IBM Blue Gene
Blue Gene is an IBM project aimed at designing supercomputers that can reach operating speeds in the PFLOPS range, with low power consumption. The project created three generations of supercomputers, Blue Gene/L, Blue Gene/P, Blue Gene/Q. Blue Gene systems have led the TOP500 and Green500 rankings of the most powerful and most power efficient supercomputers, respectively. Blue Gene systems have consistently scored top positions in the Graph500 list; the project was awarded the 2009 National Medal of Innovation. As of 2015, IBM seems to have ended the development of the Blue Gene family though no public announcement has been made. IBM's continuing efforts of the supercomputer scene seems to be concentrated around OpenPower, using accelerators such as FPGAs and GPUs to battle the end of Moore's law. In December 1999, IBM announced a US$100 million research initiative for a five-year effort to build a massively parallel computer, to be applied to the study of biomolecular phenomena such as protein folding.
The project had two main goals: to advance our understanding of the mechanisms behind protein folding via large-scale simulation, to explore novel ideas in massively parallel machine architecture and software. Major areas of investigation included: how to use this novel platform to meet its scientific goals, how to make such massively parallel machines more usable, how to achieve performance targets at a reasonable cost, through novel machine architectures; the initial design for Blue Gene was based on an early version of the Cyclops64 architecture, designed by Monty Denneau. The initial research and development work was pursued at IBM T. J. Watson Research led by William R. Pulleyblank. At IBM, Alan Gara started working on an extension of the QCDOC architecture into a more general-purpose supercomputer: The 4D nearest-neighbor interconnection network was replaced by a network supporting routing of messages from any node to any other. DOE started funding the development of this system and it became known as Blue Gene/L.
In November 2004 a 16-rack system, with each rack holding 1,024 compute nodes, achieved first place in the TOP500 list, with a Linpack performance of 70.72 TFLOPS. It thereby overtook NEC's Earth Simulator, which had held the title of the fastest computer in the world since 2002. From 2004 through 2007 the Blue Gene/L installation at LLNL expanded to 104 racks, achieving 478 TFLOPS Linpack and 596 TFLOPS peak; the LLNL BlueGene/L installation held the first position in the TOP500 list for 3.5 years, until in June 2008 it was overtaken by IBM's Cell-based Roadrunner system at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the first system to surpass the 1 PetaFLOPS mark. The system was built in MN IBM plant. While the LLNL installation was the largest Blue Gene/L installation, many smaller installations followed. In November 2006, there were 27 computers on the TOP500 list using the Blue Gene/L architecture. All these computers were listed as having an architecture of eServer Blue Gene Solution. For example, three racks of Blue Gene/L were housed at the San Diego Supercomputer Center.
While the TOP500 measures performance on a single benchmark application, Blue Gene/L set records for performance on a wider set of applications. Blue Gene/L was the first supercomputer to run over 100 TFLOPS sustained on a real-world application, namely a three-dimensional molecular dynamics code, simulating solidification of molten metal under high pressure and temperature conditions; this achievement won the 2005 Gordon Bell Prize. In June 2006, NNSA and IBM announced that Blue Gene/L achieved 207.3 TFLOPS on a quantum chemical application. At Supercomputing 2006, Blue Gene/L was awarded the winning prize in all HPC Challenge Classes of awards. In 2007, a team from the IBM Almaden Research Center and the University of Nevada ran an artificial neural network half as complex as the brain of a mouse for the equivalent of a second; the name Blue Gene comes from what it was designed to do, help biologists understand the processes of protein folding and gene development. "Blue" is a traditional moniker that IBM uses for many of the company itself.
The original Blue Gene design was renamed "Blue Gene/C" and Cyclops64. The "L" in Blue Gene/L comes from "Light" as that design's original name was "Blue Light"; the "P" version was designed to be a petascale design. "Q" is just the letter after "P". There is no Blue Gene/R; the Blue Gene/L supercomputer was unique in the following aspects: Trading the speed of processors for lower power consumption. Blue Gene/L used low frequency and low power embedded PowerPC cores with floating point accelerators. While the performance of each chip was low, the system could achieve better power efficiency for applications that could use large numbers of nodes. Dual processors per node with two working modes: co-processor mode where one processor handles computation and the other handles communication. System-on-a-chip design. All node components were embedded on one chip, with the exception of 512 MB external DRAM. A large number of nodes Three-dimensional torus interconnect with auxiliary networks for global communications, I/O, management Lightweight OS per node for minimum system overhead (syst
System on a chip
A system on a chip or system on chip is an integrated circuit that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system. These components include a central processing unit, input/output ports and secondary storage – all on a single substrate or microchip, the size of a coin, it may contain digital, mixed-signal, radio frequency signal processing functions, depending on the application. As they are integrated on a single substrate, SoCs consume much less power and take up much less area than multi-chip designs with equivalent functionality; because of this, SoCs are common in the mobile computing and edge computing markets. Systems on chip are used in embedded systems and the Internet of Things. Systems on Chip are in contrast to the common traditional motherboard-based PC architecture, which separates components based on function and connects them through a central interfacing circuit board. Whereas a motherboard houses and connects detachable or replaceable components, SoCs integrate all of these components into a single integrated circuit, as if all these functions were built into the motherboard.
An SoC will integrate a CPU, graphics and memory interfaces, hard-disk and USB connectivity, random-access and read-only memories and secondary storage on a single circuit die, whereas a motherboard would connect these modules as discrete components or expansion cards. More integrated computer system designs improve performance and reduce power consumption as well as semiconductor die area needed for an equivalent design composed of discrete modules, at the cost of reduced replaceability of components. By definition, SoC designs are or nearly integrated across different component modules. For these reasons, there has been a general trend towards tighter integration of components in the computer hardware industry, in part due to the influence of SoCs and lessons learned from the mobile and embedded computing markets. Systems-on-Chip can be viewed as part of a larger trend towards embedded computing and hardware acceleration. An SoC integrates a microcontroller or microprocessor with advanced peripherals like graphics processing unit, Wi-Fi module, or one or more coprocessors.
Similar to how a microcontroller integrates a microprocessor with peripheral circuits and memory, an SoC can be seen as integrating a microcontroller with more advanced peripherals. For an overview of integrating system components, see system integration. In general, there are four distinguishable types of SoCs: SoCs built around a microcontroller, SoCs built around a microprocessor found in mobile phones. Systems-on-chip can be applied to any computing task. However, they are used in mobile computing such as tablets, smartphones and netbooks as well as embedded systems and in applications where microcontrollers would be used. Where only microcontrollers could be used, SoCs are rising to prominence in the embedded systems market. Tighter system integration offers better reliability and mean time between failure, SoCs offer more advanced functionality and computing power than microcontrollers. Applications include AI acceleration, embedded machine vision, data collection, vector processing and ambient intelligence.
Embedded systems-on-chip target the internet of things, industrial internet of things and edge computing markets. Mobile computing based SoCs bundle processors, memories, on-chip caches, wireless networking capabilities and digital camera hardware and firmware. With increasing memory sizes, high end SoCs will have no memory and flash storage and instead, the memory and flash memory will be placed right next to, or above, the SoC; some examples of mobile computing SoCs include: Apple: Apple-designed processors A12 Bionic and other A series, used in iPhones and iPads S series and W series, in Apple Watches. Apple T series, used in the 2016 and 2017 MacBook Pro touch bars and fingerprint scanners. Samsung Electronics: list based on ARM7 and ARM9 Exynos, used by Samsung's Galaxy series of smartphones Qualcomm: Snapdragon, used in many LG, Google Pixel, HTC and Samsung Galaxy smartphones. In 2018, Snapdragon SoCs are being used as the backbone of laptop computers running Windows 10, marketed as "Always Connected PCs".
As long ago as 1992, Acorn Computers produced the A3010, A3020 and A4000 range of personal computers with the ARM250 system-on-chip. It combined the original Acorn ARM2 processor with a memory controller, video controller, I/O controller. In previous Acorn ARM-powered computers, these were four discreet chips; the ARM7500 chip was their second-generation system-on-chip, based on the ARM700, VIDC20 and IOMD controllers, was licensed in embedded devices such as set-top-boxes, as well as Acorn personal computers. Systems-on-chip are being applied to mainstream personal computers as of 2018, they are applied to laptops and tablet PCs. Tablet and laptop manufacturers have learned lessons from embedded systems and smartphone markets about reduced power consumption, better performance and reliability from tighter integration of hardware and firmware modules, LTE and other wireless network communications integrated on chip. ARM based: Qualcomm S
SPARC is a reduced instruction set computing instruction set architecture developed by Sun Microsystems. Its design was influenced by the experimental Berkeley RISC system developed in the early 1980s. First released in 1987, SPARC was one of the most successful early commercial RISC systems, its success led to the introduction of similar RISC designs from a number of vendors through the 1980s and 90s; the first implementation of the original 32-bit architecture was used in Sun's Sun-4 workstation and server systems, replacing their earlier Sun-3 systems based on the Motorola 68000 series of processors. SPARC V8 added a number of improvements that were part of the SuperSPARC series of processors released in 1992. SPARC V9, released in 1993, introduced a 64-bit architecture and was first released in Sun's UltraSPARC processors in 1995. SPARC processors were used in symmetric multiprocessing and non-uniform memory access servers produced by Sun and Fujitsu, among others; the design was turned over to the SPARC International trade group in 1989, since its architecture has been developed by its members.
SPARC International is responsible for licensing and promoting the SPARC architecture, managing SPARC trademarks, providing conformance testing. SPARC International was intended to grow the SPARC architecture to create a larger ecosystem. Due to SPARC International, SPARC is open, non-proprietary and royalty-free; as of September 2017, the latest commercial high-end SPARC processors are Fujitsu's SPARC64 XII and SPARC64 XIfx. On Friday, September 1, 2017, after a round of layoffs that started in Oracle Labs in November 2016, Oracle terminated SPARC design after the completion of the M8. Much of the processor core development group in Austin, was dismissed, as were the teams in Santa Clara and Burlington, Massachusetts. SPARC development continues with Fujitsu returning to the role of leading provider of SPARC servers, with a new CPU due in the 2020 time frame; the SPARC architecture was influenced by the earlier RISC designs, including the RISC I and II from the University of California and the IBM 801.
These original RISC designs were minimalist, including as few features or op-codes as possible and aiming to execute instructions at a rate of one instruction per clock cycle. This made them similar to the MIPS architecture in many ways, including the lack of instructions such as multiply or divide. Another feature of SPARC influenced by this early RISC movement is the branch delay slot; the SPARC processor contains as many as 160 general purpose registers. According to the "Oracle SPARC Architecture 2015" specification an "implementation may contain from 72 to 640 general-purpose 64-bit" registers. At any point, only 32 of them are visible to software — 8 are a set of global registers and the other 24 are from the stack of registers; these 24 registers form what is called a register window, at function call/return, this window is moved up and down the register stack. Each window has 8 local shares 8 registers with each of the adjacent windows; the shared registers are used for passing function parameters and returning values, the local registers are used for retaining local values across function calls.
The "Scalable" in SPARC comes from the fact that the SPARC specification allows implementations to scale from embedded processors up through large server processors, all sharing the same core instruction set. One of the architectural parameters that can scale is the number of implemented register windows. Other architectures that include similar register file features include Intel i960, IA-64, AMD 29000; the architecture has gone through several revisions. It gained hardware multiply and divide functionality in Version 8. 64-bit were added to the version 9 SPARC specification published in 1994. In SPARC Version 8, the floating point register file has 16 double-precision registers; each of them can be used as two single-precision registers, providing a total of 32 single precision registers. An odd-even number pair of double precision registers can be used as a quad-precision register, thus allowing 8 quad precision registers. SPARC Version 9 added 16 more double precision registers, but these additional registers can not be accessed as single precision registers.
No SPARC CPU implements quad-precision operations in hardware as of 2004. Tagged add and subtract instructions perform adds and subtracts on values checking that the bottom two bits of both operands are 0 and reporting overflow if they are not; this can be useful in the implementation of the run time for ML, similar languages that might use a tagged integer format. The endianness of the 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture is purely big-endian; the 64-bit SPARC V9 architecture uses big-endian instructions, but can access data in either big-endian or little-endian byte order, cho
Black Hat Briefings
Black Hat Briefings is a computer security conference that provides security consulting and briefings to hackers and government agencies around the world. Black Hat brings together a variety of people interested in information security ranging from non-technical individuals, executives and industry leading security professionals; the conference takes place in Las Vegas, London, Abu Dhabi. The conference has been hosted in Amsterdam and Washington, D. C. in the past. Black Hat was founded in 1997 by Jeff Moss, who founded DEF CON. Today, Moss is the Conference Chair of the Black Hat Review Board; these are considered the premier information security conferences in the world. Black Hat started as a single annual conference in Las Vegas, Nevada and is now held in multiple locations around the world. Black Hat was acquired by CMP Media, a subsidiary of U. K.-based United Business Media in 2005. Black Hat is scheduled prior to DEF CON with many attendees going to both conferences. Black Hat has been perceived by the security industry as a more corporate security conference whereas DEF CON is more informal.
The conference is composed of two major sections, the Black Hat Briefings, Black Hat Trainings. Training is offered by individual security professionals; the conference has hosted the National Security Agency's information assurance manager course, various courses by Cisco Systems, Offensive Security, others. The Briefings are composed of tracks, covering various topics including reverse engineering and privacy, hacking; the briefings contain keynote speeches from leading voices in the information security field, including Robert Lentz Chief Security Officer, United States Department of Defense. Alexander, former Director of the National Security Agency and former commander of the United States Cyber Command. To engage attendees with hands-on demonstrations and the ability to speak to vendors or security professionals, the Black Hat Arsenal has been added since 2011. ToolsWatch maintains an archive of all Black Hat Briefings Arsenals. Black Hat is known for the antics of its hacker contingent, the disclosures brought in its talks.
Conference attendees have been known to hijack wireless connections of the hotels, hack hotel television billing systems, hack the automated teller machine in a hotel lobby. In 2009, web sites belonging to a handful of security researchers and groups were hacked and passwords, private e-mails, IM chats, sensitive documents were exposed on the vandalized site of Dan Kaminsky, days before the conference. During Black Hat USA in 2009, a USB thumb drive, passed around among attendees was found to be infected with the Conficker virus, in 2008, three men were expelled for packet sniffing the press room local area network. In the past, companies have attempted to ban researchers from disclosing vital information about their products. At Black Hat USA in 2005, Cisco Systems tried to stop Michael Lynn from speaking about a vulnerability that he said could let hackers shut down the Internet. However, in recent years, researchers have worked with vendors to resolve issues, some vendors have challenged hackers to attack their products.
Hacker conference Chaos Communication Congress DEF CON Summercon Positive Hack Days Official website
Rock was a multithreading, multicore, SPARC microprocessor under development at Sun Microsystems. Canceled in 2010, it was a separate project from the SPARC T-Series family of processors. Rock aimed at higher per-thread performance, higher floating-point performance, greater SMP scalability than the Niagara family; the Rock processor targeted traditional high-end data-facing workloads, such as back-end database servers, as well as floating-point intensive high-performance computing workloads, whereas the Niagara family targets network-facing workloads such as web servers. The Rock processor implements the 64-bit SPARC V9 instruction set and the VIS 3.0 SIMD multimedia instruction set extension. Each Rock processor has 16 cores, with each core capable of running two threads yielding 32 threads per chip. Servers built with Rock use FB-DIMMs to increase reliability and density of memory systems; the Rock processor uses a 65 nm manufacturing process for a design frequency of 2.3 GHz. The maximum power consumption of the Rock processor chip is 250 W.
The 16 cores in Rock are arranged in four core clusters. The cores in a cluster share a 32 KB instruction cache, two 32 KB data caches, two floating point units. Sun designed the chip this way because server workloads have high re-utilization in data and instruction across processes and threads but low number of floating-point operations in general, thus sharing hardware resources among the four cores in a cluster leads to significant savings in area and power but low impact to performance. In 2005, Sun publicly disclosed. Hardware scout uses otherwise idle chip execution resources to perform prefetching during cache misses. In March 2006, Marc Tremblay, Vice President and Chief Architect for Sun's Scalable Systems Group, gave a presentation at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center on thread-level parallelism, hardware scouting, thread-level speculation; these multithreading technologies were expected to be included in the Rock processor. In August 2007, Sun confirmed that Rock would be the first production processor to support transactional memory.
To provide the functionality, two new instructions were introduced with one new status register. The instruction chkpt <fail_pc> is used to commit to commit the transaction. If transaction abort condition is detected, jump to <fail_pc> is issued and cps can be used to determine the reason. The support is best-effort based, as in addition to data conflicts, transactions can be aborted by other reasons; these include TLB misses, certain used function call sequences and "difficult" instructions. Many code blocks requiring synchronization could have benefited from transactional memory support of the Rock processor. In February 2008, Marc Tremblay announced a unique feature called "out-of-order retirement" at the ISSCC; the benefits include replacing the "traditional instruction window with this much smaller deferred queue". In April 2008, Sun engineers presented the transactional memory interface at Transact 2008, the Adaptive Transactional Memory Test Platform simulator was announced to be made available to the general public shortly after.
The Rock processor was intended to be used in Sun's proposed "Supernova" server line. Details of the server specifications were released in OpenSolaris Architecture Review case FWARC/2008/761; the Physical Resource Inventory specification of ARC 2008/761 indicates the Supernova platforms would support: IEEE 1275 OpenFirmware, platform virtualization through Logical Domains, independent system controller, Fault Management Architecture Domain Services. The FMA feature was referenced to FWARC/2006/141, but this was closed and extended in FWARC/2008/455 "to diagnose PCI fabric errors that occur in root domains." ARC 2008/761 indicated planned support for both PCI Express hot-pluggable slots as well as a bridge to older PCI eXtended ). "Bronze" servers would support PCIe slots 0-5. "Silver" servers would support I/O boards PCIe slots 0-7 for each board. "Platinum" servers would support I/O boards PCIe slots 0-7 for each board. "Silver-II" servers would support PCIe slots 00-19. "Platinum-II" servers would support boards slots 0-3 for each board.
AT7180 The SPARC Enterprise AT7180 was speculated to be a single socket model handling as many as 32 hardware threads. AT7280 The SPARC Enterprise AT7280 was speculated to be a dual socket model handling as many as 64 hardware threads. AT7480 The SPARC Enterprise AT7480 was speculated to be a quad socket model reported to handle as many as 128 hardware threads, based on the PCI Express bus architecture with Open Boot firmware. AT7880 The SPARC Enterprise AT7880 was speculated to be an eight-socket model reported to handle as many as 256 hardware threads, based on the PCI Express bus architecture with Open Boot firmware; the AT7880 would have eight individual CPU boards, each with one Sun Neptune multithreaded 10 Gigabit Ethernet chip. In February 2005, the CEO of Sun Microsystems, Scott McNealy, stated that the "taping out" of Rock would be on schedule that year. However, this tape-out was delayed to January 2007. In April 2007, Sun CEO Jonathan I. Schwartz blogged an image of a BGA-packaged Rock chip, labeled UltraSPARC RK, disclosed that it could address 256 terabytes of virtual memory in a single system running Solaris.
The next month, Sun announced that they had created a Rock chip that could boot its operating system, successfully. In August of the same year, Sun released details on the u
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System, SPARC. Sun contributed to the evolution of several key computing technologies, among them Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing, virtualized computing. Sun was founded on February 24, 1982. At its height, the Sun headquarters were in Santa Clara, California, on the former west campus of the Agnews Developmental Center. On April 20, 2009, it was announced; the deal was completed on January 27, 2010. Sun products included computer servers and workstations built on its own RISC-based SPARC processor architecture, as well as on x86-based AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. Sun developed its own storage systems and a suite of software products, including the Solaris operating system, developer tools, Web infrastructure software, identity management applications. Other technologies included the Java platform and NFS.
In general, Sun was a proponent of open systems Unix. It was a major contributor to open-source software, as evidenced by its $1 billion purchase, in 2008, of MySQL, an open-source relational database management system. At various times, Sun had manufacturing facilities in several locations worldwide, including Newark, California. However, by the time the company was acquired by Oracle, it had outsourced most manufacturing responsibilities; the initial design for what became Sun's first Unix workstation, the Sun-1, was conceived by Andy Bechtolsheim when he was a graduate student at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation, it was designed around the Motorola 68000 processor with an advanced memory management unit to support the Unix operating system with virtual memory support. He built the first ones from spare parts obtained from Stanford's Department of Computer Science and Silicon Valley supply houses.
On February 24, 1982, Vinod Khosla, Andy Bechtolsheim, Scott McNealy, all Stanford graduate students, founded Sun Microsystems. Bill Joy of Berkeley, a primary developer of the Berkeley Software Distribution, joined soon after and is counted as one of the original founders; the Sun name is derived from the initials of the Stanford University Network. Sun was profitable from its first quarter in July 1982. By 1983 Sun was known for producing 68k-based systems with high-quality graphics that were the only computers other than DEC's VAX to run 4.2BSD. It licensed the computer design to other manufacturers, which used it to build Multibus-based systems running Unix from UniSoft. Sun's initial public offering was in 1986 for Sun Workstations; the symbol was changed in 2007 to JAVA. Sun's logo, which features four interleaved copies of the word sun in the form of a rotationally symmetric ambigram, was designed by professor Vaughan Pratt of Stanford; the initial version of the logo was orange and had the sides oriented horizontally and vertically, but it was subsequently rotated to stand on one corner and re-colored purple, blue.
In the dot-com bubble, Sun began making much more money, its shares rose dramatically. It began spending much more, hiring workers and building itself out; some of this was because of genuine demand, but much was from web start-up companies anticipating business that would never happen. In 2000, the bubble burst. Sales in Sun's important hardware division went into free-fall as customers closed shop and auctioned high-end servers. Several quarters of steep losses led to executive departures, rounds of layoffs, other cost cutting. In December 2001, the stock fell to the 1998, pre-bubble level of about $100, but it kept falling, faster than many other tech companies. A year it had dipped below $10 but bounced back to $20. In mid-2004, Sun closed their Newark, California and consolidated all manufacturing to Hillsboro, Oregon. In 2006, the rest of the Newark campus was put on the market. In 2004, Sun canceled two major processor projects which emphasized high instruction-level parallelism and operating frequency.
Instead, the company chose to concentrate on processors optimized for multi-threading and multiprocessing, such as the UltraSPARC T1 processor. The company announced a collaboration with Fujitsu to use the Japanese company's processor chips in mid-range and high-end Sun servers; these servers were announced on April 17, 2007, as the M-Series, part of the SPARC Enterprise series. In February 2005, Sun announced the Sun Grid, a grid computing deployment on which it offered utility computing services priced at US$1 per CPU/hour for processing and per GB/month for storage; this offering built upon an existing 3,000-CPU server farm used for internal R&D for over 10 years, which Sun marketed as being able to achieve 97% utilization. In August 2005, the first commercial use of this grid was announced for financial risk simulations, launched as its first software as a service product. In January 2005, Sun reported a net profit of $19 million for fiscal 2005 second quarter, for the first time in three years.
This was followed by net loss of $9 million on GAAP basis for the third quarter 2005, as reported on April 14, 2005. In January 2007, Sun reported a net GAAP profit of $126
International Business Machines Corporation is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM produces and sells computer hardware and software, provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is a major research organization, holding the record for most U. S. patents generated by a business for 26 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, dynamic random-access memory; the IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s. IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets.
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo, acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting, SPSS, The Weather Company, Red Hat. In 2014, IBM announced that it would go "fabless", continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries. Nicknamed Big Blue, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with over 380,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, the country with the largest number of IBMers is India. IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology and five National Medals of Science. In the 1880s, technologies emerged that would form the core of International Business Machines. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885. On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company based in Endicott, New York.
The five companies had offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York. C.. They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR. Watson joined CTR as General Manager 11 months was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved. Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies, he implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker". His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees. During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America and Australia.
Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924 chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines". By 1933 most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM. In 1937, IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U. S. Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act, the tracking of persecuted groups by Hitler's Third Reich through the German subsidiary Dehomag. In 1949, Thomas Watson, Sr. created IBM World Trade Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign operations. In 1952, he stepped down after 40 years at the company helm, his son Thomas Watson, Jr. was named president. In 1956, the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 not to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience.
In 1957, the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. In 1961, IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines and introduced the successful Selectric typewriter. In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped. A year it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York; the latter half of the 1960s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, 1966 Saturn flights and 1969 lunar mission. On April 7, 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360, it spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies for the first time to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications. It was followed by the IBM System/370 in 1970. Together the