The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Mary Patricia McAleese is an Irish politician who served as the eighth President of Ireland from November 1997 to November 2011. She was the second female president of Ireland. McAleese was first elected in 1997, succeeding Mary Robinson, making her the first woman in the world to succeed another woman as president, she was reelected unopposed for a second term in office in 2004. On both occasions she was elected as an independent, although she was a member of Fianna Fáil. McAleese is the first president of Ireland to have come from either Ulster. McAleese graduated in Law from Queen's University Belfast. In 1975, she was appointed Professor of Criminal Law and Penology at Trinity College, Dublin and in 1987, she returned to her alma mater, Queen's, to become director of the Institute of Professional Legal Studies. In 1994, she became the first female pro-vice-chancellor of Queen's University, she worked as a barrister and as a journalist with RTÉ. She is an Honorary Fellow of Cambridge. McAleese used her time in office to address issues concerning justice, social equality, social inclusion, anti-sectarianism and reconciliation.
She described her presidency's theme as "Building Bridges". This bridge-building materialised in her attempts to reach out to the unionist community in Northern Ireland; these steps included celebrating the Twelfth of July at Áras an Uachtaráin and taking communion in a Church of Ireland cathedral in Dublin, for which she incurred some criticism from some of the Irish Catholic hierarchy. Though a practising Roman Catholic, McAleese holds liberal views on homosexuality and women priests, she is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders and was ranked the 64th most powerful woman in the world by Forbes. In spite of some minor controversies, McAleese remained popular and her presidency is regarded as successful. Born Mary Patricia Leneghan, in Ardoyne, north Belfast, McAleese was the eldest of nine children, she is a Roman Catholic. Loyalists forced her family to leave the area. Educated at St Dominic's High School, she spent some time when younger with the Poor Clares, Queen's University Belfast, Trinity College, Dublin.
She was called to the Northern Irish Bar in 1974, remains a member of the Irish Bar. In 1976, she married an accountant and dentist, he assisted his wife with some of her initiatives as President. They have three children: Emma, born in 1982, who graduated as an engineer from University College Dublin and graduated as a dentist from Trinity College, Dublin. Ahead of the 2015 Marriage Equality referendum Justin McAleese spoke for the first time about growing up gay. In 1975, she was appointed Reid Professor of Criminal Law and Penology in Trinity College, succeeding Mary Robinson. In 1975, McAleese chaired a meeting at Liberty Hall that advocated a woman's right to choose and was quoted as saying that "I would see the failure to provide abortion as a human rights issue", she claimed that she misunderstood the nature of the meeting. During the same decade she was legal advisor to and a founding member of the Campaign for Homosexual Law Reform, she left this position in 1979, to join RTÉ as a journalist and presenter, during one period as a reporter and presenter for their Today Tonight programme.
However, in RTÉ, she and Alex White were attacked and criticised by a group led by Eoghan Harris, associated with the Workers' Party, over what they perceived as her bias towards republican groups in the North. McAleese was critical of the Provisional IRA, but believed it was important to hear their side of the story. In 1981, she returned to the Reid Professorship, but continued to work part-time for RTÉ for a further four years. In 1987, she returned to Queen's University, to become Director of the Institute of Professional Legal Studies, she stood, unsuccessfully, as a Fianna Fáil candidate in the Dublin South-East constituency at the 1987 general election, receiving 2,243 votes. McAleese was a member of the Catholic Church Episcopal Delegation to the New Ireland Forum in 1984, a member of the Catholic Church delegation to the Northern Ireland Commission on Contentious Parades in 1996, she was a delegate to the 1995 White House Conference on Trade and Investment in Ireland and to the subsequent Pittsburgh Conference in 1996.
She became the Pro-Vice-Chancellor of Queen's University Belfast. Prior to becoming president in 1997, McAleese had held the following positions: Channel 4 Television, Northern Ireland Electricity, Royal Group of Hospitals Trust and Founding member of the Irish Commission for Prisoners Overseas. McAleese is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an international network of current and former women Presidents and Prime Ministers, whose mission is to mobilise the highest-level women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development. In 1997, McAleese defeated former Taoiseach Albert Reynolds in an internal party election held to determine the Fianna Fáil nomination for the Irish presidency, her opponents in the 1997 presidential election were Mary Banotti of Fine Gael, Adi Roche and two Independents: Dana Rosemary Scallon and Derek Nally. McAleese won the presidenc
David Sneddon is a Scottish singer, songwriter and music producer of contemporary pop music. He took an unusual route into the music business via performing on stage and television and singing lead roles in stage musicals in Glasgow, he went on in 2002 to win the first series of the BBC's music competition Fame Academy. He released his first single "Stop Living the Lie" in 2003, a number one hit single selling over 250,000 copies, making it the 12th highest selling single of 2003. Sneddon's debut album Seven Years – Ten Weeks released in April 2003, reached No.5 in the UK Albums Chart. He achieved three more UK Singles Chart singles – "Don't Let Go", "Best of Order" and "Baby Get Higher", his song "Baby Get Higher" was a hit on the dance floor for Almighty Records and a chart hit for VanVelzen in 2006, for Emin Agalarov. In October 2003, he moved from being a pop star to working as a songwriter. In 2009 Sneddon signed to Sony/ATV Music Publishing as a songwriter and described his music as'melody-driven indie pop'.
David Sneddon's songs include Nate James. VanVelzen Hurts, Matt Cardle, Lana Del Rey, Newton Faulkner, Charlie Brown, Greyson Chance, David Archuleta, Shane Filan and Jessica Mauboy. Sneddon works with James Bauer-Mein as "The Nexus" songwriting and music production partnership for high-profile and anticipated emerging artists in the US and the UK, they have written for – synthpop duo Hurts 2010 global multi platinum debut album Happiness – the songs "Illuminated" and "Blood, Tears & Gold" which were singles for Hurts in 2011. For 2010 The X Factor winner Matt Cardle's album Letters and "Keep the Sun Away" for Morten Harket's album Out of My Hands 2012; the song "National Anthem" was written by Lana Del Rey and The Nexus for her number one selling UK Albums Chart 2012 album Born to Die. Newton Faulkner's Write It on Your Skin contained three Nexus songs – "Pick Up Your Broken Heart", "Soon" and "Feel" – made No.1 in 2012 UK Albums Chart. In April 2013 The Nexus became part of 365 Artists, they have built strong reputations as songwriters and they have worked and released with artists such as Hurts, Lana Del Rey, Newton Faulkner, Morten Harket, Will Young, Nicole Scherzinger, Olly Murs, Pixie Lott and Kristina Train.
Shane Filan lead singer with Westlife released EP "Everything to Me" August 2013 which included, "Everytime" and "Today's Not Yesterday", produced by The Nexus. David Sneddon was born and grew up in Paisley, with mother Anne, father David Sr. and younger sister Pauline. He studied music at school, won several talent competitions and played lead roles in musicals both at school and at PACE Youth Theatre; when his parents bought him a piano he discovered he had a talent for writing songs and taught himself to play. Sneddon was inspired by his father's record collection of The Beatles, Frank Sinatra, Van Morrison and in particular by Elton John – "The person who has inspired me the most is Elton John. I love the Beatles. I've never had any lessons, so he has been my only teacher.".........?" He drew inspirations for his music from Scottish eighties artists such as Del Amitri, Deacon Blue and Simple Minds. Sneddon enjoyed performing in musicals from a young age. At Primary school a teacher suggested a Youth drama group called PACE and it proved one of the best experiences.
He attended PACE for twelve years from the age of eight. After attending The University of Paisley for a year Sneddon decided to pursue a career in music, he performed in musicals and sang with bands in Scotland for several years, while he continued working on his songwriting and sending off demos. He was offered a role in a musical in London, a part in a young boyband called Arena, he presented Inside Out, a children's show on Scottish TV. While acting in Romeo and Juliet he met John Kielty. After performing some acoustic nights together at the Tron theatre in Glasgow in 2001, they decided to start a band and called themselves The Martians; the Martians did shows during the Edinburgh Festival. Sneddon was performing with The Martians in 2002 when he decided to enter the BBC's first series of Fame Academy. After David won the show he brought Kielty down to London to co-write his debut album and go on tour with him. Sneddon played in the indie-rock band The Sham with John Kielty in 2004 and 2005.
Since The Martians won the Highland Quest for a new musical in 2006 – The Sundowe was produced by Cameron Mackintosh and toured the Scottish Highlands in early 2007. Sneddon became known when he won the BBC's first series of a reality TV music competition called Fame Academy in December 2002, he was not selected for the first show, but was drafted in as a replacement when one contestant withdrew from the TV show due to illness. Sneddon, with his high tenor voice and easy going, personable charm, went on to become a favourite with both the audience and his fellow contestants, he won the final of the show winning the voters attention for his memorable versions of "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me" by Elton John, "I Don't Want to Talk About It" by Danny Whitten, his own composition "Stop Living the Lie" and won the public vote with 3.5m votes. Sneddon signed a record contract with Mercury Records and was given a luxury penthouse, Audi car and more as part of his prize, he shot his music video for his first single at Abbey Road Studios.
His first single "Stop Livi
Macy Gray is an American R&B and soul singer-songwriter, record producer and actress. She is known for her distinctive raspy voice and a singing style influenced by Billie Holiday. Gray has released six studio albums, received five Grammy Award nominations, winning one, she has appeared in a number of films, including Training Day, Spider-Man, Scary Movie 3, Lackawanna Blues, For Colored Girls, The Paperboy. Gray is best known for her international hit single "I Try", taken from her multi-platinum debut album On How Life Is. In 2016, Gray made a large artistic leap by changing labels to record an album produced with binaural sound. Stripped marked the singer's first steps into the world of audiophile recordings. Natalie McIntyre was born in Canton, the daughter of Laura McIntyre, a math schoolteacher, Otis Jones who left when she was a baby, her stepfather was a steelworker, she has a sister who would become a biology teacher. She began piano lessons at age seven. A childhood bicycle mishap resulted in her noticing a mailbox of a man named Macy Gray.
Gray attended school with Brian Warner. She attended more than one high school, including a boarding school which asked her to leave due to her behavior, she graduated from Canton South High School in 1985. She studied scriptwriting. While attending the University of Southern California, she agreed to write songs for a friend. A demo session was scheduled for the songs to be recorded by another singer, but the vocalist failed to appear, so Gray recorded them herself. I started forming bands and writing songs just for fun and I got into it and got attached to it. A friend of mine asked me to be a singer in his jazz band, he gave me all these jazz CDs and I studied all these different singers and I kind of taught myself how to sing for a gig, but I didn't take it until later. She met writer-producer Joe Solo while working as a cashier in Beverly Hills. Together, they recorded them in Solo's studio; the demo tape gave Gray the opportunity to sing at jazz cafés in Los Angeles. Although Gray did not consider her unusual voice desirable for singing, Atlantic Records signed her.
She began recording her debut record but was dropped from the label upon the departure of A&R man Tom Carolan, who had signed her to the label. Macy returned to Ohio but in 1997 Los Angeles based Zomba Publishing Senior VP A&R man Jeff Blue, convinced her to return to music and signed her to a development deal, recording new songs based on her life experiences, with a new sound, began shopping her to record labels. In 1998, she landed a record deal with Epic Records, she performed on "Love", a song on the Black Eyed Peas' debut album Behind the Front. Gray worked on her debut album in 1999 with producer Darryl Swann. Released in the summer of 1999, On How Life Is became a worldwide smash. Despite the first single "Do Something" stalling on the charts, the release of the second single "I Try" made the album a success for Gray. "I Try" was one of the biggest singles of 1999, subsequent singles "Still" and "Why Didn't You Call Me" ensured the album became triple platinum in the US and quadruple platinum in the UK.
In 2001, Gray won the Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance for "I Try", nominated for "song of the year" and "record of the year". She collaborated with Fatboy Slim, the Black Eyed Peas, Slick Rick, as well as acting for the first time, in the thriller Training Day. In August 2001, Gray was booed off the field at the Pro Football Hall of Fame exhibition game after forgetting the lyrics to the American national anthem. Gray's The Id featured appearances by John Frusciante and Erykah Badu on the single "Sweet Baby"; the album peaked at number eleven on the Billboard 200. It fared better in the UK, where it reached number one on the UK Albums Chart and was certified gold by the BPI; the underperformance in the United States, compared to her debut album, may have been due to The Id being released just a week after the September 11, 2001 attacks. In 2002, she appeared in Spider-Man and contributed a remix of her song "My Nutmeg Phantasy" to its accompanying soundtrack. Gray worked with Santana on the track "Amoré", for his album Shaman.
In 2002, she appeared on the Red Hot Organization's compilation CD in tribute to Nigerian Afropop pioneer Fela Kuti, Red Hot and Riot. She appeared on a remake of Kuti's classic track "Water No Get Enemy" alongside prominent neo soul, hip hop and R&B artists, D'Angelo, the Soultronics, Nile Rodgers, Roy Hargrove, Kuti's son, Femi Kuti, she recorded a duet with Zucchero called "Like the Sun", which featured Jeff Beck on guitar released in 2004 on Zu & Co. a duets collection. Her song "Time of My Life" was included in the soundtrack to 8 Mile. A cartoon based on Gray's childhood was being developed. In 2003, Gray released The Trouble with Being Myself, to rave reviews; the lead single, "When I See You", became a radio hit in the US and a top forty hit in the UK, although the album was not as well received by fans. It became Gray's third top twenty album in the UK. A greatest hits collection and a live album were subsequently
Lemar Obika, professionally known as Lemar, is an English singer and record producer. Lemar has had a run of chart success in the United Kingdom and Australia, he rose to fame after finishing in third place on the first series of British talent show Fame Academy, won by songwriter David Sneddon. Since Lemar has had seven top ten UK singles and sold over two million albums, he is seen as one of the most successful artists to come out of a reality TV show. Lemar has won two Brit Awards and three MOBO Awards to date and released his fifth studio album in 2012. Lemar Obika was born in North London, England to Nigerian parents, he grew up listening to soul music. He used pretending to be The Jacksons, he was 17 when he had his first concert at the Junior Jam at'The Temple' in Tottenham supporting Usher. At the time he was designing a website to sell logos for the Ericsson PH337 phone. On he gave up an opportunity to study pharmacy at Cardiff University to pursue a musical career. Lemar had some success supporting various artists such as Destiny's Child, Uncle Sam and Usher Raymond on their UK club tours and after some years, managed to secure a recording contract with BMG.
Following this, he released his debut single "Got Me Saying Ooh". His record deal with BMG fell through in less than a year due to restructuring at the record label, he had to take a job working as an accounts manager at NatWest in Enfield, North London. At 24 his mother died of cancer and he found listening to Eric Clapton's Tears in Heaven brought "clarity" and aims to "write songs as moving as this". Lemar was most notably brought to public attention on the BBC's Fame Academy in 2002, a combination of a talent quest and reality television show, he made the finals of the show winning plaudits for his version of "Let's Stay Together" by Al Green and singing a duet with Lionel Richie on "Easy". While he ended up finishing third in the show, won by David Sneddon, he caught the eye of fellow British soul singer Beverley Knight, who invited him to sing a duet with her during her concert at the Hammersmith Apollo. Sony Music was so impressed with his potential that they signed him to a five-year record deal worth £1 million.
He was the contestant from Fame Academy chosen to represent the UK in Eurobest, coming fifth. Lemar's second single "Dance" reached number two on the UK Singles Chart in early 2003, his first album Dedicated was released late in 2003 with additional singles "50/50" and "Another Day" achieving chart success in the UK. Following the success of the album, he commenced his first headlining tour of the UK. After completing his UK tour, Lemar was the opening act for Justin Timberlake's UK tour dates. Thus, he is considered the "most successful graduate. On 12 November 2004 Lemar guested on Radio 1's Live Lounge and performed a cover of U2's song "Vertigo", he has performed for Prince Charles' Prince's Trust. In early November 2004, Lemar released his first single from the album Time to Grow. "If There's Any Justice" reached number three on the UK Singles Chart, has become one of Lemar's most recognised songs. Time to Grow was released following the single and peaked at number 8 on the UK Albums Chart, to date, the album has been certificated 2x Platinum by the BPI.
Two other singles were released from the album, "Time to Grow" and "Don't Give It Up". He is one of the artists included on Band Aid 20's single "Do They Know It's Christmas?". 4 September 2006 saw Lemar return with his eighth single, entitled "It's Not That Easy", which became his sixth UK top ten hit. A week his new album The Truth About Love was released, which saw guest appearances from Styles P from The L. O. X. Mica Paris and Joss Stone; the album became Lemar's highest charting album to date, peaking at number three on the UK Albums Chart, outpeaking Time to Grow and Dedicated. Two more singles were released from the album, "Someone Should Tell You" and "Tick Tock". At the Brit Awards in 2007, Lemar was hoping to arrive in a makeshift limo, with James May from the BBC's Top Gear as the driver. Lemar got frustrated with May and got out of the car after May got lost, he featured on Sway's first single "Saturday Night Hustle" from the album The Signature LP. Lemar's fourth studio album "The Reason" was released on 24 November 2008, entering the UK Albums Chart at No. 41.
Lead single "If She Knew" was released on 10 November 2008, peaked on the UK Singles Chart at No. 14. On 2 March 2009, Lemar released his second single from the album, "Weight of the World", the song peaked at number 31 on the UK Singles Chart, he performed both singles on GMTV. Lemar performed his new single "The Way Love Goes" on the BBC1 show So You Think You Can Dance on 9 January 2010, he performed the single on GMTV in February. The single was peaked at number eight on the UK Singles Chart. On 8 March, the single was followed by The Hits. Which - as well as including 10 hit singles from his four studio albums - features four new tracks. In addtiton to "The Way Love Goes", these include a duet with JLS on a re-recording of Lemar's own 2003 ballad "What About Love". On 19 March, JLS performed the song together on Sport Relief. On 11 March 2010 Lemar's album The Hits hit number one on the R&B download charts on iTunes. Along with 9 of Lemar's songs in the top 100 downloads, it peaked at number eighteen on the UK Albums Chart.
Near the end of March 2010 Lemar performed a Radio 1's Live Lounge version of "Empire State of Mind". He recorded cover versions of Beyoncé's "Sweet Dreams" and Alicia Key
"Don't Speak" is a song by the American ska band No Doubt from their third studio album Tragic Kingdom. It was released on April 1996 in the United States as the third single from Tragic Kingdom. Lead singer Gwen Stefani and her brother Eric Stefani, former No Doubt member, wrote the song as a love song; the song went through new versions. Gwen modified it into a breakup song about her bandmate and ex-boyfriend Tony Kanal shortly after he ended their seven-year relationship. Despite the song's popularity, "Don't Speak" did not chart on the US Billboard Hot 100, but it did reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100 Airplay for sixteen weeks. Outside the United States, the song topped the charts in Australia, Iceland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom, becoming No Doubt's most successful international single. "Don't Speak" was nominated for Song of the Year and Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals at the 1998 Grammy Awards. "Don’t Speak" was ranked at number 495 on Blender magazine's "The 500 Greatest Songs Since You Were Born".
The song is a playable track in the 2009 video game Band Hero, is included as a downloadable song in 2008's Rock Band 2. The song has been sampled by multiple hip-hop artists, including in Rakim's song "Dedicated", Ice Cube's "War & Peace"; the song was written by Gwen Stefani and Eric Stefani, produced by Matthew Wilder. A love song, Gwen rewrote the lyrics completely after her break up with the band's bassist Tony Kanal. According to Gwen, "It used to be more of a Seventies rock-type thing. Tony and I broke up... it turned into a sad song." A live version that exists from April 1994 shows off a bouncy tune that has the same skeleton as the released version, but not the same urgency. The band performed part of the original song on VH1 Storytellers on August 10, 2000; the band's guitarist Tom Dumont said about the song's composition: There’s a lot of stories about that song, because that one unfolded over a longer period of time. Gwen’s brother wrote most of that song, after we got at it as a band, Gwen changed the lyrics around to fit her life.
Musically, we brought it to another level. There’s an earlier version of the song where the verses are different, a beautiful version and it’s awesome but it’s way more jazzy and different; that song had a long incubation process. It is composed in the key of C minor and F minor. A demo version appeared on a demo CD, presented to Interscope Records prior to the release of the Tragic Kingdom album. Upon release, the song began to receive extensive airplay, it became the most played song on American radio in 1996. Not the song reached number one on Billboard's Hot 100 Airplay, maintained that position for 16 non-consecutive weeks, a record at the time. Although the record would be broken in 1998 by the Goo Goo Dolls' "Iris" with 18 weeks at number one, the song remains in second place of songs with the most weeks at number one on the Hot 100 Airplay. For all its airplay though, the song was not allowed to chart on the Billboard Hot 100 as no commercial single was released for it in the U. S.. The song was a hit on No Doubt's main radio format at the time, Modern Rock Tracks, where it climbed to number two for five consecutive weeks hitting number one with one spot behind Stefani's future husband, Gavin Rossdale with his band Bush hitting number one for seven consecutive weeks on the chart with their hit single, "Swallowed" and "Don't Speak" stayed at number two for five consecutive weeks on the issue dated, November 30, 1996.
The song proved to be a crossover hit, reaching number one on the Adult Top 40 for 15 consecutive weeks as well as numbers six and nine on the Adult Contemporary and Rhythmic Top 40 charts, respectively. It was placed at number one on the Hot 100 Airplay year-end chart of 1997. Internationally, the song was very successful. In February 1997, it peaked at number one in both Ireland for three weeks. Elsewhere in Europe, "Don't Speak" reached the top position in Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland. Australia was another major music market where the song received widespread airplay, debuting at number one and maintaining the peak position for eight weeks. Before the music starts, at the beginning of the music video, there is a scene of Kanal picking a rotten orange from a tree; the majority of the music video for "Don't Speak" takes place on Stage 2 at Mack Sennett Studios in Silver Lake as the band plays. Other scenes tell the story of how the media focused on Stefani while the band was always in the background.
The second half of the video features snippets of live footage filmed during the band's performance with Dog Eat Dog and Goldfinger at the Roseland Ballroom in New York City on August 21, 1996. The video features a short footage showing Tom Dumont playing together with Foo Fighters' guitarist Pat Smear; the video ends with Kanal replacing the orange in the tree, footage of Kanal in reverse pulling the orange off. Tensions in the band had been running high, they were on the verge of breaking up the day before they were scheduled to film the video, they decided to go ahead and film it as a form of "therapy". The video won the award for Best Group Video and was nominated for Video of the Year at the 1997 MTV Video Music Awards, it has over 640 million views on YouTube as of Fe
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. Part of Warwickshire, Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, it is the second largest city in the West Midlands region, after Birmingham. Coventry is 19 miles east-southeast of Birmingham, 24 miles southwest of Leicester, 11 miles north of Warwick and 94 miles northwest of London. Coventry is the most central city in England, being only 11 miles south-southwest of the country's geographical centre in Leicestershire; the current Coventry Cathedral was built after the majority of the 14th century cathedral church of Saint Michael was destroyed by the Luftwaffe in the Coventry Blitz of 14 November 1940. Coventry motor companies have contributed to the British motor industry; the city has two universities, Coventry University in the city centre and the University of Warwick on the southern outskirts. On 7 December 2017, the city won the title of UK City of Culture 2021, after beating Paisley, Stoke-on-Trent and Sunderland to the title.
They will be the third title holder, of the quadrennial award which began in 2013. The Romans founded a settlement in Baginton, next to the River Sowe, another formed around a Saxon nunnery, founded c. AD 700 by St Osburga, left in ruins by King Canute's invading Danish army in 1016. Earl Leofric of Mercia and his wife Lady Godiva built on the remains of the nunnery and founded a Benedictine monastery in 1043 dedicated to St Mary. In time, a market was established at the settlement expanded. Coventry Castle was a bailey castle in the city, it was built in the early 12th century by 4th Earl of Chester. Its first known use was during The Anarchy when Robert Marmion, a supporter of King Stephen, expelled the monks from the adjacent priory of Saint Mary in 1144, converted it into a fortress from which he waged a battle against the Earl. Marmion perished in the battle, it was demolished in the late 12th century and St Mary's Guildhall was built on part of the site. It is assumed. By the 14th century, Coventry was an important centre of the cloth trade, throughout the Middle Ages was one of the largest and most important cities in England.
The bishops of Lichfield were referred to as bishops of Coventry and Lichfield, or Lichfield and Coventry. Coventry claimed the status of a city by ancient prescriptive usage, was granted a charter of incorporation in 1345, in 1451 became a county in its own right; the plays that William Shakespeare witnessed in Coventry during his boyhood or'teens' may have influenced how his plays, such as Hamlet, came about. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Coventry became one of the three main British centres of watch and clock manufacture and ranked alongside Prescot, in Lancashire and Clerkenwell in London; as the industry declined, due to competition from Swiss Made clock and watch manufacturers, the skilled pool of workers proved crucial to the setting up of bicycle manufacture and the motorbike, machine tool and aircraft industries. In the late 19th century, Coventry became a major centre of bicycle manufacture; the industry energised by the invention by James Starley and his nephew John Kemp Starley of the Rover safety bicycle, safer and more popular than the pioneering penny-farthing.
The company became Rover. By the early 20th century, bicycle manufacture had evolved into motor manufacture, Coventry became a major centre of the British motor industry; the research and design headquarters of Jaguar Cars is in the city at their Whitley plant and although vehicle assembly ceased at the Browns Lane plant in 2004, Jaguar's head office returned to the city in 2011, is sited in Whitley. Jaguar is owned by Tata Motors. With many of the city's older properties becoming unfit for habitation, the first council houses were let to their tenants in 1917. With Coventry's industrial base continuing to soar after the end of the Great War a year numerous private and council housing developments took place across the city in the 1920s and 1930s; the development of a southern by-pass around the city, starting in the 1930s and being completed in 1940, helped deliver more urban areas to the city on rural land. Coventry suffered severe bomb damage during the Second World War. There was a massive Luftwaffe air raid that the Germans called Operation Moonlight Sonata, part of the "Coventry Blitz", on 14 November 1940.
Firebombing on this date led to severe damage to large areas of the city centre and to Coventry's historic cathedral, leaving only a shell and the spire. More than 4,000 houses were damaged or destroyed, along with around three quarters of the city's industrial plants. More than 800 people were killed, with thousands injured and homeless. Aside from London and Plymouth, Coventry suffered more damage than any other British city during the Luftwaffe attacks, with huge firestorms devastating most of the city centre; the city was targeted due to its high concentration of armaments, munitions and aero-engine plants which contributed to the British war effort, although there have been claims that Hitler launched the attack as revenge for the bombing of Munich by the RAF six days before the Coventry Blitz and chose the Midlands city because its medieval heart was regarded as one of the finest in Britain. Following the raids, the majority of Coventry's historic buildings could not be saved as they were in ruinous states or were deemed unsafe for any future use.
Several structures were demolished to make way for