Shabbat or Shabbos, or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews and certain Christians remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, look forward to a future Messianic Age. Shabbat observance entails refraining from work activities with great rigor, engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins. Variations upon Shabbat are widespread in Judaism and, with adaptations, throughout the Abrahamic and many other religions. According to halakha, Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night. Shabbat is ushered in by reciting a blessing. Traditionally, three festive meals are eaten: in the evening, in the early afternoon, late in the afternoon.
The evening meal and the early afternoon meal begin with a blessing called kiddush and another blessing recited over two loaves of challah. Shabbat is closed the following evening with a havdalah blessing. Shabbat is a festive day, it offers an opportunity to spend time with family. The word "Shabbat" derives from the Hebrew verb shavat. Although translated as "rest", another accurate translation of these words is "ceasing ", as resting is not denoted; the related modern Hebrew word shevita, has the same implication of active rather than passive abstinence from work. The notion of active cessation from labor is regarded as more consistent with an omnipotent God's activity on the seventh day of Creation according to Genesis. Other significant connotations are to shevet which means sitting or staying, to sheva meaning seven, as Shabbat is the seventh day of the week. Sabbath is given special status as a holy day at the beginning of the Torah in Genesis 2:1–3, it is first commanded after the Exodus from Egypt, in Exodus 16:26 and in Exodus 16:29, as in Exodus 20:8–11.
Sabbath is commended many more times in the Torah and Tanakh. Sabbath is described by the prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, Hosea and Nehemiah; the longstanding traditional Jewish position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution. The origins of Shabbat and a seven-day week are not clear to scholars. Seventh-day Shabbat did not originate with the Egyptians; the first non-Biblical reference to Sabbath is in an ostracon found in excavations at Mesad Hashavyahu, dated 630 BCE. Connection to Sabbath observance has been suggested in the designation of the seventh, nineteenth, twenty-first and twenty-eight days of a lunar month in an Assyrian religious calendar as a'holy day' called ‘evil days’; the prohibitions on these days, spaced seven days apart, include abstaining from chariot riding, the avoidance of eating meat by the King. On these days officials were prohibited from various activities and common men were forbidden to "make a wish", at least the 28th was known as a "rest-day".
The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia advanced a theory of Assyriologists like Friedrich Delitzsch that Shabbat arose from the lunar cycle in the Babylonian calendar containing four weeks ending in Sabbath, plus one or two additional unreckoned days per month. The difficulties of this theory include reconciling the differences between an unbroken week and a lunar week, explaining the absence of texts naming the lunar week as Sabbath in any language; the Tanakh and siddur describe Shabbat as having three purposes: To commemorate God's creation of the universe, on the seventh day of which God rested from his work. Judaism accords Shabbat the status of a joyous holy day. In many ways, Jewish law gives Shabbat the status of being the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar: It is the first holy day mentioned in the Bible, God was the first to observe it with the cessation of Creation. Jewish liturgy treats Shabbat as a "bride" and "queen"; the Sefer Torah is read during the Torah reading, part of the Shabbat morning services, with a longer reading than during the week.
The Torah is read over a yearly cycle of one for each Shabbat. On Shabbat, the reading is divided into seven sections, more than on any other holy day, including Yom Kippur; the Haftarah reading from the Hebrew prophets is read. A tradition states that the Jewish Messiah will come if every Jew properly observes two consecutive Shabbatoth; the punishme
The Romaniote Jews or Romaniotes are an ethnic Jewish community native to the Eastern Mediterranean. They are one of the oldest Jewish communities in existence and the oldest Jewish community in Europe, their distinct language was Judaeo-Greek, a Greek dialect that contained Hebrew along with some Aramaic and Turkish words but now speak modern Greek or the languages of their new home countries. They derived their name from the old name for the people of Romaioi. Large communities were located in Thebes, Chalcis, Arta, Volos, Corinth, on the islands of Zakynthos, Chios, Samos and Cyprus, among others; the Romaniotes are distinct and still remain distinct from the Sephardim, who settled in Ottoman Greece after the 1492 expulsion of the Jews from Spain. A majority of the Jewish population of Greece was killed in the Holocaust after Axis powers occupied Greece during World War II, they deported most of the Jews to Nazi concentration camps. After the war, a majority of the survivors emigrated to Israel, the United States, Western Europe.
Today there are still functioning Romaniote Synagogues in Chalkis which represents the oldest Jewish congregation on European ground, in Ioannina, New York and Israel. The name Romaniote refers to the medieval Eastern Roman Empire, which included the territory of modern Greece, was for centuries the homeland of this Jewish group; the Empire was referred to as Rhomania and its Christian citizens as Rhomaioi, while the Greek-speaking Jews were called Romaniotes. Further Information: Ῥωμαῖοι. Jews have lived in Greece long before the Second Temple era; the Greek Judaism dates back over 2,300 years to the time of Alexander the Great. The earliest reference to a Greek Jew is an inscription dated c. 300–250 BC, found in Oropos, a small coastal town between Athens and Boeotia, which refers to "Moschos, son of Moschion the Jew", who may have been a slave. On the Island Aegina a Hellenistic Jewish synagogue was discovered in 1829 in the capital of the Island, near the ancient military port; the synagogue was discovered by the Scottish German historian Ludwig Ross, from the royal court of King Otto of Greece.
The floor was covered in order to be protected and was studied again by Thiersch in 1901, Furtwängler in 1904, E. Sukenik in 1928, by the German archaeologist Dr. G. Welter, in 1932; the studies were completed by the National Archaeological Service. Based on the quality of the floor's mosaic, the building is believed to have been constructed in the 4th century AD and was used until the 7th century AD; the mosaic floor of the synagogue still survives and is made up of multi-colored tesserae, that create the impression of a carpet, in a geometric pattern of blue, gray and white. Two Greek inscriptions were found in front of the synagogue's entrance, on the western side of the building. Today, only part of the synagogue's mosaic floor is extant, it has been moved from its original location to the courtyard of the island's Archaeological Museum. In 1977 an other ancient Synagogue has been discovered in Athens, the Synagogue in the Agora of Athens, which may be the Synagogue that Paul the Apostle preached.
Inscriptions in the Samaritan and the Greek alphabet found in Thessaloniki may originate from Samaritan synagogues. Concurrently the oldest synagogue found in the diaspora is the oldest Samaritan synagogue. A Romaniote oral tradition tells that the first Jews arrived in Ioannina shortly after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD. Before the migration of the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi Jews into the Balkans and Eastern Europe, the Jewish culture in these areas consisted of Romaniote Jews; the Romaniote Rites represent those of the Greek-speaking Jews of the Byzantine empire, ranging from southern Italy in the west, to much of Turkey in the East, Crete to the south, Crimea to the north and the Jews of the early medieval Balkans and Eastern Europe. The Sefer Yosippon was written down in the 10th century in Byzantine Southern Italy by the Greek-speaking Jewish community there. Judah Leon ben Moses Mosconi, a Romaniote Jew from Achrida edited and expanded the Sefer Josippon later.
This community of Byzantine Jews of southern Italy produced such prominent works like the Sefer Ahimaaz of Ahimaaz ben Paltiel, the Sefer Hachmoni of Shabbethai Donnolo, the Aggadath Bereshit and many Piyyutim. The liturgical writings of these Romaniote Jews the piyyut were eminent for the development of the Ashkenazi Mahzor, as they found their way through Italy to Ashkenaz and are preserved to this day in the most Ashkenazi mahzorim; the Jews of Southern Italy continued to be Greek-speakers until the 15th century. When they were expelled and went to different regions of Greece Corfu and Thessaloniki, they could continue speak their Greek language if this language was somewhat different from that of Greece. In the 12th century, Ben
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism. Until modern Haskalah and Jewish emancipation, Jewish philosophy was preoccupied with attempts to reconcile coherent new ideas into the tradition of Rabbinic Judaism, thus organizing emergent ideas that are not Jewish into a uniquely Jewish scholastic framework and world-view. With their acceptance into modern society, Jews with secular educations embraced or developed new philosophies to meet the demands of the world in which they now found themselves. Medieval re-discovery of ancient Greek philosophy among the Geonim of 10th century Babylonian academies brought rationalist philosophy into Biblical-Talmudic Judaism; the philosophy was in competition with Kabbalah. Both schools would become part of classic Rabbinic literature, though the decline of scholastic rationalism coincided with historical events which drew Jews to the Kabbalistic approach. For Ashkenazi Jews and encounter with secular thought from the 18th century onwards altered how philosophy was viewed.
Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities had more ambivalent interaction with secular culture than in Western Europe. In the varied responses to modernity, Jewish philosophical ideas were developed across the range of emerging religious movements; these developments could be seen as either continuations of or breaks from the canon of Rabbinic philosophy of the Middle Ages, as well as the other historical dialectic aspects of Jewish thought, resulted in diverse contemporary Jewish attitudes to philosophical methods. Rabbinic literature sometimes views Abraham as a philosopher; some have suggested. A midrash describes how Abraham understood this world to have a creator and director by comparing this world to "a house with a light in it", what is now called the argument from design. Psalms contains invitations to admire the wisdom of God through his works. Ecclesiastes is considered to be the only genuine philosophical work in the Hebrew Bible. Philo attempted to fuse and harmonize Greek and Jewish philosophy through allegory, which he learned from Jewish exegesis and Stoicism.
Philo attempted to make his philosophy the means of defending and justifying Jewish religious truths. These truths he regarded as fixed and determinate, philosophy was used as an aid to truth, a means of arriving at it. To this end Philo chose from philosophical tenets of Greeks, refusing those that did not harmonize with Judaism such as Aristotle's doctrine of the eternity and indestructibility of the world. Dr. Bernard Revel, in dissertation on Karaite halakha, points to writings of a 10th-century Karaite, Jacob Qirqisani, who quotes Philo, illustrating how Karaites made use of Philo's works in development of Karaite Judaism. Philo's works became important to Medieval Christian scholars who leveraged the work of Karaites to lend credence to their claims that "these are the beliefs of Jews" - a technically correct, yet deceptive, attribution. With the Roman destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Second Temple Judaism was in disarray, but Jewish traditions were preserved thanks to the shrewd maneuvers of Johanan ben Zakai, who saved the Sanhedrin and moved it to Yavne.
Philosophical speculation was not a central part of Rabbinic Judaism, although some have seen the Mishnah as a philosophical work. Rabbi Akiva has been viewed as a philosophical figure: his statements include 1.) "How favored is man, for he was created after an image "for in an image, Elokim made man"", 2.) "Everything is foreseen. "The world is governed by mercy... but the divine decision is made by the preponderance of the good or bad in one's actions". After the Bar Kokhba revolt, Rabbinic scholars gathered in Tiberias and Safed to re-assemble and re-assess Judaism, its laws, liturgy and leadership structure. In 219 CE, the Sura Academy was founded by Abba Arika. For the next five centuries, Talmudic academies focused upon reconstituting Judaism and little, if any, philosophic investigation was pursued. Rabbinic Judaism had limited philosophical activity until it was challenged by Islam, Karaite Judaism, Christianity—with Tanach and Talmud, there was no need for a philosophic framework. From an economic viewpoint, Radhanite trade dominance was being usurped by coordinated Christian and Islamic forced-conversions, torture, compelling Jewish scholars to understand nascent economic threats.
These investigations triggered new ideas and intellectual exchange among Jewish and Islamic scholars in the areas of jurisprudence, astronomy and philosophy. Jewish scholars influenced Islamic scholars influenced Jewish scholars. Contemporary scholars continue to debate, Muslim and, Jew—some "Islamic scholars" were "Jewish scholars" prior to forced conversion to Islam, some Jewish scholars willingly converted to Islam, such as Abdullah ibn Salam, while others reverted to Judaism, still others and raised as Jews, were ambiguous in their religious beliefs such as ibn al-Rawandi, although they lived according to the customs of their neighbors. Around 700 CE, ʿAmr ibn ʿUbayd Abu ʿUthman al-Basri introduces two streams of thought that influence Jewish and Christian scholars: Qadariyah Bahshamiyya MuʿtazilaThe story of the Bahshamiyya Muʿtazila
Ashkenazi Jews known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim, are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium. The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews is Yiddish, developed after they had moved into northern Europe: beginning with Germany and France in the Middle Ages. For centuries they used Hebrew only as a sacred language, until the revival of Hebrew as a common language in Israel. Throughout their time in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to its philosophy, literature, art and science; the term "Ashkenazi" refers to Jewish settlers who established communities along the Rhine river in Western Germany and in Northern France dating to the Middle Ages. Once there, they adapted traditions carried from Babylon, the Holy Land, the Western Mediterranean to their new environment; the Ashkenazi religious rite developed in cities such as Mainz and Troyes. The eminent French Rishon rabbi Shlomo Itzhaki would have a significant influence on the Jewish religion.
In the late Middle Ages, due to religious persecution, the majority of the Ashkenazi population shifted eastward, moving out of the Holy Roman Empire into the areas part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the course of the late 18th and 19th centuries, those Jews who remained in or returned to the German lands generated a cultural reorientation; the Holocaust of the Second World War decimated the Ashkenazim, affecting every Jewish family. It is estimated that in the 11th century Ashkenazi Jews composed three percent of the world's total Jewish population, while an estimate made in 1930 had them as 92 percent of the world's Jews. Prior to the Holocaust, the number of Jews in the world stood at 16.7 million. Statistical figures vary for the contemporary demography of Ashkenazi Jews, ranging from 10 million to 11.2 million. Sergio Della Pergola, in a rough calculation of Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews, implies that Ashkenazi Jews make up less than 74% of Jews worldwide. Other estimates place Ashkenazi Jews as making up about 75% of Jews worldwide.
Genetic studies on Ashkenazim—researching both their paternal and maternal lineages—suggest a predominant amount of shared Middle Eastern ancestry, complemented by varying percentages of European admixture. These studies have arrived at diverging conclusions regarding both the degree and the sources of their European ancestry, have focused on the extent of the European genetic origin observed in Ashkenazi maternal lineages. Ashkenazi Jews are popularly contrasted with Sephardi Jews, who descend from Jews who settled in the Iberian Peninsula, Mizrahi Jews, who descend from Jews who remained in the Middle East; the name Ashkenazi derives from the biblical figure of Ashkenaz, the first son of Gomer, son of Japhet, son of Noah, a Japhetic patriarch in the Table of Nations. The name of Gomer has been linked to the ethnonym Cimmerians. Biblical Ashkenaz is derived from Assyrian Aškūza, a people who expelled the Cimmerians from the Armenian area of the Upper Euphrates, whose name is associated with the name of the Scythians.
The intrusive n in the Biblical name is due to a scribal error confusing a vav ו with a nun נ. In Jeremiah 51:27, Ashkenaz figures as one of three kingdoms in the far north, the others being Minni and Ararat corresponding to Urartu, called on by God to resist Babylon. In the Yoma tractate of the Babylonian Talmud the name Gomer is rendered as Germania, which elsewhere in rabbinical literature was identified with Germanikia in northwestern Syria, but became associated with Germania. Ashkenaz is linked to Scandza/Scanzia, viewed as the cradle of Germanic tribes, as early as a 6th-century gloss to the Historia Ecclesiastica of Eusebius. In the 10th-century History of Armenia of Yovhannes Drasxanakertc'i Ashkenaz was associated with Armenia, as it was in Jewish usage, where its denotation extended at times to Adiabene, Khazaria and areas to the east, his contemporary Saadia Gaon identified Ashkenaz with the Saquliba or Slavic territories, such usage covered the lands of tribes neighboring the Slavs, Eastern and Central Europe.
In modern times, Samuel Krauss identified the Biblical "Ashkenaz" with Khazaria. Sometime in the Early Medieval period, the Jews of central and eastern Europe came to be called by this term. Conforming to the custom of designating areas of Jewish settlement with biblical names, Spain was denominated Sefarad, France was called Tsarefat, Bohemia was called the Land of Canaan. By the high medieval period, Talmudic commentators like Rashi began to use Ashkenaz/Eretz Ashkenaz to designate Germany, earlier known as Loter, where in the Rhineland communities of Speyer and Mainz, the most important Jewish communities arose. Rashi uses leshon Ashkenaz to describe German speech, Byzantium and Syrian Jewish letters referred to the Crusaders as Ashkenazim. Given the close links between the Jewish communities of France a
Beta Israel known as Ethiopian Jews, are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire, divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Most of these peoples have emigrated to Israel since the late 20th century; the Beta Israel lived in northern and northwestern Ethiopia, in more than 500 small villages spread over a wide territory, alongside populations that were Muslim and predominantly Christian. Most of them were concentrated on what are today, North Gondar Zone, Shire Inda Selassie, Tselemti, Segelt and Belesa; the Beta Israel made renewed contacts with other Jewish communities in the 20th century. After Halakhic and constitutional discussions, Israeli officials decided, in 1977, that the Israeli Law of Return applied to the Beta Israel; the Israeli and American governments mounted aliyah operations to transport the people to Israel. These activities included Operation Brothers in Sudan between 1979 and 1990, in the 1990s from Addis Ababa.
By the end of 2008, there were 119,300 people of Ethiopian descent in Israel, including nearly 81,000 people born in Ethiopia and about 38,500 native-born Israelis with at least one parent born in Ethiopia or Eritrea. Throughout its history, the community has been referred to by numerous names. According to tradition the name "Beta Israel" originated in the 4th century CE, when the community refused to convert to Christianity during the rule of Abreha and Atsbeha, the monarchs of the Kingdom of Aksum who embraced Christianity; this name contrasts with "Beta Kristiyan". It did not have any negative connotations, the community has since used Beta Israel as its official name. Since the 1980s, it has become the official name used in the scholarly and scientific literature to refer to the community; the term Esra'elawi "Israelites" –, related to the name Beta Israel – is used by the community to refer to its members. The name Ayhud, "Jews", is used in the community, as the Christians had used it as a derogatory term.
The community has begun to use it only since strengthening ties with other Jewish communities in the 20th century. The term Ibrawi "Hebrew" was used to refer to the Chawa in the community, in contrast to Barya "slave"; the term Oritawi "Torah-true" was used to refer to the community members. The derogatory term Falasha, meaning "landless, wanderers", was given to the community by the Emperor Yeshaq I in the 15th century, is to be avoided as offensive. Zagwe, referring to the Agaw people of the Zagwe dynasty, among the original inhabitants of northwest Ethiopia, is considered derogatory, since it incorrectly associates the community with the pagan Agaw. Haymanot is the colloquial term for "faith" used in the Jewish religion in the community, although it is used by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians for their religion. Mäṣḥafä Kedus is the name for their religious literature; the language of the writings is Ge'ez, the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. The holiest book is the Orit, which consists of the Octateuch: Five Books of Moses with Joshua and Ruth.
The rest of the Bible has secondary importance. Sources are lacking on whether the Book of Lamentations is excluded from the canon, or whether it forms part of the Book of Jeremiah, as it does in the Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon. Deuterocanonical books that make up part of the canon are Sirach, Esdras 1 and 2, Jubilees, Baruch 1 and 4, Tobit and the testaments of Abraham and Jacob. Important non-Biblical writings include: Nagara Muse, Mota Aaron, Mota Muse, Te'ezaza Sanbat, Arde'et, Gorgorios, Mäṣḥafä Sa'atat, Abba Elias, Mäṣḥafä Mäla'əkt, Mäṣḥafä Kahan, Dərsanä Abrəham Wäsara Bägabs, Gadla Sosna, Baqadāmi Gabra Egzi'abḥēr. Zëna Ayhud and Fālasfā are two books that have had great influence; the synagogue is called masgid bet maqdas or ṣalot bet. Beta Israel kashrut law is based on the books of Leviticus and Jubilees. Permitted and forbidden animals and their signs appear in Leviticus 11:3–8 and Deuteronomy 14:4–8. Forbidden birds are listed in Leviticus 11:13–23 and Deuteronomy 14:12–20. Signs of permitted fish are written on Leviticus 11:9–12 and Deuteronomy 14:9–10.
Insects and larvae are forbidden according to Leviticus 11:41–42. Waterfowl are forbidden according to Leviticus 11:46. Gid hanasheh is forbidden per Genesis 32:33. Mixtures of milk and meat are not prepared or eaten, but are not banned either: Haymanot interpreted the verses Exodus 23:19, Exodus 34:26, Deuteronomy 14:21 "shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk" as in Karaite Judaism. Nowadays, under the influence of Rabbinic Judaism, mixing dairy products with meat
The brit milah is a Jewish religious male circumcision ceremony performed by a mohel on the eighth day of the infant's life. The brit milah is followed by a celebratory meal. According to the Hebrew Bible God commanded the Biblical patriarch Abraham to be circumcised, an act to be followed by his descendants: 10 This is My covenant, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee: every male among you shall be circumcised. 11 And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin. 12 And he, eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he, born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, not of thy seed. 13 He, born in thy house, he, bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised. 14 And the uncircumcised male, not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people. Leviticus 12:3 provides: "And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised." According to the Hebrew Bible, it was "a reproach" for an Israelite to be uncircumcised The term arelim is used opprobriously, denoting the Philistines and other non-Israelites and used in conjunction with tameh for heathen.
The word arel is employed for "impermeable". However, the Israelites born in the wilderness after the Exodus from Egypt were not circumcised. Joshua 5:2–9, explains, "all the people that came out" of Egypt were circumcised, but those "born in the wilderness" were not. Therefore, before the celebration of the Passover, had them circumcised at Gilgal before they entered Canaan. Abraham, was circumcised when he moved into Canaan; the prophetic tradition emphasizes that God expects people to be good as well as pious, that non-Jews will be judged based on their ethical behavior, see Noahide Law. Thus, Jeremiah 9:25 -- 26 says that uncircumcised will be punished alike by the Lord; the penalty of non-observance is kareth, as noted in Genesis 17:1–14. Conversion to Judaism for non-Israelites in Biblical times necessitated circumcision, otherwise one could not partake in the Passover offering. Today, as in the time of Abraham, it is required of converts in Orthodox and Reform Judaism.. As found in Genesis 17:1–14, brit milah is considered to be so important that should the eighth day fall on the Sabbath, actions that would be forbidden because of the sanctity of the day are permitted in order to fulfill the requirement to circumcise.
The Talmud, when discussing the importance of Milah, compares it to being equal to all other mitzvot based on the gematria for brit of 612. Covenants in ancient times were sometimes sealed by severing an animal, with the implication that the party who breaks the covenant will suffer a similar fate. In Hebrew, the verb meaning "to seal a covenant" translates as "to cut", it is presumed by Jewish scholars that the removal of the foreskin symbolically represents such a sealing of the covenant. Due to Jesus having undertaken this ceremony as a Jewish child, memory of this tradition has been preserved in traditional Christian churches according to the Gospel of Luke; the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ is kept as a feast eight days after Nativity in a number of churches including the Eastern Orthodox Church, Catholic Church and some Anglican Communion churches. In Orthodox Christian tradition, children are named on the eighth day after birth with special naming prayers; the tradition of baptism universally replaced circumcision among Christians as the primary rite of passage as found in Paul's Epistle to the Colossians and in Acts of the Apostles.
A mohel is a Jew trained in the practice of brit milah, the "covenant of circumcision." According to traditional Jewish law, in the absence of a grown free Jewish male expert, anyone who has the required skills is authorized to perform the circumcision, provided that they are Jewish. However, most streams of non-Orthodox Judaism allow female mohels, called mohalot, without restriction. In 1984, Deborah Cohen became the first certified Reform mohelet, it is customary for the brit to be held in a synagogue, but it can be held at home or any other suitable location. The brit is performed on the eighth day from the baby's birth, taking into consideration that according to the Jewish calendar, the day begins at the sunset of the day before. If the baby is born on Sunday before sunset, the Brit will be held the following Sunday. However, if the baby is born on Sunday night after sunset, the Brit is on the following Monday; the brit takes place on the eighth day following birth if that day is Shabbat or a holiday.
A brit is traditionally performed in the morning, but it may be performed any time during daylight hours. The Talmud explicitly instructs that a boy must n
The Krymchaks are Jewish ethno-religious communities of Crimea derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Orthodox Judaism. They have lived in close proximity to the Crimean Karaites Turkic but who follow Karaite Judaism. At first krymchak was a Russian descriptive used to differentiate them from their Ashkenazi Jewish coreligionists, as well as other Jewish communities in the former Russian Empire such as the Georgian Jews, but in the second half of the 19th century this name was adopted by the Krymchaks themselves. Before this their self-designation was "Срель балалары" – "Children of Israel"; the Crimean Tatars referred to them as zuluflı çufutlar to distinguish them from the Karaites, who were called zulufsız çufutlar. The Krymchaks speak a modified form of the Crimean Tatar language, called the Krymchak language, it is the Jewish patois, or ethnolect of Crimean Tatar, a Kypchak Turkic language. Krimchak is not a distinct language, but only one constituent of Crimean Tatar. Before the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Krimchaks were at least bilingual: they spoke the Krimchak ethnolect and at the same time used Hebrew for their religious life and for written communication.
The Krimchaks adhered to their Turkic patois up to World War II, but began to lose their linguistic identity. Now they are making efforts to revive their language. Many of the linguistic characteristics of the Krimchak language could be found in the Crimean Tatar language. In addition, it contains numerous Hebrew and Aramaic loan-words and was traditionally written in Hebrew characters. Krymchaks are partially descended from Jewish refugees who settled along the Black Sea in ancient times. Jewish communities existed in many of the Greek colonies in the region during the late classic period. Excavated inscriptions in Crimea have revealed a Jewish presence at least as early as the 1st century BCE. In some Crimean towns, monotheistic pagan cults called; these quasi-proselytes kept the Jewish commandments but remained uncircumcised and retained certain pagan customs. These sects disappeared as their members adopted either Christianity or normative Judaism. Another version is that after the suppression of Bar Kokhba's revolt by the emperor Hadrian, those Jews who were not executed were exiled to the Crimean peninsula.
The late classical era saw great upheaval in the region as Crimea was occupied by Goths, Bulgars and other peoples. Jewish merchants such as the Radhanites began to develop extensive contacts in the Pontic region during this period, maintained close relations with the proto-Krymchak communities. Khazar dominance of Crimea during the Early Middle Ages is considered to have at least a partial impact on Krymchak demographics. In the late 7th century most of Crimea fell to the Khazars; the extent to which the Krymchaks influenced the ultimate conversion of the Khazars and the development of Khazar Judaism is unknown. During the period of Khazar rule, intermarriage between Crimean Jews and Khazars was and the Krymchaks absorbed numerous Khazar refugees during the decline and fall of the Khazar kingdom, it is known that Kipchak converts to Judaism existed, it is possible that from these converts the Krymchaks adopted their distinctive language. In times when the Crimea belonged to the Byzantine Empire and after waves of Byzantine Jews settled there.
These newcomers were in most cases merchants from Constantinople and brought with them Romaniote Jewish practices. The Mongol conquerors of the Pontic–Caspian steppe were promoters of religious freedom, the Genoese occupation of southern Crimea saw rising degrees of Jewish settlement in the region; the Jewish community was divided among those who prayed according to the Sephardi and Romaniote rites. In 1515 the different traditions were united into a distinctive Krymchak prayer book, which represented the Romaniote rite by Rabbi Moshe Ha-Golah, a Chief Rabbi of Kiev, who had settled in Crimea. In the 18th century the community was headed by David Ben Karasubazar Lehno Eliezer, author of the introduction to the "Kaffa" rite prayer book and Mishkan David, devoted to Hebrew grammar, he was the author of a monumental Hebrew historical chronicle, Devar sefataim, on the history of the Crimean Khanate. Under the Crimean Khanate the Jews paid the dhimmi-tax. A limited judicial autonomy was granted according to the Ottoman millet system.
Overt, violent persecution was rare. According to anthropologist S. Vaysenberg, "The origin of Krymchaks is lost in the darkness of the ages. Only one thing can be said, that they carry less Turkic blood than the Karaites, although certain kinship between both peoples and the Khazars can hardly be denied, but Krymchaks during the Middle Ages and modern times mixed with their European counterparts. There was an admixture with Italian Jews from the time of the Genoeses with the arrival of the Lombroso and other families. Cases of intermarriage with Russian Jews occurred in recent times. There is no general work on the ethnography of Krymchaks; the available summary of folklore materials is not complete. Extensive anthroponimic data has been collected from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but does not cover earlier periods, for which archival material does exist; the study of each of these groups of sources can shed lig