Footscray is an inner-western suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km from Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Maribyrnong. At the 2016 census, Footscray had a population of 16,345. Footscray is characterised by a diverse, multicultural central shopping area, which reflects the successive waves of immigration experienced by Melbourne, by Footscray in particular. Once a centre for Greek and former Yugoslavian migrants, it became a hub for Vietnamese and East African immigrants in Melbourne, it has begun to undergo rapid development and gentrification. Footscray is named on the River Cray in London, England. Footscray is part of the City of Maribyrnong and was built on the traditional lands of the Kulin nation. For thousands of years, Footscray was the meeting place of the lands of the Yalukit-willan, the Marin-balluk and the Wurundjeri. Koories stalked game, collected food and fished along the river junction, estuaries and lagoons. Within Melbourne's western region, the Marin-balug and Kurung-jand-balug clans of the Woiwurrung cultural group, the Yalukit willam clan of the Boonwurrung cultural group shared the luscious resources around the Maribyrnong Valley.
The first European to visit the area was Charles Grimes in 1803. A park, where he landed, is named after him at Napier St. In 1839 a punt was built on the Maribyrnong River, it was the only connecting link between Melbourne and Geelong, Ballarat and Bendigo; the Punt Hotel opened three years and was the first building in the area. During the first decade drovers transporting cattle and sheep provided the only business at the hotel. After 1851, when gold was discovered out west, the pub did a roaring trade with diggers. Part of the old pub still stands and it has been renamed The Pioneer; the Post Office first opened on 12 October 1857. Footscray was declared a municipality in 1859 with a population of 70 buildings. Around the same year the first bridge was built across Saltwater River. Between 1881 and 1891 Footscray's population more than tripled from 6,000 to 19,000. Footscray developed into an industrial zone in the second half of the nineteenth century, with the manufacturing industry beginning to decline in the 1960s and 70s.
Footscray was home to the Aboriginal Boonwurrung tribes of the Kulin nation. In 2011, Footscray's 13,193 residents came from 135 countries. In 2006 less than half the population was born in Australia, the main countries of overseas origin are Vietnam, India, United Kingdom and Italy. In the 21st Century, Maribyrnong of which Footscray is a part, saw a major increase in residents from Sudan, Somalia, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, including a large proportion of refugees. Footscray has Victoria's fourth-highest proportion of residents born in South-East Asia; the average person in Footscray is 33 years of age. Maribyrnong Council predicts a population boom will more than double Footscray resident numbers from 14,100 to 30,500 by 2031, requiring about 7000 new dwellings. Footscray falls within the federal electorate of Gellibrand and the state electorate of Footscray, the City of Maribyrnong at local level; the suburb's historical voting patterns have been typical of a working-class suburb with a high migrant population.
Footscray is a safe state ALP seat, 65% of the vote went to Labor at the 2014 State election. Consistent with other inner-city electorates in Melbourne, other state capitals, voter support for the Australian Greens has increased in recent years. One third of voters at the Central Footscray booth voted for the Australian Greens in the 2010 Federal election doubling the Greens vote in one election cycle. For the first time in over 100 years, Maribyrnong Council is no longer under Labor control. In 2012 voters elected three Labor councillors. Catherine Cummings is the Mayor for 2012–13. At the Federal Election of 2010, the ALP won Gellibrand, which includes Footscray, with 59% of the vote; the Lib/Nat parties got 23%, whilst The Greens saw a swing of +6% with 15% of the vote. Janet Rice of The Greens was elected to Maribyrnong Council in 2003, re-elected in 2005 and elected Mayor in 2006. Whilst Mayor, Janet had a Mayoral bike instead of a car; the first Vietnamese woman Mayor was Mai Ho, from 1997 to 1998.
Mai Ho arrived in Australia in December 1982 with sixteen dollars. By 1997 she was Mayor of Maribyrnong. Twelve months her daughter, Tan Le, was voted Young Australian of the Year. There are over 130 restaurants in Footscray, including. Footscray has one each of the following restaurants. Subway and Nandos are the only multi-national corporate food outlets in central Footscray. Notable restaurants include the award-winning Station Hotel, winner of radio 3AW's "Pub of the Year"; the Footscray Market is a large indoor fresh produce and seafood market, with 33 food stalls and 50 general stalls, catering to the various ethnicities and local restaurants. It is located opposite Footscray railway station; the Melbourne Wholesale Market on Footscray Road moved to Epping in 2015. Another large market in Footscray was Little Saigon, which o
Pascoe Vale South, Victoria
Pascoe Vale South is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 10 km north of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Moreland. At the 2016 Census, Pascoe Vale South had a population of 10,069. Pascoe Vale South adjoins Brunswick West to the south and the Moonee Ponds Creek to the west, Coburg to the east, Pascoe Vale to the north; the suburb borders the Tullamarine Freeway. Major features of the suburb include the Bell Street/Melville Road Shopping area; the Pascoe Vale area was part of the original John Pascoe Fawkner estate. In 1841 Dr Farquhar McCrae, a wealthy surgeon, purchased land called'La Rose' in what is now known as Pascoe Vale South; the house he built in 1842 or 1843 is now known as Wentworth House, is the oldest known private dwelling in Victoria still standing on its original site and the fifth oldest building in Victoria. It is located at Pascoe Vale South. Significant development of Pascoe Vale South took place after the tram was extended to Bell Street in 1927, with the post office opening on 1 August 1927.
According to the 2001 Census data, Pascoe Vale South is a family residential suburb with average income and low unemployment. The Census revealed that 8,336 people live in Pascoe Vale, the trend is that this is to increase with some new residential development. House ownership is stable at 54 per cent. Pascoe Vale South is less culturally diverse than other suburbs of Moreland, lower than the Melbourne average. About 62 per cent of people spoke English at home. Tram route 58 provides public transport through the suburb along Melville Road from the Bell Street terminus to the city. For cyclists, the suburb adjoins the Moonee Ponds Creek Trail to the west; the following bus routes services the area: 510 Essendon – Ivanhoe via Brunswick West, Moreland RS, Fairfield. Operated by Moreland Buslines. Moreland Road 513 Eltham – Glenroy via Greensborough RS, Watsonia RS, Rosanna RS, Coburg RS. Operated by Dyson's Bus Services. 527 Northland Shopping Centre – Gowrie via Coburg RS, Preston RS. Operated by Ivanhoe Bus Company.
Route 527 is popular with shoppers, because it travels through Coburg, which has Sydney Road and surrounding streets, High Street and Preston Market which serves food and many retail outlets, through to Northland Shopping Centre. This route was upgraded to the new bus time standards for Melbourne, which allows it to travel from around 6am weekdays till 9pm and on weekends 7am till 9pm. Pascoe Vale South has two catholic schools; the neighbourhood of Coonans Hill is in the south of the suburb. Its post office opened on 21 February 1957; the following places in Pascoe Vale South are listed on the Victorian Heritage Register: H0138 Wentworth House, 22 Le Cateau Street Pascoe Vale South H0964 Lyndhurst Hall, 44 Walhalla Street, Pascoe Vale South City of Coburg - the former local government area of which Pascoe Vale South was a part
Sunshine is a suburb of Melbourne, lying 11 to 13 km west of the CBD, located within the City of Brimbank local government area. Sunshine recorded a population of 9,768 at the 2016 census. Sunshine a town just outside Melbourne, is today a residential suburb with a mix of period and post-War homes, with a town centre, an important retail centre in Melbourne's west, it is one of Melbourne's principal places of employment outside the CBD with many industrial companies situated in the area, is an important public transport hub with both V/Line and Metro services at Sunshine train station and its adjacent major bus interchange. The farms and settlements in the area now known as Sunshine first came under the Braybrook Road District which became the Shire of Braybrook. From 1860 to 1885 the only railway which passed through the area was the Bendigo line and the only railway station in the area was Albion & Darlington at the site of the current Albion station; when the Ballarat line was built through the area, a new station was built at the junction of the two lines: this station opened on 7 September 1885 and was called Braybrook Junction as it was in the Shire of Braybrook.
The area around the Braybrook Junction railway station came to be known as Braybrook Junction. The Braybrook Junction Post Office opened on 25 August 1890. In 1904 H. V. McKay bought, he secured 400 acres of land at Braybrook Junction with the aim of establishing housing to allow his future workers to live in the area, along the lines of a company town. The land became the Sunshine Estate. In 1906 McKay moved his agricultural machinery manufacturing business from Ballarat to his newly acquired factory in Braybrook Junction; the factory was renamed the Sunshine Harvester Works and it became the largest manufacturing plant in Australia. In July 1907, the train station, the post office, the shire riding's names were changed from Braybrook Junction to Sunshine after workers and residents had petitioned to do so in honour of McKay's Sunshine Harvester Works. In 1907 an industrial dispute between owner H. V. McKay and his workers at the Sunshine Harvester Works led to the Harvester Judgement, the benchmark industrial decision which led to the creation of a minimum living wage for Australian workers.
The Sunshine train disaster on 20 April 1908 killed 44 people at Sunshine station. In 1909, the H. V. McKay Sunshine Harvester Works Pipe Band was formed; this is one of Australia's oldest continuously functioning pipe bands and still exists as the Victoria Scottish Pipes & Drums. The land that H. V. McKay had earlier purchased to build housing for his workers on was developed by McKay as the Sunshine Estate, a housing estate developed with reference to some of the ideals of the Garden city movement, an influential town planning movement of the early 20th century. Infrastructure and amenities established by McKay for the Sunshine Estate and the rest of Sunshine included electric street lighting and sporting grounds, public buildings, a library; the town of Sunshine became regarded as a model industry-centred community. Housing for the McKay's employees swelled the local population and the town of Sunshine was touted as the "Birmingham of Australia". After WWII, Sunshine became connected to the sprawling city of Melbourne as car-based travel enabled people to leave the inner city suburbs and move into houses on larger blocks in suburbia.
In 1951, the old Shire of Braybrook was abolished and the City of Sunshine was established. Sunshine was not immune when many Australian-based manufacturing industries started winding down during and after the 1970s. In 1992, the Massey Ferguson factory the Sunshine Harvester Works, was demolished to make way for the development of the Sunshine Marketplace. On 15 December 1994, the City of Sunshine was abolished and Sunshine became part of the newly created City of Brimbank. Sunshine is now both a low-density residential suburb and one of Melbourne's principal places of employment outside the CBD. Many heavy and light industrial companies are situated in and around the area and it is an important retail centre in Melbourne's west. In addition to Sunshine's street shopping strips there are two shopping centres, the Sunshine Plaza and the Sunshine Marketplace. There is a Village Cinemas multiplex, the "Village 20 Sunshine Megaplex", at the Sunshine Marketplace. Educational institutions in Sunshine include Victoria Polytechnic.
Secondary schools include Sunshine College and Harvester Technical College.. Sunshine is a multicultural suburb. In the post-WWII period, many immigrants from all over continental Europe settled in Sunshine. Today Sunshine still has significant populations from Italy, former Yugoslavia, Poland, it is the main centre for Melbourne's Maltese community: indeed, the only branch of Malta's Bank of Valletta in the whole of Oceania is situated on Watt St, Sunshine. From the late 1970s, many Vietnamese refugees settled in Sunshine and surrounding areas; the Vietnamese have opened small businesses such as groceries and restaurants throughout the Sunshine town centre. More immigrants moving to Sunshine have come from Sudan and India. In 2016, Sunshine had a population of 9,768; the most common ancestries given in the 2016 census were: Australian 11.4%, English 12.5%, Vietnamese 12.9%, Chinese 5.9% and Irish 5.0%. For country of birth, 42% of people were born in Australia while the other most common countries of birth were Vietnam with 12.6%, India 5.7%, Burma 4.0%, Philippines 2.0%, Nepal 2.0%.
Sunshine railway station was redevel
Hoppers Crossing, Victoria
Hoppers Crossing is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 23.1 km south-west of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Wyndham local government area. Hoppers Crossing recorded a population of 38,701 at the 2016 Census; the suburb is named after his family, who were residents in the area. Hoppers Lane runs through the site of the former State Research Farm at Werribee, its crossing of the Geelong-Melbourne railway, adjacent to the present Hoppers Crossing railway station, led to the naming of the area; until 1963, Hoppers Crossing's only notable feature was a general store. In 1963 the town started to take shape, with the first subdivision of residential land. Hoppers Crossing grew and into the 1970s, the Post Office opened on 2 June 1975. Hoppers Crossing's first shopping centre, Woodville Park, was built and in 1970, the area's first primary school, Mossfiel Primary School, had its first student intake. In 1983, Hoppers Crossing Shopping Centre opened, it includes a Safeway Supermarket and 10 other stores.
Werribee Plaza opened in 1985. It was modernised between 2000 and 2006. Several significant redesigns and extensions have been built, it now includes retailers such as Myer, Big W, Coles, JB Hi-Fi, Adairs, a Village Cinemas complex, Best & Less and many more. The Victorian State Government announced plans of a $400 million upgrade, which has more than doubled the plaza's retail space; the plaza is smaller than Highpoint, the biggest shopping centre in Melbourne's West. A smaller shopping centre, Hogans Corner, was established in 1997-1998. Another shopping centre, Wyndham Village, was built on the corner of Sayers Road and Morris Road in 2005, it is on the Tarneit side of the border between Hoppers Tarneit. There are a large variety of warehouse and clearance sale shops on Old Geelong Road such as furniture and hardware stores. There several parks including playgrounds and recreational areas 2-4 blocks of land in residential streets. Recreation reserves exist along what once was a river or stream, although now serve as drainage reserves and the local Skeleton Creek.
Until Skeleton Creek had healthy populations of native reptiles, including. However the tiger snake and the eastern brown snake have been seen around the area recently. Primary schools Bellbridge Primary School Baden Powell College Derrimut Heath Primary School- Derrimut Heath Campus - Tarneit P-9 CampusThe Grange P-12 College- Callistemon CampusMossfiel Primary School Woodville Primary School Cambridge Primary SchoolSecondary colleges Hoppers Crossing Secondary College The Grange P-12 College's Deloraine Campus Suzanne Cory High School is a select entry school. Primary Schools St Peter Apostle St James the Apostle Primary School Heathdale Christian College Westbourne Grammar School- Westbourne Campus, in nearby Truganina. Thomas Carr college Victoria University and TAFE.- Werribee CampusIn 2006 the principal of Derrimut Heath Primary School, Julie Mason, was chosen as the "Wyndham Citizen of the Year" for her key role in the development of the Wyndham Community Education Plan 2004-2007 and serving as chair of the Quality Community Plan Education Committee.
Hoppers Crossing is served by the Hoppers Crossing railway station, located to the south of the suburb, on the Werribee line. The station opened in 1970 as a small station on the Geelong line, was only served by a few diesel trains each day. In 1983 the station was relocated in conjunction with electrification of the Geelong line as far as Werribee, it was not until the mid-1990s that Hoppers Crossing started to receive train services comparable with the rest of suburban Melbourne. In the mid-2000s a tramway was proposed for the Hoppers Crossing - Werribee area to replace bus services, but the idea was not seen as feasible by the Wyndham City Council and Victorian State Government. Bus services in Hoppers Crossing have connected areas close to the station with the station, Werribee Plaza, Werribee; as Hoppers' satellite suburbs Tarneit and Truganina grow, bus services have been extended. Hoppers is served by various buses. Other major roads include the Princes Highway, Heaths Road, Derrimut Road, Hogans Road, Morris Road, Tarneit Road and Sayers Road.
A new railway line opened in 2015, the Regional Rail Link, travels from West Werribee through Tarneit to Deer Park and includes a new railway station at Tarneit. The new station, built near the north east corner of Derrimut and Leakes Roads, provides a much faster service than the current Werribee railway line, which must pass through Altona and Footscray, it has car parking with 1,000 spaces, ensuring Tarneit becomes a prime regional area for those who commute to the city on a regular basis. Regional Rail Link connects the Melton and Werribee railway lines and re-direct Geelong V/Line trains from the Werribee Line. Regional Rail Link opened on 21 June 2015, with Tarneit railway station coming under metropolitan zone 2. Hoppers Crossing has sports grounds. There are facilities for tennis, Australian rules football, netball, lawn bowls and more. In 2004, the Federation Trail was opened, which links Werribee with Brooklyn, soon Yarraville. A new soccer complex was built at The Grange for the Hoppers Crossing Soccer Club.
They played at Mossfiel Reserve, now a rugby football field. Founded in 1971, the'Reds' have won 5 senior championships (1999, 2001
Melton is an urban area within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia located 35 km west from the capital's central business district. It is the administrative centre of the City of Melton local government area and its most populous centre. At June 2016 Melton had an estimated urban population of 62,117, it is considered part of the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area and is included in the capital's population statistical division. Melton began as a small town before being declared a satellite city in 1974, separated from Melbourne's urban area by a green wedge. Since the 1990s it has experienced rapid suburban growth into surrounding greenfield land and has become a commuter town in the Melbourne-Ballarat growth corridor. Changes to Melbourne's urban growth boundary passed by the state government in 2010 relinquish its satellite city status as it is planned to become part of Melbourne's future conurbation, it is named after Melton Mowbray in the United Kingdom. Melton was first settled by squatters establishing sheep runs in the area in the 1830s and a small settlement benefited from traffic passing through it on the way to the Ballarat gold fields during the Victorian Gold Rush.
The post office opened on 1 March 1856. The area was declared a satellite city in 1974 and a green belt existed between it and the urban area of Melbourne until the late 1990s. Melton is located on flat featureless, former volcanic plains. To the south-east of Melton Township is Mount Cottrell, a blast-shield volcano, to the north-east of the township is Mount Kororoit; these two volcanoes are some of the easternmost volcanoes on the Victorian Volcanic Plain which extends to the South Australian border. Melton consists of six suburban areas forming a single urban area with the locality of Melton at its centre. In the south of Melton are the suburbs of Melton South and Brookfield. In the north are Kurunjang and Toolern Vale while in the west is the suburb of Melton West. High Street is the main activity centre, but the urban area lacks a true central business district, with retail and civic facilities decentralised across the urban area. Additional shopping centres can be found in Melton South at the railway station, in Melton West.
Woodgrove Shopping Centre expanded in 2013 and now is the area's largest shopping venue, consisting of a Coles, Big W, Reading Cinemas and 160 specialty stores. Many live performances are held at the Melton Civic Centre, on High Street, at the Tabcorp Park racing complex, on Ferris Road, Melton South; each year the Djerriwarrh Festival is held in the city in November. The festival includes a street parade down High Street, two-day market stalls, the Lions Club Carnival, held in the Police Paddock on High Street. Melton is the home of the harness racing complex Tabcorp Park, is the base for Harness Racing Victoria; the 2009 Australasian Breeders Crown was the first major race meeting held at the venue in August 2009. Melton is home to the Victorian Blokart Association at McPherson Park, about 7 km north of the CBD; the Melton Basketball Association is the city's largest sporting club, with over 1,000 members. Along with local junior and senior competitions, The'Thoroughbreds' have representative teams competing statewide.
The City of Melton boasts two Hockey Victoria Hockey Clubs. Formed in 2016 Caroline Springs Hockey Club are a new community sporting club catering for the growth areas of the City of Melton's Eastern corridor training at The Bridge Road Sports Precinct. Achieving its first on field success in the HV Sixers competition, both the CSHC men's and women's teams won the inaugural tournaments; these successes are in addition to the award of the Hockey Victoria Coach of the Year 2016 nomination for women's coach Ron Shadbolt. Caroline Springs Hockey Club enter teams into the Juniors and Seniors pennant and Metro competitions; the Melton Mustangs Hockey Club enters Seniors and Juniors in the Victorian state leagues. The Masters team have achieved most recent success in 2013/14 when gaining back to back Pennants, whilst the Women's section have just finished in their highest league position in their 40-year history; the club is based at The Bridge Road Sports Precinct. The Club celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2016.
In 2015, Melton became home to the area's first American Gridiron Club, one of 12 clubs competing in the Gridiron Victoria League. Melton Wolves Gridiron Club was formed as Victoria's first stand-alone Women's Gridiron club, but expanded and now boasts a Senior Men's Team. Melton Shire Council operates the Melton Waves Leisure Centre, the only Leisure Centre in Melbourne’s west with extensive aquatic facilities with a total of seven pools, including a hot tub, wave pool and pools suitable for toddlers and pools dedicated for lap swimming and hydrotherapy, in addition to a gym and fitness classes for all. Melton is the administrative centre for the City of Melton; the City of Melton's Coburn Ward covers the central Melton area. Its state government electorate is the electoral district of Melton and the Federal government electorate is the Division of Lalor; the seat of Joanne Ryan both considered safe Australian Labor Party seats. All areas of Melton receive digital television stations as Melbourne.
It is within the broadcast range of all commercial radio stations from Melbourne, is an end point for digital radio broadcasts in metropolitan Melbourne. Digital radio is available in most of the city but signal diminishes towards the west. Melton has The Melton Star; the city is home to a radio station, 979fm. Road transport and in particular the motor vehicle are the main form of transport. Melton has been identified b
Deer Park, Victoria
Deer Park is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 17 km west of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Brimbank local government area. Deer Park recorded a population of 18,126 at the 2016 Census; the suburb was named Kororoit Creek, after the creek running through the suburb but was renamed after the Melbourne Hunt Club used the area to house their stock of game deer. The original Hunt Club building still stands on Ballarat Road, next to the Deer Park sports oval and is now a community centre; the Hunt Club was opened on Saturday, 11 July 1885. The Post Office opened in 1878 as Kororoit Creek and was renamed Deer Park in 1889. Following the discovery of gold in Ballarat and Bendigo, to the west, there became a great demand for explosives. Deer Park was chosen as the site of Melbourne's first explosives factory, commenced by Jones Scott and Co in about 1874 and reformed as Australian Explosives and Chemical Co Nobel, Imperial Chemical Industries of Australia and New Zealand and most Orica.
The site was chosen for its isolation. The availability of water in Kororoit Creek was a factor. In the 1920s, Nobel constructed a number of houses around its factory for workers and managers, expanding the former rural village into a substantial industrial suburb. A fatal accident at the factory in 1923 led to production of Black powder being stopped. In 1928, Imperial Chemical Industries of Australia and New Zealand took control of the factory. A new Black Powder factory was built in Deer Park in 1936 and enlarged during World War II. Charcoal from Australian timbers began to be manufactured. Suburban expansion in the 1920s was slowed during the 1930s depression, but in the post war period the suburb expanded rapidly. With labour shortages and a large demand for products during the post-war boom, ICI commenced housing development in Deer Park to attract workers to the area and many of the surrounding streets are named for localities in the UK, where ICI had operations. Deer Park is serviced by a railway station on the Melton greater-metropolitan line.
The electrification of the train line to Deer Park was expected to occur in the 1980s, however the project has been ignored by successive State Governments. Many residents believe the delay in upgrading the train line is related to the fact that Deer Park is situated in one of the safest Labor seats in the country. Melbourne bus routes 215, 400, 420, 422, 426 and 456 service the area, With the 422 and 420 servicing the Railway station; the main road through Deer Park is Ballarat Road, which carries traffic between Melbourne and Ballarat, Victoria's third largest city. Station Road is a major local route; the Deer Park Bypass, completed in 2009, allows motorists to avoid the suburban streets of Deer Park on their journey from Melbourne to Caroline Springs and beyond. Deer Park boats two public primary schools, a Catholic primary school, a secondary college. Deer Park North Primary School Deer Park West Primary School St Peter Chanel School Victoria University Secondary College - Junior Campus Kororoit Creek is located on the northern boundary of the suburb.
This area has been home to large healthy populations of native reptiles for thousands of years, including Tiger snake, Eastern Blue-tongued Lizard, Stump-tailed skink and Eastern brown snake. Due to development these species are now seen in the area. Due to more recent development of the Cairnlea estate and improved vegetation on the banks of Kororoit Creek, native species of frogs have taken advantage and have taken up residents in the new wetlands and lakes; the Common Eastern Froglet and the now endangered Growling Grass Frog have been seen and heard in the new wetlands and around Kororoit Creek. Kororoit Creek Trail On the southern outskirts of the suburb there are large farm properties which have now being developed for housing under the development names Brimbank Gardens and St Andrews Field; this area surrounds Mount Derrimut, which saw the relocation of the Sunshine Golf Club to allow its former location East of Fitzgerald Road to be redeveloped as housing. The suburb has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Western Region Football League, a cricket club and a tennis club.
Marlene Kairouz Nathan Phillips Marilyn Anderson, fellow of the Australian Academy of Science Brigitte McDonald, Deputy Principal Thomas Carr College John Riddell, early settler Brian Barnett OAM, amateur herpetologist Lillian Calleja OAM, Founding Member and Social Secretary, Newport Maltese Association DUC Dung Luu, high-level drug trafficker City of Sunshine – Deer Park was within this former local government area
A barcode is a visual, machine-readable representation of data. Traditional barcodes systematically represent data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines, may be referred to as linear or one-dimensional. Two-dimensional variants were developed, using rectangles, dots and other geometric patterns, called matrix codes or 2D barcodes, although they do not use bars as such. Barcodes were only scanned by special optical scanners called barcode readers. Application software became available for devices that could read images, such as smartphones with cameras; the barcode was invented by Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver and patented in the US in 1952. The invention was based on Morse code, extended to thin and thick bars. However, it took over twenty years. An early use of one type of barcode in an industrial context was sponsored by the Association of American Railroads in the late 1960s. Developed by General Telephone and Electronics and called KarTrak ACI, this scheme involved placing colored stripes in various combinations on steel plates which were affixed to the sides of railroad rolling stock.
Two plates were used per car, one on each side, with the arrangement of the colored stripes encoding information such as ownership, type of equipment, identification number. The plates were read by a trackside scanner, located for instance, at the entrance to a classification yard, while the car was moving past; the project was abandoned after about ten years because the system proved unreliable after long-term use. Barcodes became commercially successful when they were used to automate supermarket checkout systems, a task for which they have become universal, their use has spread to many other tasks that are generically referred to as automatic identification and data capture. The first scanning of the now-ubiquitous Universal Product Code barcode was on a pack of Wrigley Company chewing gum in June 1974. QR codes, a specific type of 2D barcode, have become popular. Other systems have made inroads in the AIDC market, but the simplicity and low cost of barcodes has limited the role of these other systems before technologies such as radio-frequency identification became available after 2000.
In 1948 Bernard Silver, a graduate student at Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US overheard the president of the local food chain, Food Fair, asking one of the deans to research a system to automatically read product information during checkout. Silver told his friend Norman Joseph Woodland about the request, they started working on a variety of systems, their first working system used ultraviolet ink, but the ink faded too and was expensive. Convinced that the system was workable with further development, Woodland left Drexel, moved into his father's apartment in Florida, continued working on the system, his next inspiration came from Morse code, he formed his first barcode from sand on the beach. "I just extended the dots and dashes downwards and made narrow lines and wide lines out of them." To read them, he adapted technology from optical soundtracks in movies, using a 500-watt incandescent light bulb shining through the paper onto an RCA935 photomultiplier tube on the far side.
He decided that the system would work better if it were printed as a circle instead of a line, allowing it to be scanned in any direction. On 20 October 1949, Woodland and Silver filed a patent application for "Classifying Apparatus and Method", in which they described both the linear and bull's eye printing patterns, as well as the mechanical and electronic systems needed to read the code; the patent was issued on 7 October 1952 as US Patent 2,612,994. In 1951, Woodland continually tried to interest IBM in developing the system; the company commissioned a report on the idea, which concluded that it was both feasible and interesting, but that processing the resulting information would require equipment, some time off in the future. IBM offered to buy the patent. Philco purchased the patent in 1962 and sold it to RCA sometime later. During his time as an undergraduate, David Collins worked at the Pennsylvania Railroad and became aware of the need to automatically identify railroad cars. After receiving his master's degree from MIT in 1959, he started work at GTE Sylvania and began addressing the problem.
He developed a system called KarTrak using blue and red reflective stripes attached to the side of the cars, encoding a six-digit company identifier and a four-digit car number. Light reflected off the stripes was fed into one of two photomultipliers, filtered for red; the Boston and Maine Railroad tested the KarTrak system on their gravel cars in 1961. The tests continued until 1967, when the Association of American Railroads selected it as a standard, Automatic Car Identification, across the entire North American fleet; the installations began on 10 October 1967. However, the economic downturn and rash of bankruptcies in the industry in the early 1970s slowed the rollout, it was not until 1974 that 95% of the fleet was labeled. To add to its woes, the system was found to be fooled by dirt in certain applications, which affected accuracy; the AAR abandoned the system in the late 1970s, it was not until the mid-1980s that they introduced a similar system, this time based on radio tags. The railway project had failed, but a toll bridge in New Jersey requested a similar syst