Sedona is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley region of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,031. Sedona's main attraction is its array of red sandstone formations; the formations appear to glow in brilliant orange and red when illuminated by the rising or setting sun. The red rocks form a popular backdrop for many activities, ranging from spiritual pursuits to the hundreds of hiking and mountain biking trails. Sedona was named after Sedona Arabella Miller Schnebly, the wife of Theodore Carlton Schnebly, the city's first postmaster, celebrated for her hospitality and industriousness, her mother, Amanda Miller, claimed to have made the name up because "it sounded pretty". The first documented human presence in the Sedona area dates to between 11,500 and 9000 B. C, it was not until 1995 that a Clovis projectile point discovered in Honanki revealed the presence of the Paleo-Indians, who were big game hunters.
Around 9000 B. C. the pre-historic Archaic people appeared in the Verde Valley. These were hunter-gatherers and their presence in the area was longer than in other areas of the Southwest, most because of the ecological diversity and large amount of resources, they left by 300 A. D. There is an assortment of rock art left by the Archaic people in places near Sedona such as Palatki and Honanki. Around 650 A. D. the Sinagua people entered the Verde Valley. Their culture is known for its art such as pottery and their masonry, they left rock art and cliff dwellings such as Montezuma Castle, Honanki and Tuzigoot in the period of their presence. The Sinagua abandoned the Verde Valley about 1400 A. D. Researchers believe the Sinagua and other clans moved to the Hopi mesas in Arizona and the Zuni and other pueblos in New Mexico; the Yavapai came from the west when the Sinagua were still there in the Verde Valley around 1300 A. D, they were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Some archaeologists place the Apache arrival in the Verde Valley around 1450 A.
D. Many Apache groups traveled over large areas; the Yavapai and Apache tribes were forcibly removed from the Verde Valley in 1876, to the San Carlos Indian Reservation, 180 miles southeast. About 1,500 people were marched, to San Carlos. Several hundred lost their lives; the survivors were interned for 25 years. About 200 Yavapai and Apache people returned to the Verde Valley in 1900 and have since intermingled as a single political entity although culturally distinct residing in the Yavapai-Apache Nation; the first Anglo settler, John J. Thompson, moved to Oak Creek Canyon in 1876, an area well known for its peach and apple orchards; the early settlers were ranchers. In 1902, when the Sedona post office was established, there were 55 residents. In the mid-1950s, the first telephone directory listed 155 names; some parts of the Sedona area were not electrified until the 1960s. Sedona began to develop as a tourist vacation-home and retirement center in the 1950s. Most of the development seen today was constructed in the 1990s.
As of 2007, there are no large tracts of undeveloped land remaining. In 1956, construction of the Chapel of the Holy Cross was completed; the chapel rises 70 feet out of a 1,000-foot redrock cliff. The most prominent feature of the chapel is the cross. A chapel was added. Inside the chapel there is a cross with benches and pews. Sedona played host to more than sixty Hollywood productions from the first years of movies into the 1970s. Stretching as far back as 1923, Sedona's red rocks were a fixture in major Hollywood productions—including films such as Johnny Guitar and the Badman, Desert Fury, Blood on the Moon, The Last Wagon, 3:10 to Yuma. However, the surroundings were identified to audiences as the terrain of Texas, California and Canada–US border territory. On June 18, 2006, a wildfire started by campers, began about one mile north of Sedona; the Brins Fire covered 4,317 acres on Brins Mesa, Wilson Mountain and in Oak Creek Canyon before the USDA Forest Service declared it 100 percent contained on June 28.
Containment cost was estimated at $6.4 million. On May 20, 2014, a wildfire started from an unknown cause began north of Sedona at Slide Rock State Park; the Slide Fire spread across 21,227 acres in Oak Creek Canyon over nine days and prompted evacuations. State Route 89A opened to Flagstaff in June, but all parking and canyon access was closed to the public until Oct. 1, 2014. Sedona is located in the Upper Sonoran Desert of northern Arizona. Sedona has hot summers. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.22%, is water. The red rocks of Sedona are formed by a unique layer of rock known as the Schnebly Hill Formation; the Schnebly Hill Formation is a thick layer of red to orange-colored sandstone found only in the Sedona vicinity. The sandstone, a member of the Supai Group, was deposited during the Permian Period. Sedona has a temperate semi-arid climate. In January, the average high temperature is 57 °F with a low of 31 °F.
In July, the average high temperature is 97 °F with a low of 64 °F. Annual precipitation is just over 19 inches; as of the census of 2000, there were 10,192 people, 4,928 households, 2,863 families residing in the city. The population density was 548.0 people per square mile. There were 5,684 housing units at an average density of 305.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.17% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.94%
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat
Buckwheat, or common buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop. A related and more bitter species, Fagopyrum tataricum, is a domesticated food plant common in Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat. Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel and rhubarb; because its seeds are rich in complex carbohydrates, it is referred to as a pseudocereal. The cultivation of buckwheat grain declined in the 20th century with the adoption of nitrogen fertilizer that increased the productivity of other staples; the name "buckwheat" or "beech wheat" comes from its triangular seeds, which resemble the much larger seeds of the beech nut from the beech tree, the fact that it is used like wheat. The word may be a translation of Middle Dutch boecweite: boec, "beech" and weite, wheat, or may be a native formation on the same model as the Dutch word; the wild ancestor of common buckwheat is F. esculentum ssp. ancestrale. F. homotropicum is interfertile with F. esculentum and the wild forms have a common distribution, in Yunnan, a southwestern province of China.
The wild ancestor of tartary buckwheat is F. tataricum ssp. potanini. Common buckwheat was domesticated and first cultivated in inland Southeast Asia around 6000 BCE, from there spread to Central Asia and Tibet, to the Middle East and Europe. Domestication most took place in the western Yunnan region of China; the oldest remains found in China so far date to circa 2600 BCE, while buckwheat pollen found in Japan dates from as early as 4000 BCE. It is the world's highest-elevation domesticate, being cultivated in Yunnan on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau or on the plateau itself. Buckwheat was one of the earliest crops introduced by Europeans to North America. Dispersal around the globe was complete by 2006, when a variety developed in Canada was planted in China. In India, buckwheat flour is known as kuttu ka atta and is culturally associated with the Navratri festival. On the day of this festival, food items made only from buckwheat are consumed. Buckwheat, a short-season crop, does well on low-fertility or acidic soils, but the soil must be well drained.
Too much fertilizer nitrogen, reduces yields. In hot climates it can be grown only by sowing late in the season, so that it blooms in cooler weather; the presence of pollinators increases the yield. The nectar from buckwheat flower makes a dark-colored honey. Buckwheat is sometimes used as a green manure, as a plant for erosion control, or as wildlife cover and feed; the plant has a branching root system with a primary taproot that reaches into moist soil. Buckwheat has triangular seeds and produces a flower, white, although can be pink or yellow. Buckwheat branches as opposed to tillering or producing suckers, causing a more complete adaption to its environment than other cereal crops; the seed hull density is less than that of water. Buckwheat is raised for grain where a short season is available, either because it is used as a second crop in the season, or because the climate is limiting. Buckwheat can be a reliable cover crop in summer to fit a small slot of warm season, it establishes which suppresses summer weeds.
Buckwheat has a growing period of only 10–12 weeks and it can be grown in high latitude or northern areas. It grows 30 to 50 inches tall. 71 -- 78 % in groats 70 -- 91 % in different types of flour Starch is 75 % amylopectin. Depending on hydrothermal treatment, buckwheat groats contain 7–37% of resistant starch. Crude protein is 18%, with biological values above 90%; this can be explained by a high concentration of all essential amino acids lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids. Rich in iron and selenium 10–200 ppm of rutin, 0.1–2% of tannins and presence of catechin-7-O-glucoside in groats. Buckwheat contains 0.4 to 0.6 mg/g of fagopyrins Salicylaldehyde was identified as a characteristic component of buckwheat aroma. 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-furanone, -2,4-decadienal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, -2-nonenal and hexanal contribute to its aroma. They all have odour activity value more than 50, but the aroma of these substances in an isolated state does not resemble buckwheat.
In a 100-gram serving providing 343 calories dry and 92 calories cooked, buckwheat is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, four B vitamins and several dietary minerals, with content high in niacin, magnesium and phosphorus. Buckwheat is 72 % carbohydrates, including 3 % fat and 13 % protein; as buckwheat contains no gluten, it may be eaten by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or dermatitis herpetiformis. Buckwheat may have gluten contamination. Cases of severe allergic reactions to buckwheat and buckwheat-containing products have been reported. Buckwheat contains fluorescent phototoxic fagopyrins. Seeds and teas are safe when consumed in normal amounts, but fagopyrism can appear in people with diets based on high consumption of buckwheat sprouts, flowers or fagopyrin-rich buckwheat extracts. Symptoms of fagopyrism in humans may include skin inflammation in sunlight-exposed areas, cold sensitivity, tingling or numbness in the hands.
The fruit is an achene, similar to sunflower seed, with a single seed inside a hard outer hull. The starchy endosperm is white and makes
V-Bar-V Heritage Site
The V-Bar-V Heritage Site is the largest known petroglyph site in the Verde Valley of central Arizona, one of the best-preserved. The rock art site consists of 1,032 petroglyphs in 13 panels. Acquired by the Coconino National Forest in 1994, the site is protected and kept open to the public by the US Forest Service. Volunteers from the Verde Valley Archaeological Society and the Friends of the Forest provide interpretive tours and on-site management. A visitor center and bookstore, operated by the Forest Service and the Arizona Natural History Association, is located on site; the fenced petroglyph site is an easy half-mile walk from the parking lot. For most of the year, there is a resident on-site custodian; the petroglyphs were created by Southern Sinagua residents between about 1150 and 1400 AD. The site was known to early American settlers, became part of the historic V-Bar-V ranch around 1907; the ranch headquarters were nearby, the ranchers protected the site from vandalism. Some historic ranch buildings remain near the Visitor Center.
The US Forest Service acquired the site in 1994. Rock art is one type of archaeological data that can be used to identify prehistoric cultures and time periods; the Beaver Creek Rock Art Style has been identified and formally described through studies of rock art sites in the Beaver Creek area at V-Bar-V. The Beaver Creek Style, found throughout the eastern half of the Verde Valley, is diagnostic of the Southern Sinagua culture between A. D. 1150 and 1400. About 20% of the petroglyphs are zoomorphs, including snakes, coyotes and antelope; the next most common types are anthropomorphs and geometric figures, such as grids. The documentation of the V-Bar-V Heritage Site has provided important information for defining the characteristics of the Beaver Creek Style. V-Bar-V is unusual in that all of the petroglyphs are of this one style, all are well-spaced, without overlap or newer designs drawn over older. Wet Beaver Wilderness, one-half mile east. V-Bar-V Heritage Site at Coconino National Forest. Friends of the Forest photo gallery Another nice V-bar-V photo gallery
The Hohokam were an ancient Native American culture centered in the present US state of Arizona. The Hohokam are one of the four major cultures of the American Southwest and northern Mexico in Southwestern archaeology. Considered part of the Oasisamerica tradition, the Hohokam established significant trading centers such as at Snaketown, are considered to be the builders of the original canal system around the Phoenix metropolitan area, which the Mormon pioneers rebuilt when they settled the Lehi area of Mesa near Red Mountain. Variant spellings in current, official usage include Hobokam and Huhukam; the Hohokam culture was differentiated from others in the region in the 1930s by archaeologist Harold S. Gladwin, who applied the existing O'odham term for the culture, huhu-kam, meaning "all used up" or "those who are gone", to classify the remains he was excavating in the Lower Gila Valley. According to the National Park Service Website, Hohokam is an O'odham word used by archaeologists to identify a group of people who lived in the Sonoran Desert.
According to local oral tradition, the Hohokam may be the ancestors of the historic Pima and Tohono O'odham peoples in Southern Arizona. Gila and lower Salt River drainages in what is known as the Phoenix basin; this is referred to as opposed to the Hohokam Peripheries. Collectively, the Core and Peripheries formed what is referred to as the Hohokam Regional System, which occupied the northern or Upper Sonoran Desert in what is now Arizona; the Hohokam extended into the Mogollon Rim region. Within a larger context, the Hohokam culture area inhabited a central trade position between the Patayan situated along the Lower Colorado River and in southern California. In North America, the Hohokam were the only culture to rely on irrigation canals to water their crops since as early as 800, their irrigation systems supported the largest population in the Southwest by 1300. Archaeologists working at a major archaeological dig in the 1990s in the Tucson Basin, along the Santa Cruz River, identified a culture and people that were ancestors of the Hohokam who might have occupied southern Arizona as early as 2000 BCE.
This prehistoric group from the Early Agricultural Period grew corn, lived year-round in sedentary villages, developed sophisticated irrigation canals. The Hohokam used the waters of the Salt and Gila Rivers and constructed an assortment of simple canals combined with weirs in their various agricultural pursuits. Since the 9th century and extending into the 15th century, they maintained what was to become extensive irrigation networks that rivaled the complexity of those used in the ancient Near East and China; these were constructed using simple excavation tools, without the benefit of advanced engineering technologies, achieved drops of a few feet per mile, balancing erosion and siltation. Over 70 years of archaeological research has revealed that the Hohokam cultivated varieties of cotton, maize and squash, as well as harvested a vast assortment of wild plants. Late in the Hohokam Chronological Sequence, they used extensive dry-farming systems to grow agave for food and fiber, their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less than hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers.
Overall, Hohokam villages and smaller settlements can be classified within the ranchería-tradition. Many features of early Hohokam domestic architecture, such as large square or rectangular pithouses, seem to have been transplanted intact from early Formative Period examples first developed in the Tucson basin. But, by the seventh century, a distinct Hohokam architectural tradition emerged. Throughout the Hohokam Chronological Sequence, individual residential structures were excavated 40 cm below ground level, with plastered or compacted floors that covered between 12 and 35 m2, featured a circular, bowl-shaped, clay-lined hearth situated near the wall-entry. Hohokam burial practices varied over time; the primary method employed was flexed inhumation, similar to the tradition used by the southern Mogollon culture, located to the east. In the late Formative and Preclassic periods, the Hohokam cremated their dead, again strikingly similar to the traditions documented among the historic Patayan culture situated to the west along the Lower Colorado River.
Although the particulars of the practice changed somewhat, the Hohokam cremation tradition remained dominant until around 1300. At this time, extended inhumation, similar to that used by the Salado tradition to the north and northeast, was adopted. Many of the details of the late Hohokam burial patterns were similar to the tradition practiced by the historic Tohono and Akimel O'odham; as an archaeological construct, the Hohokam chronological sequence uses a culture history-based period/phase scheme designed to provide a narrative of what has been perceived as a sequence of significant cultural change. Overall, the reason the HCS is confusing is that two primary methods of expressing this information are used, within this context, a vast plethora of theoretical variants have been posited. Only the two
Palatki Heritage Site
The Palatki Heritage Site is an archaeological site and park located in the Coconino National Forest, near Sedona, in Arizona, United States. In the Hopi language Palatki means'red house'. Cliff dwellingsThe Palatki site has a set of ancient cliff dwellings in the red sandstone cliffs, built from 1100 to 1400 CE by the Sinagua people of the Ancient Pueblo Peoples; the cliff dwellings were built under south-facing overhangs for winter sun. The Sinagua people made pottery in the area. Palatki and Honanki, another nearby archaeological site, had the largest cliff dwellings in the Red Rock formation area from 1150 CE to 1300 CE. Palatki consists of two separate pueblos, suggesting two family or kin groups may have lived here, one in each pueblo; the circular shield-like pictographs above the eastern pueblo have been interpreted by some archaeologists as being a kin or clan symbol. Rock artThere are pictographs and petroglyphs at the Palatki site, including some that predate the cliff dwellings. Many of the pictographs on the rock walls are from the Sinagua.
However, those created by peoples of the Archaic period in North America include some of the more abstract pictograph symbols and drawings that are 3,000 to 6,000 years old, some of the petroglyphs, estimated to be 5,000 to 6,000 years old. ArchaeologyVisitation to the site for over a century has caused degradation of the archaeological elements, it was begun by 19th century Euro-American settlers, with little archaeological awareness for the area. Photographs from the early 1900s show that an estimated 70 to 90 percent of the original structures have disappeared since then; the Palatki Heritage Site park is open to visitors seven days a week from 9:30. There are two trails in the park, one to view the Sinagua cliff dwellings, a second to view the pictographs and petroglyphs; the trails are not handicapped accessible. Purchase of a Red Rock Pass is needed for park entry. US Forest Service: Palatki Heritage Site website Rockart.com: Palatki Heritage Site DreamSedona.com: Palatki Ruins and Petroglyph Rock Art SedonaHikingTrails.com: Palatki Heritage Site
Wupatki National Monument
The Wupatki National Monument is a United States National Monument located in north-central Arizona, near Flagstaff. Rich in Native American ruins, the monument is administered by the National Park Service in close conjunction with the nearby Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument. Wupatki was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966; the listing included 29 contributing structures on 35,253.2 acres. The many settlement sites scattered throughout the monument were built by the Ancient Pueblo People, more the Cohonina, Kayenta Anasazi, Sinagua. Wupatki was first inhabited around 500 AD. Wupatki, which means "Tall House" in the Hopi language, is a multistory Sinagua pueblo dwelling comprising over 100 rooms and a community room and ball court, making it the largest building for nearly 50 miles. Nearby secondary structures have been uncovered, including two kiva-like structures. A major population influx began soon after the eruption of Sunset Crater in the 11th century, which blanketed the area with volcanic ash.
By 1182 85 to 100 people lived at Wupatki Pueblo but by 1225, the site was permanently abandoned. Based on a careful survey of archaeological sites conducted in the 1980s, an estimated 2000 immigrants moved into the area during the century following the eruption. Agriculture was based on maize and squash raised from the arid land without irrigation. In the Wupatki site, the residents harvested rainwater due to the rarity of springs; the dwelling's walls were constructed from thin, flat blocks of the local Moenkopi sandstone giving the pueblos their distinct red color. Held together with mortar, many of the walls still stand; each settlement was constructed as a single building, sometimes with scores of rooms. The largest settlement on monument territory is the Wupatki Ruin, built around a natural rock outcropping. With over 100 rooms, this ruin is believed to be the area's tallest and largest structure for its time period; the monument contains ruins identified as a ball court, similar to those found in Mesoamerica and in the Hohokam ruins of southern Arizona.
This site contains a geological blowhole. Other major sites are The Citadel. Today Wupatki appears empty and abandoned. Though it is no longer physically occupied, Hopi believe the people who lived and died here remain as spiritual guardians. Stories of Wupatki are passed on among Hopi, Navajo and other tribes. Members of the Hopi Bear, Lizard, Sand and Water Clans return periodically to enrich their personal understanding of their clan history. Amidst what would seem a inhospitable area due to the lack of food and water sources, several artifacts have been located at the site from distant locations, implying that Wupatki was involved in trade. Items from as far as the Pacific and the Gulf Coast have been located at the site, such as many different varieties of pottery, during numerous excavations stretching back to the site' exploration in the mid-1800s. Wupatki Ruins Geographic data related to Wupatki National Monument at OpenStreetMap NPS: official Wupatki National Monument website American Southwest, National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Anthropology Laboratories of Northern Arizona University Historic American Buildings Survey No.
AZ-152-A, "Wupatki, Wupatki Ruin, U. S. Highway 89, Loop Road, Flagstaff vicinity, Coconino County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-152-B, "Wupatki, Wukoki Ruin, U. S. Highway 89, Loop Road, Flagstaff vicinity, Coconino County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-152-C, "Wupatki, Citadel Ruin, U. S. Highway 89, Loop Road, Flagstaff vicinity, Coconino County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-152-D, "Wupatki, Ball Court, U. S. Highway 89, Loop Road, Flagstaff vicinity, Coconino County, AZ"