Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh and 277 miles north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University; the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year; the first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD; this rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields; the extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, was known throughout this period as Munucceaster. Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux; because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as New Castle; the wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland; the Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400. From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen; this monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538; the phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.
In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him. In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families, they were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. Within the year 1636, it is estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the population of Newcastle died from the epidemic. During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. and the city was besieged for many months.
It was storm
Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the college is incorporated by "the Provost, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.
Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College and Oriel College, Oxford. Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants; these restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904. Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament; the college proper occupies 190,000 m2, with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles and two playing fields.
Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells. The first University of Dublin was created by the Pope in 1311, had a Chancellor and students over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation. Following this, some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin; the first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus, he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton.
Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which lay around one small square. During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed; the founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria. During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building; the first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square emerged.
The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained. Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland; the decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresf
Portadown is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. The town sits on the River Bann in the north of the county, about 24 miles southwest of Belfast, it is in the Armagh and Craigavon Borough Council area and had a population of about 22,000 at the 2011 Census. For some purposes, Portadown is treated as part of the "Craigavon Urban Area", alongside Craigavon and Lurgan. Although Portadown can trace its origins to the early 17th century Plantation of Ulster, it was not until the Victorian era and the arrival of the railway that it became a major town, it earned the nickname "hub of the North" due to it being a major railway junction. In the 19th and 20th centuries Portadown was a major centre for the production of textiles. Of its population, about 61 % are from 31 % from a Catholic background. Portadown is the site of the long-running Drumcree dispute, over yearly Orange marches through the Catholic part of town, which has led to violence. In the 1990s, the dispute drew worldwide attention to Portadown.
The Portadown area had long been populated by Irish Gaels. At the beginning of the 1600s, it lay within the district of Clancann, part of the larger territory of Oneilland; this district was named after the dominant local clan—the McCanns —who had been in the area since before the 13th century. The McCanns were a vassal sept of the O'Neills. On the eastern banks of the River Bann was the district of Clanbrasil; the town's name comes from the Irish Port a' Dúnáin, meaning the port or landing place of the small fort. This was a fort of the McCanns. From 1594 until 1603, the O'Neills and an alliance of other clans fought in the Nine Years' War against the English conquest of Ireland; this ended in defeat for the Irish clans, much of their land was seized by the English. In 1608, James I of England began the Plantation of Ulster – the organised colonisation of this land by settlers from Great Britain. In 1610, as part of the Plantation, the lands of Portadown were granted to William Powell. In 1611, he sold his grant of land to Reverend Richard Rolleston, who in turn sold it in two portions to Richard Cope and Michael Obins.
Obins built a large Elizabethan-style mansion for himself and his family, a number of houses nearby for English tenants. This mansion was in the area of the present-day Woodside estate, today's People's Park was part of its grounds; the park is now bounded on either side by Obins Street and Castle Street, both of which are references to "Obin's Castle". In 1631, Obins was granted a licence for a "fair and market", which led to the building of the first bridge across the River Bann shortly thereafter. During the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Obins Castle was captured by a force of dispossessed Irish led by the McCanns, the Magennises and the O'Neills. In one of the worst atrocities of the rebellion, in November 1641, Irish rebels forced about 100 captured English and Scottish settlers off the Bann bridge and they either drowned or were shot; this became known as the "Portadown massacre", precipitated the revenge attacks carried out in Ireland several years by the forces of Oliver Cromwell. The Irish Confederate troops abandoned Obins Castle during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Hamlet Obins repossessed it in 1652.
It was passed to his son, Anthony Obins. In 1741, Anthony Obins was involved with the development of the Newry Canal, he was succeeded by Michael Obins in 1750. It was he who set up a linen market in Portadown in 1762 and this laid the foundations of Portadown's major industry. Michael Obins left a son, Michael Eyre Obins, to succeed him. In 1814, Eyre Obins sold the estate to the Sparrow family of Tandragee. George Montagu, 6th Duke of Manchester married Millicent Sparrow in 1822 and came into possession of the estate; this family's legacy to the town includes street names such as Montagu Street, Millicent Crescent and Mandeville Street, as well as buildings such as the Fergus Hall, the Carlton Home. The Blacker family, descended from Danes who entered Ireland in the 9th century, founded an estate at Carrick, on the Portadown–Gilford road; the land had been bought by Colonel Valentine Blacker from Sir Anthony Cope of Loughgall. It became known as Carrickblacker, is now the site of Portadown Golf Club.
One of the notables in the Blacker family, Colonel William Blacker, High Sheriff of Armagh, took part in the "Battle of the Diamond" and was a founding member of the Orange Order. This, subsequent events like the setting up of a'provisional' Grand Lodge in the town after the'voluntary' dissolution of the Order in 1825, led to the town being known as'The Orange Citadel' and was a center of sectarian strife for two centuries. Many of the Blacker family were soldiers or churchmen; the family estate was purchased in 1937 by Portadown Golf Club, who demolished Carrickblacker House in 1988 to make way for a new clubhouse. A large prisoner-of-war camp was built at Portadown during World War II, it was at the site of a former sports facility on what was the western edge of town. This area is now covered by housing from the Brownstown Estates; the camp housed German POWs. For a time these POWs were guarded by Welsh servicemen, tr
Derek Mahon is an Irish poet. He was born in Northern Ireland. Mahon was born the only child of Ulster Protestant working class parents, his father and grandfather worked at Wolff while his mother worked at a local flax mill. During his childhood, he claims he was something of a solitary dreamer, comfortable with his own company yet aware of the world around him. Interested in literature from an early age, he attended Skegoneill Primary school and the Royal Belfast Academical Institution. At Inst he encountered fellow students who shared his interest in poetry; the school produced a magazine. According to the critic Hugh Haughton his early poems were fluent and extraordinary for a person so young. Mahon pursued third level studies at Trinity College, Dublin where he edited Icarus, formed many friendships with writers such as Michael Longley, Eavan Boland and Brendan Kennelly, he started to mature as a poet. He left Trinity in 1965 to take up studies at the Sorbonne in Paris. After leaving the Sorbonne in 1966 he worked his way through the United States.
In 1968, while spending a year teaching English at Belfast High School, he published his first collection of poems Night Crossing. He taught in a school in Dublin and worked in London as a freelance journalist, he lives in Kinsale, Co. Cork. On 23 March. 2007 he was awarded the David Cohen Prize for Literature. He won the Poetry Now Award in 2006 for his collection, Harbour Lights, again in 2009 for his Life on Earth collection. Educated and with a keen understanding of literary tradition, Mahon came out of the tumult of Northern Ireland with a formal, moderate restrained poetic voice. In an era of free verse, Mahon has written in received forms, using a broadly applied version of iambic pentameter that, resembles the "sprung foot" verse of Gerard Manley Hopkins; some poems rhyme. The Irish landscape itself is never all that far from the classical tradition, as in his poem "Achill": Croagh Patrick towers like Naxos over the water And I think of my daughter at work on her difficult art And wish she were with me now between thrush and plover, Wild thyme and sea-thrift, to lift the weight from my heart.
He has explored the genre of ekphrasis: the poetic reinterpretation of visual art. In that respect he has been interested in Flemish art. Enniss, Stephen After the Titanic: A Life of Derek Mahon, Gill & Macmillan Haughton, Hugh The Poetry of Derek Mahon, Oxford University Press 1965: Twelve Poems. Festival Publications, Belfast 1968: Night-Crossing. Oxford University Press 1970: Ecclesiastes Phoenix Pamphlet Poets 1970: Beyond Howth Head. Dolmen Press 1972: Lives. Oxford University Press 1975: The Snow Party. Oxford University Press 1977: In Their Element. Arts Council of Northern Ireland 1979: Poems 1962–1978. Oxford University Press 1981: Courtyards in Delft. Gallery Press 1982: The Hunt By Night. Oxford University Press 1985: Antarctica. Gallery Press 1990: The Chinese Restaurant in Portrush: Selected Poems. Gallery Press 1991: Selected Poems. Viking 1992: The Yaddo Letter. Gallery Press 1995: The Hudson Letter. Gallery Press. Gallery Press. Gallery Press 2001: Selected Poems. Penguin 2005: Harbour Lights.
Gallery Press 2007: Somewhere the Wave. Gallery Press 2008: Life on Earth. Gallery Press 2010: An Autumn Wind. Gallery Press 2011: New Collected Poems. Gallery Press 2016: New Selected Poems. Faber & Faber. 1996: The Bacchae of Euripides, Racine's Phaedra, Gallery Press 2001. Johathan Swift. Poems selected by Derek Mahon. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-20715-2. 2002: Birds, Gallery Press 2004: Cyrano de Bergerac. Gallery Press 2005: Oedipus, Gallery Press 2006: Adaptations, Gallery Press Mahon, Derek. Echo's grove: collected translations; the Gallery Press. 1996: Journalism: selected prose, 1970–1995. Ed. Terence Brown. Gallery Press Cooke, Belinda. "Nasty and short". The London Magazine: 99–104. Review of Echo's grove. List of Northern Irish writers Allen Randolph, Jody. Derek Mahon: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Irish University Review: Special Issue: Derek Mahon 24.1: 131–156. Reggiani, Enrico. In Attesa della Vita, Introduzione alla Poetica di Derek Mahon, Vita e Pensiero, Milano 1996, pp. 432 Haughton, Hugh.
The Poetry of Derek Mahon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Jarniewicz, Jerzy. Ekphrasis in the Poetry of Derek Mahon, Piotrkow: NWP Press, 2013, pp. 275. Christopher Steare: Derek Mahon: a study of his poetry, London: Greenwich Exchange, 2017, ISBN 978-1-910996-08-9 Eamonn Grennan. "Derek Mahon, The Art of Poetry No. 82". The Paris Review. Derek Mahon's page at Wake Forest University Press Griffin Poetry Prize biography Griffin Poetry Prize reading, including video clip "Achill" from poets.org. "A Disused Shed in Co. Wexford" from The Poem. "Painting into Poetry: The Case of Derek Mah
Irish poetry includes poetry in two languages and English. The complex interplay between these two traditions, between both of them and other poetries in English and Scottish Gaelic, has produced a body of work, both rich in variety and difficult to categorise; the earliest surviving poems in Irish date back to the 6th century, while the first known poems in English from Ireland date to the 14th century. Although there has always been some cross-fertilization between the two language traditions, an English-language poetry that had absorbed themes and models from Irish did not emerge until the 19th century; this culminated in the work of the poets of the Irish Literary Revival in the late 19th and early 20th century. Towards the last quarter of the 20th century, modern Irish poetry tended to a wide range of diversity, from the poets of the Northern school to writers influenced by the modernist tradition and those facing the new questions posed by an urban and cosmopolitan society. Poetry in Irish represents the oldest vernacular poetry in Europe.
The earliest examples date from the 6th century, are short lyrics on themes from religion or the world of nature. They were written by their scribe authors in the margins of the illuminated manuscripts that they were copying; the best known example is Pangur Bán. It was practical for poems to be short because the Irish recognized that it was necessary to use any means necessary to make the poems lasting in their oral culture. To accomplish such a feat as well as they have, they used complicated rhyme schemes that would render a poem nonsensical if any of the key words were changed from the original version. In an oral culture, Irish poetry had many uses. A poem could be used to immortalize the subject of the poem; such poems would be passed on to descendants so they would remember the great deeds of past generations. Kings would commission poets to write poems of advertisement, speaking of the king's greatness and worthiness, to attract young men to be warriors on behalf of their kingdom. Oral poetry, because it was in the vernacular, was used for entertainment.
Poems that were entertaining could be informative, teaching people lessons or offering them wisdom of experience for dealing with situations they would encounter in their everyday lives. Poems those featured in the sagas, were thought to be an instrument of the supernatural: certain poems could enchant people or objects. Another source of early Irish poetry is the poems in the tales and sagas, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge. Unlike many other European epic cycles, the Irish sagas were written in prose, with verse interpolations at moments of heightened tension or emotion. Although surviving in recensions dating from the medieval period, these sagas and the poetic sections, are linguistically archaic, afford the reader a glimpse of pre-Christian Ireland. Irish bards formed a professional hereditary caste of trained, learned poets; the bards were steeped in the history and traditions of clan and country, as well as in the technical requirements of a verse technique, syllabic and used assonance, half rhyme and alliteration known as Dán Díreach.
As officials of the court of king or chieftain, they performed a number of official roles. They were chroniclers and satirists whose job it was to praise their employers and damn those who crossed them, it was believed that a well-aimed bardic satire, glam dicin, could raise boils on the face of its target. However, much of their work would not strike the modern reader as being poetry at all, consisting as it does of extended genealogies and journalistic accounts of the deeds of their lords and ancestors; the Metrical Dindshenchas, or Lore of Places, is the major surviving monument of Irish bardic verse. It is a great onomastic anthology of naming legends of significant places in the Irish landscape and comprises about 176 poems in total; the earliest of these date from the 11th century, were originally compiled on a provincial basis. As a national compilation, the Metrical Dindshenchas has come down to us in two different recensions. Knowledge of the real or putative history of local places formed an important part of the education of the elite in ancient Ireland, so the Dindshenchas was a kind of textbook in origin.
Verse tales of Fionn and the Fianna, sometimes known as Ossianic poetry, were common in Ireland and Scotland throughout this period. Sung in verse and on par with heroic epics from other cultures, they were written down and altered by James Macpherson in the 18th century. Macpherson's treatment of them was said to have ushured in the Romance tradition as opposed to the epic nature of the sagas; the Fionn poems form one of the three key sagas of Celtic culture: The Ulster saga, Fionn mac Cumhaill saga, those of the Arthurian legends. British Library Manuscript, Harley 913, is a group of poems written in Ireland in the early 14th century, they are called the Kildare Poems because of their association with that county. Both poems and manuscript have strong Franciscan associations and are full of ideas from the wider Western European Christian tradition, they represent the early stages of the second tradition of Irish poetry, that of poetry in the English language, as they were written in Middle English.
During the Elizabethan reconquest, two of the most significant English poets of the time saw service in the Irish colonies. Sir Walter Raleigh had little impact on the course of Irish literature, but the time spent in Munster by Edmund Spenser was to have serious consequences both for his own writings and for the futur
Táin Bó Cúailnge
Táin Bó Cúailnge is a legendary tale from early Irish literature, considered an epic, although it is written in prose rather than verse. It tells of a war against Ulster by Connacht queen Medb and her husband Ailill, who intend to steal the stud bull Donn Cuailnge and are opposed only by teenage Ulster hero Cú Chulainn; the Táin is traditionally set in the 1st century in an pre-Christian heroic age, is the central text of a group of tales known as the Ulster Cycle. It survives in three written versions or "recensions" in manuscripts of the 12th century and the first a compilation written in Old Irish, the second a more consistent work in Middle Irish, the third an Early Modern Irish version; the Táin is preceded by a number of remscéla, or pre-tales, which provide background on the main characters and explain the presence of certain characters from Ulster in the Connacht camp, the curse that causes the temporary inability of the remaining Ulstermen to fight and the magic origins of the bulls Donn Cuailnge and Finnbhennach.
The eight remscéla chosen by Thomas Kinsella for his 1969 translation are sometimes taken to be part of the Táin itself, but come from a variety of manuscripts of different dates. Several other tales exist which are described as remscéla to the Táin, some of which have only a tangential relation to it; the first recension begins with Ailill and Medb assembling their army in Cruachan, the purpose of this military build-up taken for granted. The second recension adds a prologue in which Ailill and Medb compare their respective wealths and find that the only thing that distinguishes them is Ailill's possession of the phenomenally fertile bull Finnbhennach, born into Medb's herd but scorned being owned by a woman so decided to transfer himself to Ailill's. Medb determines to get the potent Donn Cuailnge from Cooley to equal her wealth with her husband, she negotiates with the bull's owner, Dáire mac Fiachna, to rent the animal for a year until her messengers, reveal that they would have taken the bull by force if they had not been allowed to borrow it.
The deal breaks down, Medb raises an army, including Ulster exiles led by Fergus mac Róich and other allies, sets out to capture Donn Cuailnge. The men of Ulster are disabled by the ces noínden. A separate tale explains this as the curse of the goddess Macha, who imposed it after being forced by the king of Ulster to race against a chariot while pregnant; the only person fit to defend Ulster is seventeen-year-old Cú Chulainn, he lets the army take Ulster by surprise because he's off on a tryst when he should be watching the border. Cú Chulainn, assisted by his charioteer Láeg, wages a guerrilla campaign against the advancing army halts it by invoking the right of single combat at fords, defeating champion after champion in a stand-off lasting months. However, he is unable to prevent Medb from capturing the bull. Cú Chulainn is both hindered by supernatural figures. Before one combat the Morrígan visits him in the form of a beautiful young woman and offers him her love, but he spurns her, she reveals herself and threatens to interfere in his next fight.
She does so, first in the form of an eel who trips him in the ford as a wolf who stampedes cattle across the ford, as a heifer at the head of the stampede, but in each form Cú Chulainn wounds her. After he defeats his opponent, the Morrígan appears to him in the form of an old woman milking a cow, with wounds corresponding to the ones Cú Chulainn gave her in her animal forms, she offers him three drinks of milk. With each drink he blesses her, the blessings heal her wounds. After a arduous combat he is visited by another supernatural figure, who reveals himself to be Cú Chulainn's father. Lugh puts Cú Chulainn to sleep for three days. While Cú Chulainn sleeps the youth corps of Ulster come to his aid but are all slaughtered; when Cú Chulainn wakes he undergoes a spectacular ríastrad or "distortion", in which his body twists in its skin and he becomes an unrecognisable monster who knows neither friend nor foe. He avenges the youth corps sixfold. After this extraordinary incident, the sequence of single combats resumes, although on several occasions Medb breaks the agreement by sending several men against him at once.
When Fergus, his foster-father, is sent to fight him, Cú Chulainn agrees to yield to him on the condition that Fergus yields the next time they meet. There is a physically and gruelling three-day duel between the hero and his foster-brother and best friend, Ferdiad. Cú Chulainn wins, killing Ferdiad with the Gáe Bolga; the debilitated Ulstermen start to rouse, one by one at first en masse, the final battle begins. To begin with Cú Chulainn sits it out, recovering from his wounds. Fergus has Conchobar at his mercy, but is prevented from killing him by Cormac Cond Longas, Conchobar's son and Fergus' foster-son, in his rage cuts the tops off three hills with his sword. Cú Chulainn enters the fray and confronts Fergus, who makes good on his promise and yields to him, pulling his forces off the field. Connacht's other allies panic and Medb is forced to retreat, she does, manage to bring Donn Cuailnge back to Connacht, where the bull fights Finnbhennach, kills him, but is mortally wounded, wanders around Ireland creating placenames before returning home to die of exhaustion.
The Belfast Telegraph is a daily newspaper published in Belfast, Northern Ireland, by Independent News & Media. Despite its unionist tradition, today the paper has a significant readership both among Protestants and Catholics, it was first published as the Belfast Evening Telegraph on 1 September 1870 by brothers William and George Baird. Its first edition cost half a penny and ran to four pages covering the Franco-Prussian War and local news; the evening edition of the newspaper was called the "Sixth Late", "Sixth Late Tele" was a familiar cry made by vendors in Belfast City Centre in the past. Its competitors are The News Letter and The Irish News but the local editions of the London-based red tops are competitors, selling at a cheaper price than the'Tele'; the Belfast Telegraph was broadsheet until 19 February 2005, when the Saturday morning edition was introduced and all Saturday editions were converted to compact. The weekday morning Compact Edition was launched on 22 March 2005. In 2015, the Telegraph launched the magazine supplement Family Life.
The paper now publishes two editions daily, Belfast Telegraph final edition and the North West Telegraph, distributed in Derry. Circulation has declined in recent years, from 109,571 for the period July to December 2002, to 36,403 for the same period in 2017, 33,951 by the end of 2018; the Belfast Telegraph was named as Best UK Regional Newspaper of the Year 2012 by the Society of Editors Regional Press Awards. Official website Belfast's Newcomers