Blender is a free and open-source 3D computer graphics software toolset used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and video games. Blender's features include 3D modeling, UV unwrapping, raster graphics editing and skinning, fluid and smoke simulation, particle simulation, soft body simulation, animating, match moving, motion graphics, video editing and compositing. While current versions feature an integrated game engine, the upcoming 2.8 release will remove it. The Dutch animation studio NeoGeo started to develop Blender as an in-house application and based on the timestamps for the first source files, January 2, 1994 is considered to be Blender's birthday; the version 1.00 was released in January 1995, with the primary author being company co-owner and software developer Ton Roosendaal. The name Blender was inspired by a song by Yello, from the album Baby which NeoGeo used in its showreel; some of the design choices and experiences for Blender were carried over from an earlier software called Traces, that Ton Roosendaal developed for NeoGeo on the Commodore Amiga platform during the 1987–1991 period.
On January 1, 1998, Blender was released publicly online as SGI freeware. NeoGeo was dissolved and its client contracts were taken over by another company. After NeoGeo's dissolution, Ton Roosendaal founded Not a Number Technologies in June 1998 to further develop Blender distributing it as shareware until NaN went bankrupt in 2002; this meant, at the time, discontinuing the development of Blender. In May 2002, Roosendaal started the non-profit Blender Foundation, with the first goal to find a way to continue developing and promoting Blender as a community-based open-source project. On July 18, 2002, Roosendaal started a crowdfunding precursor; the campaign aimed for open-sourcing Blender for a one-time payment of €100,000 collected from the community. On September 7, 2002, it was announced that they had collected enough funds and would release the Blender source code. Today, Blender is free and open-source software developed by its community, alongside two full-time and two part-time employees employed by the Blender Institute.
The Blender Foundation reserved the right to use dual licensing, so that, in addition to GPLv2, Blender would have been available under the Blender License that did not require disclosing source code but required payments to the Blender Foundation. However, they never exercised this option and suspended it indefinitely in 2005. Blender is available under "GNU GPLv2 or any later" and was not updated to the GPLv3, as "no evident benefits" were seen. In January -- February 2002 it was clear that NaN would close the doors in March, they put out one more release, 2.25. As a sort-of easter egg, a last personal tag, the artists and developers decided to add a 3D model of a chimpanzee head, it was created by Willem-Paul van Overbruggen, who named it Suzanne after the orangutan in the Kevin Smith film Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back. Suzanne is Blender's alternative to more common test models such as the Utah Teapot and the Stanford Bunny. A low-polygon model with only 500 faces, Suzanne is used as a quick and easy way to test material, rigs and lighting setups and is frequently used in joke images.
Suzanne is still included in Blender. The largest Blender contest gives out an award called the Suzanne Award; the following table lists notable developments during Blender's release history. Official releases of Blender for Microsoft Windows, MacOS and Linux, as well as a port for FreeBSD, are available in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. Though it is distributed without extensive example scenes found in some other programs, the software contains features that are characteristic of high-end 3D software. Among its capabilities are: Support for a variety of geometric primitives, including polygon meshes, fast subdivision surface modeling, Bezier curves, NURBS surfaces, icospheres, multi-res digital sculpting, outline font, a new n-gon modeling system called B-mesh. Internal render engine with scanline rendering, indirect lighting, ambient occlusion that can export in a wide variety of formats. A pathtracer render engine called Cycles. Cycles supports the Open Shading Language since Blender 2.65.
Integration with a number of external render engines through plugins. Keyframed animation tools including inverse kinematics, hook and lattice-based deformations, shape animations, non-linear animation and vertex weighting. Simulation tools for soft body dynamics including mesh collision detection, LBM fluid dynamics, smoke simulation, Bullet rigid body dynamics, ocean generator with waves. A particle system that includes support for particle-based hair. Modifiers to apply non-destructive effects. Python scripting for tool creation and prototyping, game logic, importing/exporting from other formats, task automation and custom tools. Basic non-linear video/audio editing. A integrated node-based compositor within the rendering pipeline accelerated with OpenCL. Procedural and node-based textures, as well as texture painting, projective painting, vertex painting, weight painting and dynamic painting. Real-time control during physics rendering. Camera and object tracking. Grease Pencil tools for 2D animation within a full 3D pipeline.
The Blender Game Engine was a built-in realtime graphics and logic engine with features such including collision detection, a dynamics engine, programmable logic
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a federal research facility in Livermore, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center, it is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, Battelle Memorial Institute in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. LLNL is self-described as "a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security." Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science and technology. The Laboratory applies its special expertise and multidisciplinary capabilities to preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction, bolstering homeland security and solving other nationally important problems, including energy and environmental security, basic science and economic competitiveness.
The Laboratory is located on a one-square-mile site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It operates a 7,000 acres remote experimental test site, called Site 300, situated about 15 miles southeast of the main lab site. LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of 5,800 employees. LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, an offshoot of the existing UC Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, it was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence, director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility; the new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. It was home to several UC Radiation Laboratory projects that were too large for its location in the Berkeley Hills above the UC campus, including one of the first experiments in the magnetic approach to confined thermonuclear reactions.
About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than an urban university campus. Lawrence tapped age 32, to run Livermore. Under York, the Lab had four main programs: Project Sherwood, Project Whitney, diagnostic weapon experiments, a basic physics program. York and the new lab embraced the Lawrence "big science" approach, tackling challenging projects with physicists, chemists and computational scientists working together in multidisciplinary teams. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the university's board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory; the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had close relationships on research projects, business operations, staff. The Livermore Lab was established as a branch of the Berkeley laboratory; the Livermore lab was not severed administratively from the Berkeley lab until 1971. To this day, in official planning documents and records, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designated as Site 100, Lawrence Livermore National Lab as Site 200, LLNL's remote test location as Site 300.
The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in 1971. On October 1, 2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before; the laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the laboratory has been controversial. In May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008. The jury found that LLNS breached a contractual obligation to terminate the employees only for "reasonable cause." The five plaintiffs have pending age discrimination claims against LLNS, which will be heard by a different jury in a separate trial. There are 125 co-plaintiffs awaiting trial on similar claims against LLNS; the May 2008 layoff was the first layoff at the laboratory in nearly 40 years. On March 14, 2011, the City of Livermore expanded the city's boundaries to annex LLNL and move it within the city limits.
The unanimous vote by the Livermore city council expanded Livermore's southeastern boundaries to cover 15 land parcels covering 1,057 acres that comprise the LLNL site. The site was an unincorporated area of Alameda County; the LLNL campus continues to be owned by the federal government. From its inception, Livermore focused on new weapon design concepts; the lab persevered and its subsequent designs proved successful. In 1957, the Livermore Lab was selected to develop the warhead for the Navy's Polaris missile; this warhead required numerous innovations to fit a nuclear warhead into the small confines of the missile nosecone. During the Cold War, many Livermore-designed warheads entered service; these were used in missiles ranging in size from the Lance surface-to-surface tactical missile to the megaton-class Spartan antiballistic missile. Over the years, LLNL designed the following warheads: W27 (Regulus cruise missile.
In computer vision, image segmentation is the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. The goal of segmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something, more meaningful and easier to analyze. Image segmentation is used to locate objects and boundaries in images. More image segmentation is the process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same label share certain characteristics; the result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image, or a set of contours extracted from the image. Each of the pixels in a region are similar with respect to some characteristic or computed property, such as color, intensity, or texture. Adjacent regions are different with respect to the same characteristic; when applied to a stack of images, typical in medical imaging, the resulting contours after image segmentation can be used to create 3D reconstructions with the help of interpolation algorithms like Marching cubes.
Some of the practical applications of image segmentation are: Content-based image retrieval Machine vision Medical imaging, including volume rendered images from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Locate tumors and other pathologies Measure tissue volumes Diagnosis, study of anatomical structure Surgery planning Virtual surgery simulation Intra-surgery navigation Object detectionPedestrian detection Face detection Brake light detection Locate objects in satellite images Recognition Tasks Face recognition Fingerprint recognition Iris recognition Traffic control systems Video surveillance Video Object Co-segmentation and action localizationSeveral general-purpose algorithms and techniques have been developed for image segmentation. To be useful, these techniques must be combined with a domain's specific knowledge in order to solve the domain's segmentation problems; the simplest method of image segmentation is called the thresholding method. This method is based on a clip-level to turn a gray-scale image into a binary image.
The key of this method is to select the threshold value. Several popular methods are used in industry including the maximum entropy method, balanced histogram thresholding, Otsu's method, k-means clustering. Methods have been developed for thresholding computed tomography images; the key idea is that, unlike Otsu's method, the thresholds are derived from the radiographs instead of the image. New methods suggested the usage of multi-dimensional fuzzy rule-based non-linear thresholds. In these works decision over each pixel's membership to a segment is based on multi-dimensional rules derived from fuzzy logic and evolutionary algorithms based on image lighting environment and application; the K-means algorithm is an iterative technique, used to partition an image into K clusters. The basic algorithm is Pick K cluster centers, either randomly or based on some heuristic method, for example K-means++ Assign each pixel in the image to the cluster that minimizes the distance between the pixel and the cluster center Re-compute the cluster centers by averaging all of the pixels in the cluster Repeat steps 2 and 3 until convergence is attained In this case, distance is the squared or absolute difference between a pixel and a cluster center.
The difference is based on pixel color, intensity and location, or a weighted combination of these factors. K can be selected manually, randomly, or by a heuristic; this algorithm is guaranteed to converge. The quality of the solution depends on the initial set of clusters and the value of K. Motion based segmentation is a technique; the idea is simple: look at the differences between a pair of images. Assuming the object of interest is moving, the difference will be that object. Improving on this idea, Kenney et al. proposed interactive segmentation. They use a robot to poke objects in order to generate the motion signal necessary for motion-based segmentation. Interactive segmentation follows the interactive perception framework proposed by Dov Katz and Oliver Brock. Compression based methods postulate that the optimal segmentation is the one that minimizes, over all possible segmentations, the coding length of the data; the connection between these two concepts is that segmentation tries to find patterns in an image and any regularity in the image can be used to compress it.
The method describes each segment by its boundary shape. Each of these components is modeled by a probability distribution function and its coding length is computed as follows: The boundary encoding leverages the fact that regions in natural images tend to have a smooth contour; this prior is used by Huffman coding to encode the difference chain code of the contours in an image. Thus, the smoother a boundary is, the shorter coding length. Texture is encoded by lossy compression in a way similar to minimum description length principle, but here the length of the data given the model is approximated by the number of samples times the entropy of the model; the texture in each region is modeled by a multivariate normal distribution whose entropy has a closed form expression. An interesting property of this model is that the estimated entropy bounds the true entropy of the data from above; this is because among all distributions with a given mean and covariance, normal distribution has the largest entropy.
Thus, the t
GIMP is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, more specialized tasks. GIMP is released under GPLv3+ licenses and is available for Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows. GIMP was released as the General Image Manipulation Program. In 1995 Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis began developing GIMP as a semester-long project at the University of California, Berkeley for the eXperimental Computing Facility. In 1996 GIMP was released as the first publicly available release. In the following year Richard Stallman visited UC Berkeley where Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis asked if they could change General to GNU. Richard Stallman approved and the definition of the acronym GIMP was changed to be the GNU Image Manipulation Program; this reflected its new existence as being developed as Free Software as a part of the GNU Project. The number of computer architectures and operating systems supported has expanded since its first release.
The first release supported UNIX systems, such as Linux, SGI IRIX and HP-UX. Since the initial release, GIMP has been ported to many operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and macOS. Following the first release, GIMP was adopted and a community of contributors formed; the community began developing tutorials and shared better work-flows and techniques. A GUI toolkit called GTK was developed to facilitate the development of GIMP. GTK was replaced by its successor GTK+ after being redesigned using object-oriented programming techniques; the development of GTK+ has been attributed to Peter Mattis becoming disenchanted with the Motif toolkit GIMP used. GIMP is developed by volunteers as a free software project associated with both the GNU and GNOME Projects. Development takes place in a public git source code repository, on public mailing lists and in public chat channels on the GIMPNET IRC network. New features are held in public separate source code branches and merged into the main branch when the GIMP team is sure they won't damage existing functions.
Sometimes this means that features that appear complete do not get merged or take months or years before they become available in GIMP. GIMP itself is released as source code. After a source code release installers and packages are made for different operating systems by parties who might not be in contact with the maintainers of GIMP; the version number used in GIMP is expressed in a major-minor-micro format, with each number carrying a specific meaning: the first number is incremented only for major developments. The second number is incremented with each release of new features, with odd numbers reserved for in-progress development versions and numbers assigned to stable releases; each year GIMP applies for several positions in the Google Summer of Code. From 2006 to 2009 there have been nine GSoC projects that have been listed as successful, although not all successful projects have been merged into GIMP immediately; the healing brush and perspective clone tools and Ruby bindings were created as part of the 2006 GSoC and can be used in version 2.8.0 of GIMP, although there were three other projects that were completed and are available in a stable version of GIMP.
Several of the GSoC projects were completed in 2008, but have been merged into a stable GIMP release in 2009 to 2014 for Version 2.8.xx and 2.9.x. Some of them needed some more code work for the master tree. Second public Development 2.9-Version was 2.9.4 with many deep improvements after initial Public Version 2.9.2 Third Public 2.9-Development version is Version 2.9.6. One of the new features is removing the 4GB size limit of XCF file. Increase of possible threads to 64 is an important point for modern parallel execution in actual AMD Ryzen and Intel Xeon processors. Version 2.9.8 included many bug improvements in gradients and clips. Improvements in performance and optimization beyond bug hunting were the development targets for 2.10.0. MacOS Beta is available with Version 2.10.4 The next stable version in the roadmap is 3.0 with a GTK3 port. The user interface of GIMP is designed by a dedicated usability team; this team was formed. A user interface brainstorming group has since been created for GIMP, where users of GIMP can send in their suggestions as to how they think the GIMP user interface could be improved.
GIMP is presented in two forms and multiple window mode. In multiple-window mode a set of windows contains all GIMP's functionality. By default and tool settings are on the left and other dialogues are on the right. A layers tab is to the right of the tools tab, allows a user to work individually on separate image layers. Layers can be edited by right-clicking on a particular layer to bring up edit options for that layer; the tools tab and layers tab are the most common dockable tabs. The Libre Graphics Meeting (L
Free University of Berlin
The Free University of Berlin is a research university located in Berlin, Germany. One of Germany's most distinguished universities, it is known for its research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in the field of natural and life sciences; the Free University was founded in West Berlin in 1948 with American support during the early Cold War period as a de facto western continuation of the Frederick William University, located in East Berlin and faced strong communist repression. The Free University of Berlin is one of eleven German elite universities in the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In 2008, in a joint effort, The Free University of Berlin, along with the Hertie School of Governance, WZB Social Science Research Center Berlin, created the Berlin Graduate School for Transnational Studies. Free University of Berlin was established by students and scholars on 4 December 1948; the foundation is connected to the beginning of the Cold War period. The University of Berlin was located in the former Soviet sector of Berlin and was granted permission to continue teaching by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany in January 1946.
The universities were influenced by communism as they were ground for the political disputes of the postwar period. This led to protests by students critical of the prevailing system. Between 1945 and 1948, more than 18 students were arrested or persecuted, some executed by the soviet secret police. At the end of 1947, first students demanded a university free from political influence; the climax of the protests was reached on 23 April 1948: after three students were expelled from the university without a trial, about 2,000 students protested at the Hotel Esplanade. By the end of April, the governor of the United States Army Lucius D. Clay gave the order to check for the formation of a new university in the western sectors. On 19 June 1948 the "preparatory committee for establishing a free university" consisting of politicians, administrative staff members and students, met. With a manifesto titled "Request for establishing a free university in Berlin" the committee appealed to the public for support.
The municipal authorities of Berlin granted the foundation of a free university and requested the opening for the coming winter semester 1948/49. Meanwhile, the students committee in the German Democratic Republic protested against the formation, the GDR described the new university as the "so-called free university" in official documents until the fall of the Berlin Wall; the council-manager government accepted the by-law on 4 November 1948. The by-law achieved prominence under its alias "the Berlin model": The university was founded as a statutory corporation and was not directly subjected to the state, as it was controlled by a supervisory board consisting of six representatives of the state of Berlin, three representatives of the university and students; this form was unique in Germany at that time, as the students had much more influence on the system than before. But until the 1970s, the involvement of the students in the committees was cut back while adapting to the model of the western German universities in order to be recognized as an equivalent university.
On 15 November 1948, the first lectures were held in the buildings of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science. The actual foundation took place on 4 December 1948 in the Titania palace, the film theater with the biggest hall available in the western sectors of Berlin. Attendants of the event were not only scientists and students, but representatives of American universities, among them Stanford University and Yale University; the first elected president of the FU Berlin was the historian Friedrich Meinecke. By 1949, Free University had registered 4,946 students; until the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many students came from the soviet sector supported through the "Währungsstipendium" of the senate. On 26 June 1963, the same day he held his famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech at Rathaus Schöneberg, John F. Kennedy was awarded honorary citizen by the Free University and held a ceremonial speech in front of the Henry Ford building in which he addressed the future of Berlin and Germany under the consideration of the motto of the FU.
Amongst the attendant crowd are the Governing Mayor of Berlin Willy Brandt and the Chancellor of Germany Konrad Adenauer. His brother, Robert F. Kennedy visited the university in 1962 for the first time and in June 1964 for receiving his honorary degree from the Department of Philosophy; the speech he held at the event was dedicated to John F. Kennedy, assassinated just the year before. In the late 1960s, Free University of Berlin was one of the main scenes of the German student movement of 68 as a reaction to the global student protests during that time. After the assassination of student Benno Ohnesorg and the attempt on Rudi Dutschke's life, protests escalated to violence in all of Germany; the events of the 68-movement provided the impulse for more openness and democracy in German society. During the 1970s and the 1980s, the university became a "Massenuniversität" with 50,298 registered students in 1983. After reunification, Free University of Berlin was the second largest university in Germany with 62,072 students in the winter te
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give