People Places
History Art

Simplified molecular-input line-entry system

The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in the form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules; the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been extended. In 2007, an open standard called. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser line notation, ROSDAL, SYBYL Line Notation; the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. Acknowledged for their parts in the early development were "Gilman Veith and Rose Russo and Albert Leo and Corwin Hansch for supporting the work, Arthur Weininger and Jeremy Scofield for assistance in programming the system." The Environmental Protection Agency funded the initial project to develop SMILES. It has since been modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems.

In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community. Other'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN. In July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is considered to have the advantage of being more human-readable than InChI; the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is commonly used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings; the terms "canonical" and "isomeric" can lead to some confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms are not mutually exclusive. A number of valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol. Algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule; this SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the canonicalization algorithm used to generate it, is termed the canonical SMILES.

These algorithms first convert the SMILES to an internal representation of the molecular structure. Various algorithms for generating canonical SMILES have been developed and include those by Daylight Chemical Information Systems, OpenEye Scientific Software, MEDIT, Chemical Computing Group, MolSoft LLC, the Chemistry Development Kit. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database; the original paper that described the CANGEN algorithm claimed to generate unique SMILES strings for graphs representing molecules, but the algorithm fails for a number of simple cases and cannot be considered a correct method for representing a graph canonically. There is no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, double bond geometry; these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone, therefore SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES.

A notable feature of these rules is. The term isomeric SMILES is applied to SMILES in which isotopes are specified. In terms of a graph-based computational procedure, SMILES is a string obtained by printing the symbol nodes encountered in a depth-first tree traversal of a chemical graph; the chemical graph is first trimmed to remove hydrogen atoms and cycles are broken to turn it into a spanning tree. Where cycles have been broken, numeric suffix labels are included to indicate the connected nodes. Parentheses are used to indicate points of branching on the tree; the resultant SMILES form depends on the choices: of the bonds chosen to break cycles, of the starting atom used for the depth-first traversal, of the order in which branches are listed when encountered. Atoms are represented by the standard abbreviation of the chemical elements, in square brackets, such as for gold. Brackets may be omitted in the common case of atoms which: are in the "organic subset" of B, C, N, O, P, S, F, Cl, Br, or I, have no formal charge, have the number of hydrogens attached implied by the SMILES valence model, are the normal isotopes, are not chiral centers.

All other elements must be enclosed in brackets, have charges and hydrogens shown explicitly. For instance, the SMILES for water may be written as either O or. Hydrogen may be written as a separate atom; when brackets are used, the symbol H is added if the atom in brackets is bonded to one or more hydrogen, followed by the number of hydrogen atoms if greater than 1 by the sign + for a positive charge or by - for a negative charge. For example, for ammonium. If there is more than one charge, it is written as digit.

Centre for International Governance Innovation

The Centre for International Governance Innovation is an independent, non-partisan think tank on global governance. CIGI supports research, forms networks, advances policy debate and generates ideas for multilateral governance improvements. CIGI's interdisciplinary work includes collaboration with policy and academic communities around the world; until September 2014, CIGI was headquartered in the former Seagram Museum in the uptown district of Waterloo, Ontario. It is now situated in the CIGI Campus, which houses the CIGI Auditorium and the Balsillie School of International Affairs; the organization was downsized in 2019/2020 because of funding cuts, leaving a staff of 53. CIGI was founded in 2001 by Jim Balsillie co-CEO of Research In Motion. Balsillie made an initial donation of $20 million to establish the New Economy Institute, with Mike Lazaridis, his co-CEO at RIM, contributing an additional $10 million; the combined $30 million in funds was matched by the Government of Canada in 2003. Among CIGI's first staff was its initial executive director John English, director of public affairs John Milloy and distinguished fellows Andrew F. Cooper and Paul Heinbecker.

The first CIGI International Board of Governors meeting was held in October 2003, with early members including Jagdish Bhagwati, Joe Clark, Angel Gurria, Anne-Marie Slaughter. In 2005, CIGI published its first working paper. In 2007, CIGI partnered with the University of Waterloo and Wilfrid Laurier University to launch the BSIA. In 2009, CIGI announced plans to house the BSIA within a "CIGI Campus" that would be built alongside its headquarters in Waterloo; the resulting $69 million complex received federal and provincial funding totalling $50 million through the Knowledge Infrastructure Program and Ontario's 2009 budget. The City of Waterloo donated the land for the campus through a 99-year lease. Construction of the CIGI Campus was completed in November 2011. In May 2012, Rohinton P. Medhora joined CIGI as president, after having served on CIGI's International Board of Governors since 2009. Medhora is former vice president of programs at the International Development Research Centre. Medhora succeeded former CIGI executive director by Thomas A. Bernes, who held high-level positions at the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Government of Canada.

In 2014, CIGI appointed Oonagh Fitzgerald as director of international law. In 2018, CIGI appointed Robert Fay as director of global economy; the Centre was downsized in 2019 when 21 jobs were cut and again in 2020 when another 11 positions were eliminated according to a news report. The Budget was reduced to $8 million from the previous $12 million; these steps were necessary because the Government of Ontario cut all funding in 2019. A statement from CIGI stated that it would make "meaningful changes in how we operate, including streamlined decision-making, improved strategic planning and expanded partnerships"; the organization's financial report at the end of July 2019 indicated that CIGI remained well-funded with $175 million in assets. While CIGI's early research focused on international relations and the international economy, the centre's research now examines three themes: the global economy, global security & politics, international law. CIGI's global economy initiative includes analysis on macroeconomic regulation, financial regulation and trade policy.

CIGI publishes peer-reviewed papers, special reports, policy briefs and conference reports that are outputs of its research programs. These publications are available for free download through a Creative Commons license. CIGI publishes books under its CIGI Press imprint, which are the result of special projects and research by CIGI fellows and scholars. Titles include: Laid Low: Inside the Crisis That Overwhelmed Europe and the IMF. CIGI’s books are distributed globally through McGill-Queen’s University Press, are available via multiple e-book platforms and libraries. Since its inception, CIGI has partnered with other think tanks and organizations from around the world. A partnership is underway with the Institute for New Economic Thinking, an organization founded by George Soros in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 to bring about ideas that will lead to lasting solutions to the world's various economic challenges. After purchasing the former Seagram Museum from the City of Waterloo, CIGI moved into the facility in 2003.

Designed by Barton Myers Associates, Inc. the Governor General Medal–winning building houses CIGI's main offices for staff and fellows, provides a number of unique spaces for public events and workshops. Since 2010, the building contains the CIGI Broadcast Studio, available to news organizations for television and radio interviews of CIGI experts. CIGI hosts the CIGI Campus Library, featuring the John Holmes Collection, which began as the library of the Canadian Institute of International Affairs in 1928. Https://

European Shorthair

The European Shorthair, called the European in FIFe and WCF is a cat breed originating in Sweden. The term has been used as an elaborate way of referring to common domestic cats of Europe, causing some confusion as the pedigree cats of this breed should resemble the typical domestic cats of Europe. In WCF a similar breed is known as Celtic Shorthair and was at a time considered the same breed, but this breed has some difference from the Europeans, the WCF now register true Europeans under this breed name instead of under Celtic Shorthair; the role as the cat breed resembling the original domestic cats of Europe was held until the beginning of the 20th century by the British Shorthair though stockier than the majority of common European cats, until 1949 when the European Shorthair was recognized by the Fédération internationale féline. The oldest known European Shorthair registered in FIFe was born in 1940, as the origin of the European Shorthair predates the formation of FIFe in 1949. Breed standards describing the European Shorthair as an established breed can be found in different cat books from the 1930s.

The European can be compared to the kind of domestic cat, which has developed i.e. without having been subject to special rules for breeding. European Shorthair has its counterparts in Great Britain and the U. S. though these breeds have been bred for longer. The British Shorthair, was crossed with the Persian and selectively bred to become a cobbier cat with a shortened muzzle and thicker coat, it was confusing for Scandinavian breeders that the British Shorthair was called European Shorthair at that time though it looked different. Felinological associations recognized both types of cat as a single breed, meaning they were judged by the same standards during cat shows, until 1982 when FIFE registered the Scandinavian type of European Shorthair as a separate breed with its own standard. Life expectancy depends on. An outdoor cat has a life expectancy of 14 years on average; the breed has developed from the natural mouse hunters of Europe with the wish to strengthen the most desirable personality traits of the domestic cats.

Most European Shorthairs are strong and active, as a rule they are friendly towards people of all ages. They tolerate dogs well. European Shorthairs are intelligent and playful, most of them are expert at keeping houses and gardens free of all types of rodents, they tend to handle changes and an active home well, making them suitable for families with children. In terms of appearance the European Shorthair is a harmonious and supple cat, which should give the overall appearance of medium with no single feature being enlarged or reduced when compared to the original domestic shorthaired cats of Europe; the European Shorthair is a muscular, medium-sized to large cat, with a well-muscled chest. The strong legs are average length and the paws are round; the tail is thick at the base, tapering to a rounded tip. The head is rounded and should be longer than it is wide, making it not as round as the head of the British Shorthair; the ears are medium-sized. They are quite upright; the eyes may be of any colour.

The European Shorthair's dense coat is short and springy. The European Shorthair should only be shorthaired. All natural colours are permitted, such as black, red and cream, with or without tabby, silver or white markings, though the combination of tabby with white and smoke with white is not allowed in FIFe. Pure white is permitted; the eye colour may be yellow, green or orange. Blue or odd-eyed individuals are permitted. Head: Fairly broad with rounded contours but a bit longer than it is wide. Rounded skull and forehead. Well-developed cheeks in males. Straight, moderately long and broad nose with a gentle curve between the eyes. A stop is not allowed. Rounded, firm chin. Ears: Medium in size rounded at the tips and may be tufted; the height of the ears corresponds to the width of the base. Eyes: Large, round separated, set at a slight slant. Colour must correspond to that of the coat. Neck: Moderately long and muscular. Body: Fairly long, not stout. Stocky, muscular. Broad, well-developed chest. Members: Strong and sturdy, medium in length and narrowing into firm, round paws.

Paw: Moderately long, solid, tapering evenly to the paws, which are round and firm. Tail: Moderately long thick at the base, tapering to a rounded tip. Coat: Short, close-lying, lustrous hair. Recognised colours depends on organisation. None allow chocolate, cinnamon, amber, ticked tabby, or any of the pointed varieties. Faults: Body too large or too stout or cobby. Strong resemblance to British Shorthair or American Shorthair. Pendulous cheeks. Hanging jowls. Clear stop. Long, woolly fur; the breed is popular in Scandinavia, as there are still huge populations of similar-looking cats in Europe, the European Shorthairs are for those appreciating a supple breed which has had a selection for a good temper. The European Shorthair is on the list of endangered breeds in Sweden and is the national cat of Finland. Domestic short-haired cat Cats United International European Shorthair at Curlie