different types - simple dolmens, extended dolmens – called rectangular dolmens – passage graves, great dolmens, unchambered long barrows and stone cists - between 1964 and 1974. In addition, there are polygonal dolmens and types that emerged for example, the Grabkiste and Röse; this nomenclature, which derives from the German, is not used in Scandinavia where these sites are categorised by other, more general, terms, as dolmens, passage graves and stone cists. Neolithic monuments are a feature of the ideology of Neolithic communities, their appearance and function serves as an indicator of their social development.
Schuldt divided the architectural elements into: Chamber structure – wall and roof design Wall infill Entrance and threshold stone Chamber flooring Chamber layout Mound and guardian stones There is a considerable difference in chamber design between sites where the capstones are supported at three points and those where one or more capstones are supported at two points. The glacial erratics selected for the walls and roofs, in addition to being the right size, had at least one flat side. Sometimes these were made by splitting a stone by means of heating and quenching. At the narrow end of great dolmens, slabs made of red sandstone were used, instead of erratics, for walls and infill sections filling in gaps between the supporting stones or orthostats; the orthostats, which were only dug into the ground a little way in the phase after the simple dolmens, were given the necessary purchase on the ground by basal slabs and stone wedges. By slighting tilting them towards the interior and packing them on the outside with compressed clay or stones, the orthostats of the trilithons were given greater stability, whilst the supporting stones at places with three-point supported capstones were placed vertically.
In Denmark, several sites have corbels doubled, supporting the capstones. In one of the sites at Neu Gaarz and Lancken-Granitz in Mecklenburg it is double-corbelled; the Rævehøj of Dalby on the Danish island of Zealand has a three- to four-corbel design, where the inside height of the otherwise less than 1.75 metre high chamber reaches over 2.5 m in height. In Liepen and at several other places it is corbelled in the area of the 0.5 m projecting corbel block. The finished capstones have a weight exceeding 20 tons. By contrast in the rest of the megalithic region, weights of over 100 tons occur; the floor plan of chambers is square, but may be oval, rectangular, diamond-shaped or trapezoidal. Whilst the sidestones at many smaller sites stand close together, the infilled gaps between orthostats of great dolmens and passage graves are more than one metre wide. On Zealand the chamber of a passage grave on Dysselodden is quite the reverse. Here, the orthostats, which are above the height of a man, are so matched that a sheet of paper cannot be inserted in the cracks between them.
Floor coverings were obligatory in all chambers and were separated by the threshold stone from the uncobbled, entrance passage. The ante-chamber of great dolmens was left bare. In several cases the passages were covered. In these cases, the original chamber was sometimes enhanced by a second threshold stone nearer the entrance; the floor material varies tremendously from placed to place, but consists of laid cobbles over which a coat of clay was applied. In addition to red sandstone, in the form of grus and slabs, flint grus, clay alone, gravel, or gneiss and slate slabs were used. Sites occur where pieces of broken pottery or combinations of several materials are used; the thickness of the floor covering varies from three to ten centimetres. The floor at Sassen, Germany in Mecklenburg is unique. Here, thin red sandstone slabs have been not covered with a clay layer; the flooring formed the final stage of building. How important floor coverings were, is demonstrated by the fact that subsequent users neither removed nor replaced them, nor did they cover them with a further layer.
Floor coverings were in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Sweden divided into sections. According to E. Schuldt, the chambers were cleaned when they were removed and fire was kindled in them. Singular fire and scorch marks on the bones indicate, that fires were burned during the successive occupation of these structures and not just in the process of their consecration or removal. 17 of the 106 sites investigated by Schuldt had glowing red floors. The neolithic mound over the megalithic site was made of earth, its material always came from the immediate neighbourhood and was interspersed with stones. Pebble mounds are those covered with a layer of pebbles; such coverage was detected in Mecklenburg at a
The Uckermark, a historical region in northeastern Germany straddles the Uckermark District of Brandenburg and the Vorpommern-Greifswald District of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Its traditional capital is Prenzlau; the region is named after the Uecker River, a tributary of the Oder. The river's source is close to Angermünde, from; the Oder River, forming the German-Polish border, bounds the region in the east. The western parts of the Lower Oder Valley National Park are located in the Uckermark. In the Ice Age, glaciers shaped the landscape of the region. A climate change left a hilly area with several lakes formed by the melting ice, humans started to settle the area. Megalithic-cultures arose, followed by Germanic cultures. From the 6th–12th centuries Polabian Slavs migrating from Eastern Europe moved westward into the Uckermark; the Slavs settling the terra Ukera became known as Ukrani. Their settlement area was centered around the lakes Oberuckersee and Unteruckersee at the spring of the Uecker River.
In this region, burghs with a proto-town suburbium were set up at Drense and on an isle in Lake Oberuckersee. In 954, Margrave Gero of the Saxon Eastern March, aided by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I's son-in-law, Conrad of Lorraine, launched a successful campaign to subdue the Ukrani, who had come in reach of the Empire after the 929 Battle of Lenzen. After the 983 revolt of the Obodrites and Liutizians, the area became independent again, yet remained under permanent military pressure from Poland and the Holy Roman Empire. In 1172 Pomeranian dukes, vassals of the Duchy of Saxony of the Holy Roman Empire, controlled the area. In the course of the medieval Ostsiedlung, the Ukrani were Christianized and Germanized by Saxons, who founded monasteries and towns; the early centers of the territory were the Seehausen Premonstratensian monastery and the city of Prenzlau and granted German town law by Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania, in 1234. Both the central city and the central monastery were set up beside the former Ukrani central burghs.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg, holding claims on the Duchy of Pomerania, expanded north since the 1230s, taking her chances while the House of Pomerania was weakened. In the 1250 Treaty of Landin, Barnim I conceded the Uckermark to John I and Otto III, Ascanian Margraves of Brandenburg. After the extinction of the Ascanians, the Pomeranian dukes reacquired a few border regions. Mecklenburg lost her gains in a 1323 war with Brandenburg. In the Pomeranian-Brandenburg War from 1329–33, Pomerania was able to defeat Brandenburg at Kremmer Damm. In the following years, control of the Uckermark was disputed by Brandenburg and Pomerania; the first Peace of Prenzlau of 3 May 1448 established Brandenburg's control over most of the territory, except for the northern Pasewalk and Torgelow region, to remain in Pomerania and is not considered to be a part of Uckermark anymore. Though another Brandenburgian-Pomeranian war was fought in the area in the 1460s, Brandenburg's possession of most of the Uckermark was confirmed again in a second Peace of Prenzlau on 30 July 1472, renewed on 26 June 1479.
The Uckermark became part of Brandenburg-Prussia in 1618, but was ravaged during the Thirty Years' War. Frederick William, the Great Elector, invited large numbers of French Huguenots to resettle the Uckermark and his other territories by announcing the Edict of Potsdam; these Huguenots helped to develop the culture of the Uckermark. In 1701 the territory became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars, the Uckermark became part of the Prussian Province of Brandenburg. Divided into the administrative units Uckerkreis and Stolpirischer Kreis, in 1817 a third district was created in the area, the district Angermünde, the other two districts were renamed to Prenzlau and Templin; the Uckermark was a battleground during World War II, with many of its towns being damaged. As part of East Germany after the war, the Uckermark was divided between Bezirk Neubrandenburg and Bezirk Frankfurt. With German reunification in 1990, most of the Uckermark voted to become part of the restored state of Brandenburg, with the exception of the small Strasburg region becoming part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
History of Pomerania Ingo Materna. Brandenburgische Geschichte. Akademie Verlag. Berlin. 1995. Hugenotten-Uckermark.de
Bad Doberan is a town in the district of Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It was the capital of the former district of Bad Doberan. In 2012, its population was 11,427. Bad Doberan is situated just 15 kilometres west of Rostock's city centre and is therefore part of one of the most developed regions in the north-eastern part of Germany; the town nestles between beautiful beech tree forests just 6 km from the Baltic Sea and is one of the earliest German settlements in Mecklenburg. Today the town is a popular bathing resort, thanks to Heiligendamm, a district of Bad Doberan situated directly at the cliff line of the Baltic. Doberan used to be the summer residence for the Mecklenburg Dukes who resided in Schwerin, for their entourage; the name Doberan Dobran, is a place name that derives from a Slavic Old Polabian personal name, meaning "good". According to legend, the name Doberan originated, it is said that a passing deer startled several swans, who shrieked with terror "dobre dobre". Whereupon the monks called the place Doberan.
Today, a deer and swan adorn the arms of the town. Bad Doberan was documented in 1177 as villa Slavica Doberan, but as early as 1171 Cistercian monks from Amelungsborn Abbey in the Weser Uplands founded a monastery in the Althof three kilometres southeast of the town, now a suburb of Bad Doberan. In 1179, these monasteries were destroyed in a Slavic uprising. Seven years the Cistercians made a second attempt to found a monastery on the site of today's abbey; the Romanesque abbey church, dedicated in 1232, was replaced by a high Gothic church after the fire of 1291, the construction of which began in 1295, with the remaining parts of the Romanesque church being incorporated into the new building. The Gothic church was consecrated in 1368; the Doberan Abbey became rich due to its economic activities is and had a large estate. Until the dissolution of the monasteries during the Reformation in 1552, it shaped the development of the village of Doberan. In addition to the monastery, there was a craftsman's village, the Kammerhof, two pubs, a brickworks, a blacksmith and several cottagers.
It changed little after the monastery transferred in 1552 to the sovereign. A ducal office was established in the monastery, a mill and hunter's lodge appeared. Doberan suffered badly in the Thirty Years' War; the status of Doberan was enhanced the 18th century when the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Frederick Francis I chose it for the recreation and entertainment of the ducal family, the Mecklenburg nobility and some of the wealthy bourgeoisie too. From England it been realised that swimming in the sea was beneficial to health; as a result, in 1793, the duke bathed on the advice of his Rostock physician, Samuel Gottlieb Vogel, at the Heiliger Damm in the Baltic Sea, marking the birth of the first German seaside resort, Heiligendamm. The bathers stayed in Doberan and played on slot machines and horse racing. Renowned architects, such as Carl Theodor Severin, students of the two old masters of Classicist architecture, Carl Gotthard Langhans and Friedrich Gilly, Johann Christoph von Seydewitz built in rapid succession in the pure Classicist style: the guest house, the parlour building with its prestigious ballroom in the Empire style, the Prince's Palace, the Stahlbad bathing house, several town houses and the critically acclaimed Chinese-style pavilions, including the gem of garden architecture, the so-called Kamp.
The prince's gratitude to the builder who shaped the appearance of Doberan so much, was thin. The heyday only lasted a few decades. Heiligendamm evolved, once just an appendage of Doberan's, into an independent resort, around Doberan it became quiet again. Neither the granting of town rights to Doberan in 1879 nor the construction of the railway line from Rostock via Bad Doberan to Wismar in 1883/84, nor the establishment of a narrow gauge steam railway between 1886 and 1910 altered the situation much; the railway, known locally as Molli still runs today via Heiligendamm to Kühlungsborn, passing through the centre of the town. The town earned the status of a resort and the prefix Bad in 1921. In August 1932, Adolf Hitler was granted an honorary citizenship. In fact, as the certificate was lost, there was disagreement for several years as to whether he had been granted honorary citizenship or not. However, in Spring 1932 the Nazi Party had an absolute majority in the town council assembly, published articles still exist from that time, so it was accepted that Hitler was honoured in this way.
With the town hosting the G8 summit in June 2007, it was decided on April 2 that Hitler should be removed from the town's roll of honour, although an honorary citizenship of this kind ends upon the death of the person involved. On June 12, 2011, a document surfaced that most points to Rosenkopf as the first German town to grant Adolf Hitler honorary citizenship, not Bad Doberan. From about 1965 to 1985 the large residential areas of Buchenberg, with 1,049 homes, Kammerhof with 589 homes, were built in Plattenbau style. After the end of the GD
Zealand, at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper. Zealand has a population of 2,302,074, it is the 13th-largest island in the 4th most populous. It is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by several bridges. Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located on the eastern shore of Zealand and on the island of Amager. Other cities on Zealand include Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør. Despite their identical names, the island is not connected to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, named after the Dutch province of Zeeland; the exact origin of the Danish name "Sjælland" is controversial. Sjæl in Danish today means "soul". A derivation derived from siô / sæ corresponding to the English name is today rejected– but it may be that the English name predated Danish research on its origin, compared with the current understanding.
The prevailing view today is: The Old Danish form "Siâland" comes from a composition of the word *selha- with the ending *wundia-. The latter means "indicates, resembles"; the word *selha- can have two different meanings: it can mean on the one hand "seal" and on the other hand mean "deep bay, fjord". Since the main settlement on Zealand was Roskilde, only accessible by sea through the narrow Roskilde Fjord, it is assumed that the sailors named the island after this. In Norse mythology as told in the Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi, the king of Sweden, she transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area became Mälaren. However, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun. Zealand is the most populous Danish island, it is irregularly shaped, is north of the islands of Lolland, Møn. The small island of Amager lies east. Copenhagen is on Zealand but extends across northern Amager.
A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, connected to Scania in Sweden by the Øresund Bridge via the artificial island of Peberholm. Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, Funen is connected by bridges to the country's mainland, Jutland. On June 5, 2007, the regional subsidiary of national broadcaster DR reported that Kobanke in the southeast near the town Rønnede in Faxe Municipality, with a height of 122.9 metres, was the highest natural point on Zealand. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, but, due to a man-made hill from the 17th century and its highest natural point is only 121.3 metres. Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10,000+ inhabitants: North Zealand New Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage