Selfless service or Seva in Sikhism, its ordained philosophy, in Sikh scripture, the theology, hermeneutics is a service, performed without any expectation of result or award for performing it. Such services can be performed to benefit other human beings or society. "Seva is an old Sanskrit term, which referred to the service performed by members of the low castes to those of the higher castes". A more recent interpretation of the word is "dedication to others"; the idea of selfless service is an important concept in a number of religions because God is perceived as having an interest in the well-being of others as well as oneself. Bhagavad Gita, 3.14 The term is used in military awards such as, Ati Vishisht Seva Medal, Param Vishisht Seva Medal, institutions like Seva Foundation, Gandhi Seva Sadan, Seva Development and Seva Bharati. Seva in Tirumala Bhai Kanhaiya
The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, various connotations can be found alongside each other. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man", oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world; the term was used within early Christianity to refer to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit and broadened during late medieval times to include mental aspects of life. In modern times the term both spread to other religious traditions and broadened to refer to a wider range of experience, including a range of esoteric traditions and religious traditions. Modern usages tend to refer to a subjective experience of a sacred dimension and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live" in a context separate from organized religious institutions, such as a belief in a supernatural realm, personal growth, a quest for an ultimate or sacred meaning, religious experience, or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension".
The term spirit means "animating or vital principle in man and animals". It is derived from the Old French espirit, which comes from the Latin word spiritus and is related to spirare. In the Vulgate the Latin word spiritus is used to translate the Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruah; the term "spiritual", matters "concerning the spirit", is derived from Old French spirituel, derived from Latin spiritualis, which comes from spiritus or "spirit". The term "spirituality" is derived from Middle French spiritualité, from Late Latin "spiritualitatem", derived from Latin spiritualis. There is no single agreed upon definition of spirituality. Surveys of the definition of the term, as used in scholarly research, show a broad range of definitions with limited overlap. A survey of reviews by McCarroll each dealing with the topic of spirituality gave twenty-seven explicit definitions, among which "there was little agreement." This impedes the systematic study of spirituality and the capacity to communicate findings meaningfully.
Furthermore, many of spirituality's core features are not unique to spirituality. According to Kees Waaijman, the traditional meaning of spirituality is a process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man, the image of God. To accomplish this, the re-formation is oriented at a mold, which represents the original shape: in Judaism the Torah, in Christianity there is Christ, for Buddhism, in Islam, Muhammad." Houtman and Aupers suggest that modern spirituality is a blend of humanistic psychology and esoteric traditions and Eastern religions. In modern times the emphasis is on subjective experience and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live," incorporating personal growth or transformation in a context separate from organized religious institutions. Words translatable as'spirituality' first began to arise in the 5th century and only entered common use toward the end of the Middle Ages. In a Biblical context the term means being animated by God, to be driven by the Holy Spirit, as opposed to a life which rejects this influence.
In the 11th century this meaning changed. Spirituality began to denote the mental aspect of life, as opposed to the material and sensual aspects of life, "the ecclesiastical sphere of light against the dark world of matter". In the 13th century "spirituality" acquired a psychological meaning, it denoted the territory of the clergy: "The ecclesiastical against the temporary possessions, the ecclesiastical against the secular authority, the clerical class against the secular class" Psychologically, it denoted the realm of the inner life: "The purity of motives, intentions, inner dispositions, the psychology of the spiritual life, the analysis of the feelings". In the 17th and 18th century a distinction was made between higher and lower forms of spirituality: "A spiritual man is one, Christian'more abundantly and deeper than others'." The word was associated with mysticism and quietism, acquired a negative meaning. Modern notions of spirituality developed throughout the 19th and 20th century, mixing Christian ideas with Western esoteric traditions and elements of Asian Indian, religions.
Spirituality became disconnected from traditional religious organisations and institutions. It is sometimes associated today with philosophical, social, or political movements such as liberalism, feminist theology, green politics. Ralph Waldo Emerson was a pioneer of the idea of spirituality as a distinct field, he was one of the major figures in Transcendentalism, an early 19th-century liberal Protestant movement, rooted in English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schleiermacher, the skepticism of Hume, Neo-Platonism. The Transcendentalists emphasised an experiential approach of religion. Following Schleiermacher, an individual's intuition of truth was taken as the criterion for truth. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the first translations of Hindu texts appeared, which were read by the Transcendentalists, influenced their thinking, they endorsed universalist and Unitarianist ideas, leading to Unitarian Universalism, the idea that there must be truth in other religions as well, since a loving God would redeem all living beings, not just Christians.
A major influence on modern spirituality was the Theosophical Society, which searched for'secret teach
Sant Kirpal Singh Ji Maharaj
Sant Kirpal Singh was a spiritual master. Singh was born in India, in a simple rural house, in the western part of Punjab which now belongs to Pakistan, he earned his living as a government officer until his retirement moved to Delhi where he founded his spiritual school, Ruhani Satsang, with its headquarters at Sawan Ashram. He was the President of the World Fellowship of Religions, an organization recognized by UNESCO, which had representatives from all the main religions of the world, he wrote numerous books. His basic teachings consist in establishing contact with God into expression power, called Word in the Bible, Naam, Shabd, Om, other names in the other scriptures. Singh believed that the discipline of universal character (defined as the Path of the Masters, Meditation on the Divine Word, or Yoga of the Sound Current was at the spiritual base of all enduring religions. From youth, Singh sought guidance from various sufis and mystics, but never accepted any of them as a master, continued to pray to God to obtain a divine inner manifestation.
In 1917, he felt. During meditations, he began to see the radiant form whom he believed was Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikh religion. In 1924, he met Hazur Sawan Singh, the famous Saint of Beas, in his Ashram on the banks of the Beas River, in him recognized the luminous form he had seen during the seven previous years. Hazur initiated him into the spiritual discipline, from on Singh dedicated his life to reaching the summits of spirituality. From early the 1930s on, when Hazur was asked if he had a disciple who had made great progress, he cited Kirpal Singh. In the same years, on inspiration from his master, Kirpal began writing the "Gurmat Siddhant", a two-volume spiritual work, in the Punjabi and Urdu languages, it was published, on Kirpal request, under the name of Hazur Sawan Singh, starting from 1935. In the 1960s, it was published in English in five volumes. On the morning of 12 October 1947, Hazur Sawan Singh entrusted his disciple Kirpal Singh with the work of continuing his spiritual mission.
The next month, Hazur approved the project of the "Ruhani Satsang" Kirpal presented to him. Hazur Sawan Singh died on 2 April 1948, following a brief illness. After his master's passing, Kirpal went to Rishikesh at the foot of the Himalayan Mountains, where he spent the next five months in an continual state of samadhi, or absorption in God. At the end of this period of intense meditation, Kirpal Singh received an inner command from his master: "Return to the world and bring my children back to me." He moved to Delhi, where people from Punjab were looking for refuge because of the division from Pakistan, there began his spiritual and humanitarian mission. Kirpal initiated over 80,000 followers In Delhi, Kirpal Singh founded his new school of spiritual research and realization, called Ruhani Satsang, which would go on to have branches in many nations of the world. In 1951 he built the Sawan Ashram, in the neighborhood of Shakti Nagar on the outskirts of the city, where his spiritual talks were soon followed by thousands of people.
He began to have visits from western disciples. The first was Rusel Jacque, whose account of his six months at the ashram in 1959 encouraged others to make the journey. At the beginning of the sixties, an average 40 to 50 disciples stayed at the ashram from three weeks to six months. In 1957, Singh was elected the first president of the World Fellowship of Religions, an organization recognized by UNESCO, comprising representatives from all the major world religions, he held that position until 1971, presided over four World Conferences. In 1962, he became the first non-Christian to receive the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem for his spiritual and humanitarian work. On this occasion he received the congratulations of India's prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, established a spiritual tie with him that continued with prime ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi. Singh's mission continued to grow rapidly. In 1955, he made his first trip abroad to spread his teachings, spent months in the United States and Europe.
It was the first time. In those years, Eastern spiritual practices were unfamiliar to the West. Singh had hundreds of Westerners initiated and placed on the path of meditation, which he claimed led to contact with the Divine Light and Harmony. In 1963, Singh made his second world tour, this time as president of the World Fellowship of Religions, he met with political leaders and other religious leaders, including Pope Paul VI and the Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Churches Atenagora I. At the same time, he continued to instruct new seekers on the path of the Way of the Masters. On 26 August 1972, Singh conducted his third and final tour of the West, where he received and instructed more than 2000 new disciples of the Path of Spirituality. In Delhi in February 1974, Singh organized the World Conference on Unity of Man. More than 2000 delegates attended, including religious and political leaders from India and around the world. Over 100,000 people attended the conference in total. At the Kumba Mela in Haridwar on 2 April of the same year, Singh gathered sadhus and "saintly men" in the Conference of National Unity, with the aims of promoting cooperation, eliminating religious barriers, bettering the economic status of India's poor.
Kirpal Singh was the first Living Master
Salvation is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation. In religion, salvation is the saving of the soul from its consequences; the academic study of salvation is called soteriology. In religion, salvation is the saving of the soul from its consequences, it may be called "deliverance" or "redemption" from sin and its effects. Salvation is considered to be caused either by the grace of a deity. Religions emphasize the necessity of both personal effort—for example and asceticism—and divine action. In contemporary Judaism, refers to God redeeming the people of Israel from their various exiles; this includes the final redemption from the present exile. Judaism holds. Jews do not subscribe to the doctrine of original sin. Instead, they place a high value on individual morality as defined in the law of God — embodied in what Jews know as the Torah or The Law, given to Moses by God on biblical Mount Sinai. In Judaism, salvation is related to the idea of redemption, a saving from the states or circumstances that destroy the value of human existence.
God, as the universal spirit and Creator of the World, is the source of all salvation for humanity, provided an individual honours God by observing his precepts. So redemption or salvation depends on the individual. Judaism stresses that salvation cannot be obtained through anyone else or by just invoking a deity or believing in any outside power or influence; the Jewish concept of Messiah visualises the return of the prophet Elijah as the harbinger of one who will redeem the world from war and suffering, leading mankind to universal brotherhood under the fatherhood of one God. The Messiah is not considered as a future divine or supernatural being but as a dominating human influence in an age of universal peace, characterised by the spiritual regeneration of humanity. In Judaism, salvation is not limited to those of the Jewish faith; when Jews refer to themselves as the chosen people of God, they do not imply they have been chosen for special favours and privileges but rather they have taken it upon themselves to show to all peoples by precept and example the ethical way of life.
When examining Jewish intellectual sources throughout history, there is a spectrum of opinions regarding death versus the afterlife. An over-simplification, one source says salvation can be achieved in the following manner: Live a holy and righteous life dedicated to Yahweh, the God of Creation. Fast and celebrate during the appropriate holidays. By origin and nature, Judaism is an ethnic religion. Therefore, salvation has been conceived in terms of the destiny of Israel as the elect people of Yahweh, the God of Israel. In the biblical text of Psalms, there is a description of death, when people go into the earth or the "realm of the dead" and cannot praise God; the first reference to resurrection is collective in Ezekiel's vision of the dry bones, when all the Israelites in exile will be resurrected. There is a reference to individual resurrection in the Book of Daniel, the last book of the Hebrew Bible, it was not until the 2nd century BCE that there arose a belief in an afterlife, in which the dead would be resurrected and undergo divine judgment.
Before that time, the individual had to be content that his posterity continued within the holy nation. The salvation of the individual Jew was connected to the salvation of the entire people; this belief stemmed directly from the teachings of the Torah. In the Torah, God taught his people sanctification of the individual. However, he expected them to function together and be accountable to one another; the concept of salvation was tied to that of restoration for Israel. During the Second Temple Period, the Sadducees, High Priests, denied any particular existence of individuals after death because it wasn't written in the Torah, while the Pharisees, ancestors of the rabbis, affirmed both bodily resurrection and immortality of the soul, most based on the influence of Hellenistic ideas about body and soul and the Pharisaic belief in the Oral Torah; the Pharisees maintained that after death, the soul is connected to God until the messianic era when it is rejoined with the body in the land of Israel at the time of resurrection.
According to the Gospel of John, Jesus said "salvation is from the Jews." This is in accordance with the Jewish concept of salvation, is a possible reference to Isaiah 49:6. Christianity’s primary premise is that the incarnation and death of Jesus Christ formed the climax of a divine plan for humanity’s salvation; this plan was conceived by God consequent on the Fall of Adam, the progenitor of the human race, it would be completed at the Last Judgment, when the Second Coming of Christ would mark the catastrophic end of the world. For Christianity, salvation is only possible through Jesus Christ. Christians believe that Jesus' death on the cross was the once-for-all sacrifice that atoned for the sin of humanity; the Christian religion, though not the exclusive possessor of the idea of redemption, has given to it a special definiteness and a dominant position. Taken in its widest sense, as deliverance from dangers and ills in general, mos
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, achieve a mentally clear and calm and stable state. Some of the earliest written records of meditation, come from the Hindu traditions of Vedantism around 1500 BCE. Meditation has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions and beliefs as part of the path towards enlightenment and self realization. Since the 19th century, it has spread from its origins to other cultures where it is practiced in private and business life. Meditation may be used with the aim of reducing stress, anxiety and pain, increasing peace, self-concept, well-being. Meditation is under research to define other effects; the English meditation is derived from Old French meditacioun and the Latin meditatio from a verb meditari, meaning "to think, devise, ponder". The use of the term meditatio as part of a formal, stepwise process of meditation goes back to the 12th century monk Guigo II.
Apart from its historical usage, the term meditation was introduced as a translation for Eastern spiritual practices, referred to as dhyāna in Hinduism and Buddhism and which comes from the Sanskrit root dhyai, meaning to contemplate or meditate. The term "meditation" in English may refer to practices from Islamic Sufism, or other traditions such as Jewish Kabbalah and Christian Hesychasm. In popular usage, the word "meditation" and the phrase "meditative practice" are used imprecisely to designate broadly similar practices, or sets of practices, that are found across many cultures and traditions. What is considered meditation can include any practice that trains the attention or teaches calm or compassion. Definitions in the Oxford and Cambridge living dictionaries and Merriam-Webster include both the original Latin meaning of "think about". Criteria for defining a practice as meditation "for use in a comprehensive systematic review of the therapeutic use of meditation" were identified by Bond et al. using "a 5-round Delphi study with a panel of 7 experts in meditation research" who were trained in diverse but empirically studied forms of meditation.
Other criteria deemed important involve a state of psychophysical relaxation, the use of a self-focus skill or anchor, the presence of a state of suspension of logical thought processes, a religious/spiritual/philosophical context, or a state of mental silence. It is plausible that meditation is best thought of as a natural category of techniques best captured by'family resemblances' or by the related'prototype' model of concepts." The table shows several other definitions of meditation that have been used by influential modern reviews of research on meditation across multiple traditions. In modern psychological research, meditation has been defined and characterized in a variety of ways. Scientific reviews have proposed that researchers attempt to more define the type of meditation being practiced in order that the results of their studies be made clearer. One review of the field provides a detailed set of questions as a starting point in reaching this goal; the practitioner of meditation attempts to get beyond the reflexive, "thinking" mind This may be to achieve a deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state.
In this article the terms "meditative practice" and "meditation" are used in this broad sense. However, in some contexts more specialized meanings of "meditation" may be intended; some of the difficulty in defining meditation has been the difficulty in recognizing the particularities of the many various traditions. There may be differences between the theories of one tradition of meditation as to what it means to practice meditation; the differences between the various traditions themselves, which have grown up a great distance apart from each other, may be starker. Taylor noted that to refer only to meditation from a particular faith...is not enough, since the cultural traditions from which a particular kind of meditation comes are quite different and within a single tradition differ in complex ways. The specific name of a school of thought or a teacher or the title of a specific text is quite important for identifying a particular type of meditation. Ornstein noted that "Most techniques of meditation do not exist as solitary practices but are only artificially separable from an entire system of practice and belief."
This means that, for instance, while monks engage in meditation as a part of their everyday lives, they engage the codified rules and live together in monasteries in specific cultural settings that go along with their meditative practices. These meditative practices sometimes have similarities, for instance concentration on the breath is practiced in Zen and Theravadan contexts, these similarities or "typologies" are noted here. In the West, meditation techniques have sometimes been thought of in two broad categories: focused (