Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon Rüppell was a German naturalist and explorer. Rüppell is transliterated to "Rueppell" for the English alphabet. Rüppell was born at Frankfurt-on-Main, the son of a prosperous banker, he was destined to be a merchant, but after a visit to Sinai in 1817 he developed an interest in natural history. He attended lectures at the University of Pavia and University of Genoa in zoology. Rüppell set off on his first expedition in 1821, accompanied by surgeon Michael Hey as his assistant, they travelled through the Sinai desert, in 1822 were the first European explorers to reach the Gulf of Aqaba. They proceeded to Alexandria via Mount Sinai. In 1823 they travelled up the Nile to Nubia, collecting specimens in the area south of Ambukol, returning to Cairo in July 1825. A planned journey through Ethiopia only reached as far as Massawa, where the party suffered ill health. Rüppell returned to Europe in 1827. During his absence Philipp Jakob Cretzschmar had used specimens sent back by Rüppell to produce the Atlas zu der Reise im nordlichen Afrika.
In 1830 Rüppell returned to Africa, became the first naturalist to traverse Ethiopia. Rüppell published an account of his travels, Travels in Abyssinia. Species bearing his name include: Rüppell's agama, Agama rueppelli Rüppell's black chat, Myrmecocichla melaena Rüppell's broad-nosed bat, Scoteanax rueppellii Rüppell's bustard, Eupodotis rueppellii Rüppell's desert chameleon, Trioceros affinis Rüppell's fox, Vulpes rueppellii Rüppell's horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus fumigatus Rüppell's parrot, Poicephalus rueppellii Rüppell's pipistrelle, Pipistrellus rueppellii Rüppell's robin-chat, Cossypha semirufa Rüppell's snake-eyed skink, Ablepharus rueppellii Rüppell's starling, Lamprotornis purpuroptera Rüppell's vulture, Gyps rueppellii Rüppell's warbler, Sylvia rueppelli Rüppell's weaver, Ploceus galbula Barbara and Richard Mearns. Biographies for Birdwatchers. ISBN 0-12-487422-3 Obituary. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography, New Monthly Series, Vol. 8, No. 10, pp. 654
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Djibouti is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, Somalia in the southeast; the remainder of the border is formed by the Gulf of Aden at the east. Djibouti occupies a total area of 23,200 km2; the state of Djibouti is predominantly inhabited by two ethnic groups, the Somali and the Afar people, the Somalis being the major ethnic group of the country. Djibouti has always been a active member in the African Union and the Arab League. In antiquity, the territory together with Somalia was part of the Land of Punt. Nearby Zeila, now in Somalia, was the seat of the medieval Ifat Sultanates. In the late 19th century, the colony of French Somaliland was established following treaties signed by the ruling Somali and Afar sultans with the French and its railroad to Dire Dawa allowed it to supersede Zeila as the port for southern Ethiopia and the Ogaden, it was subsequently renamed to the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967.
A decade the Djiboutian people voted for independence. This marked the establishment of the Republic of Djibouti, named after its capital city. Djibouti joined the United Nations the same year, on 20 September 1977. In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to armed conflict, which ended in a power-sharing agreement in 2000 between the ruling party and the opposition. Djibouti is a multi-ethnic nation with a population of over 942,333 inhabitants. Somali and French are the country's three official languages. About 94% of residents adhere to Islam, the official religion and has been predominant in the region for more than a thousand years; the Somali and Afar make up the two largest ethnic groups. Both speak Afroasiatic languages. Djibouti is strategically located near some of the world's busiest shipping lanes, controlling access to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, it serves as a key refuelling and transshipment center, is the principal maritime port for imports from and exports to neighboring Ethiopia.
A burgeoning commercial hub, the nation is the site of various foreign military bases, including Camp Lemonnier. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development regional body has its headquarters in Djibouti City. Djibouti is known as the Republic of Djibouti. In local languages it is known as Yibuuti, جيبوتي, Jībūtī, Jabuuti; the name of the country is derived from the city of the epynomous country's capital. The etymology of the city of Djibout is disputed. Several theories and legends exist regarding varying based on ethnicity. One theory derives it from the Afar word gabouti, meaning "plate" referring to the geographical features of the area. Another connects it to gabood, meaning "upland/plateau". From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura was called "Obock". Under French administration, from 1883 to 1967 the area was known as French Somaliland, from 1967 to 1977 as the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas. Djibouti area has been inhabited since the Neolithic. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during this period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East.
Other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. Pottery predating the mid-2nd millennium has been found at Asa Koma, an inland lake area on the Gobaad Plain; the site's ware is characterized by punctate and incision geometric designs, which bear a similarity to the Sabir culture phase 1 ceramics from Ma'layba in Southern Arabia. Long-horned humpless cattle bones have been discovered at Asa Koma, suggesting that domesticated cattle were present by around 3,500 years ago. Rock art of what appear to be antelopes and a giraffe are found at Dorra and Balho. Handoga, dated to the fourth millennium BP, has in turn yielded obsidian microliths and plain ceramics used by early nomadic pastoralists with domesticated cattle. Additionally, between Djibouti City and Loyada are a number of phallic stelae; the structures are associated with graves of rectangular shape that are flanked by vertical slabs, as found in central Ethiopia.
The Djibouti-Loyada stelae are of uncertain age, some of them are adorned with a T-shaped symbol. Together with northern Somalia and the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Djibouti is considered the most location of the territory known to the Ancient Egyptians as Punt; the first mention of the Land of Punt dates to the 25th century BC. The Puntites were a nation of people who had close relations with Ancient Egypt during the reign of the 5th dynasty Pharaoh Sahure and the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut. According to the temple murals at Deir el-Bahari, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati. Through close contacts with the adjacent Arabian Peninsula for more than 1,000 years, the Somali and Afar ethnic groups in the region became among the first populations on the continent to embrace Islam; the Ifat Sultanate was a Muslim medieval kingdom in the Horn of Africa. Founded in 1285 by the Walashma dynasty, it was centered in Zeila. Ifat established bases in Djibouti and northern Somalia, from there expanded southward to the Ahmar Mountains.
Its Sultan Umar Walashma is recorded as hav
Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards and amphisbaenians, which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles. With over 10,000 species, it is the second-largest order of extant vertebrates, after the perciform fish, equal in number to the Saurischia. Members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny shields, they possess movable quadrate bones, making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the neurocranium. This is visible in snakes, which are able to open their mouths wide to accommodate comparatively large prey. Squamata is the most variably sized order of reptiles, ranging from the 16 mm dwarf gecko to the 5.21 m green anaconda and the now-extinct mosasaurs, which reached lengths of over 14 m. Among other reptiles, squamates are most related to the tuatara, which superficially resembles lizards. Squamates are a monophyletic sister group to the rhynchocephalians, members of the order Rhynchocephalia; the only surviving member of Rhynchocephalia is the tuatara.
Squamata and Rhynchocephalia form the subclass Lepidosauria, the sister group to Archosauria, the clade that contains crocodiles and birds, their extinct relatives. Fossils of rhynchocephalians first appear in the Early Triassic, meaning that the lineage leading to squamates must have existed at the time. Scientists believe crown group squamates originated in the Early Jurassic based on the fossil record; the first fossils of geckos and snakes appear in the Middle Jurassic. Other groups like iguanians and varanoids appeared in the Cretaceous. Polyglyphanodontians, a distinct clade of lizards, mosasaurs, a group of predatory marine lizards that grew to enormous sizes appeared in the Cretaceous. Squamates suffered a mass extinction at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, which wiped out polyglyphanodontians and many other distinct lineages; the relationships of squamates is debatable. Although many of the groups recognized on the basis of morphology are still accepted, our understanding of their relationships to each other has changed radically as a result of studying their genomes.
Iguanians were long thought to be the earliest crown group squamates based on morphological data, genetic data suggests that geckoes are the earliest crown group squamates. Iguanians are now united with anguimorphs in a clade called Toxicofera. Genetic data suggests that the various limbless groups. A study in 2018 found that Megachirella, an extinct genus of lepidosaur that lived about 240 million years ago during the Middle Triassic, was a stem-squamate, making it the oldest known squamate; the phylogenetic analysis was conducted by performing high-resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography scans on the fossil specimen of Megachirella to gather detailed data about its anatomy. This data was compared with a phylogenetic dataset combining the morphological and molecular data of 129 extant and extinct reptilian taxa; the comparison revealed. The study found that geckos are the earliest crown group squamates not iguanians; the male members of the group Squamata have hemipenes, which are held inverted within their bodies, are everted for reproduction via erectile tissue like that in the human penis.
Only one is used at a time, some evidence indicates that males alternate use between copulations. The hemipenis has a variety of shapes, depending on the species, it bears spines or hooks, to anchor the male within the female. Some species have forked hemipenes. Due to being everted and inverted, hemipenes do not have a enclosed channel for the conduction of sperm, but rather a seminal groove that seals as the erectile tissue expands; this is the only reptile group in which both viviparous and ovoviviparous species are found, as well as the usual oviparous reptiles. Some species, such as the Komodo dragon, can reproduce asexually through parthenogenesis. There have been studies on how sexual selection manifests itself in lizards. Snakes use a variety of tactics in acquiring mates. Ritual combat between males for the females they want to mate with includes topping, a behavior exhibited by most viperids, in which one male will twist around the vertically elevated fore body of its opponent and forcing it downward.
It is common for neck biting to occur. Parthenogenesis is a natural form of reproduction in which the growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. Agkistrodon contortrix and Agkistrodon piscivorus can reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis; that is, they are capable of switching from a sexual mode of reproduction to an asexual mode. The type of parthenogenesis that occurs is automixis with terminal fusion, a process in which two terminal products from the same meiosis fuse to form a diploid zygote; this process leads to genome wide homozygosity, expression of deleterious recessive alleles and to developmental abnormalities. Both captive-born and wild-born A. contortrix and A. piscivorus appear to be capable of this form of parthenogenesis. Reproduction in squamate reptiles is ordinarily sexual, with males having a ZZ pair of sex determining chromosomes, females a ZW pair. However, the Colombian Rainbow boa, Epicrates maurus, can reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis resulting in production of WW female pr
Agama is both the genus name of a group of small, long-tailed, insectivorous Old World lizards as well as a common name for these lizards. The genus Agama is composed of at least 37 species found across Africa, where they are the most common lizard, they can be found from 12.5 to 30 cm in length and a wide variety of colours. One of the best known species is Agama agama, widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. For Eurasian agamaids, see the genus Laudakia. Agamas lived in forest and bush across Africa, but have since adapted to live in villages and compounds where their habitat has been cleared, they live inside the thatch of other small spaces, emerging only to feed. If caught out in the open, agamas are able to run on their hind legs to reach shelter; the desert agama can still be found in the dry areas of North Africa. Despite their name, they avoid bare sand. Agamas are active during the day and are found scampering around to snatch up their favorite foods, they can tolerate greater temperatures than most reptiles, but in the afternoon when temperatures reach around 38 °C they will settle into the shade and wait for it to cool.
Frequent fighting breaks out between males. If it comes to blows, they threaten each other with open jaws. Many older males have broken tails as a result of such fights. Females may sometimes chase and fight one another, while hatchlings mimic the adults in preparation for their future. Agamas are insectivores, their incisor-like front teeth are designed for chewing of their prey. They may eat grass, berries and the eggs of smaller lizards. Most agamas are polygamous. Males may hold six or more females in their territory for breeding. During courtship, the male bobs his head to impress the female. Females initiate courtship by offering their hindquarters to the male and running until he is able to catch up; the breeding season is March–May with eggs being laid in June–September during the season after the rains. Eggs are laid in clutches of up to 12. In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae of 1758, Linnaeus used the name Agama as the species Lacerta Agama, his own earlier description from 1749 was derived from Seba, who described and illustrated a number of lizards as Salamandra amphibia and Salamandra Americana, said to resemble in some ways a chameleon lizard and that came from "America."
Seba did not use the term "agama", however. Linnaeus repeated Seba's error in stating that the lizards lived in the Americas, he included other types of lizards shown and mentioned by Seba under his species name Agama. Daudin created the new genus, Agama, to incorporate various African and Asian lizards, as well as species from Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, South America, he noted that the name agama was used by inhabitants of Guiana for a species that he included in the genus Agama. The word "agama" has been traced to West African Gbe languages as a name for the chameleon; the word was brought to Dutch Guiana by imported West African slaves and was used in local creole languages for types of local lizards. Linnaeus may have taken the name "agama" from some unidentified source in the mistaken belief that the reptiles came from the Americas as indicated by Seba; the name "agama" has no connection to either Greek agamos "unmarried" or to Greek agamai "wonder" as sometimes suggested. Because of the confusion over the actual taxon, the basis for the name Agama agama, Wagner, et al. designated a neotype, using a described specimen from Cameroon in the collection of the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig in Bonn.
Listed alphabetically. Nota bene: A binomial authority in parentheses indicates that the species was described in a genus other than Agama. Daudin FM. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles. S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs sociétés savantes. Tome troisième. Paris: F. Dufart. 452 pp... Manthey, Ulrich. Agamid Lizards. U. S. A.: T. F. H Publications Inc. 189 pp. ISBN 978-0793801282. Spawls, Stephen. Reptiles and Amphibians of East Africa. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691128849. Information on Agamids in captivity
Libya the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world; the largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age; the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire.
Libya was an early centre of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, when invasions brought Islam to the region. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1947. During the Second World War, Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign; the Italian population went into decline. Libya became independent as a kingdom in 1951. A military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I; the "bloodless" coup leader Muammar Gaddafi ruled the country from 1969 and the Libyan Cultural Revolution in 1973 until he was overthrown and killed in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Two authorities claimed to govern Libya: the Council of Deputies in Tobruk and the 2014 General National Congress in Tripoli, which considered itself the continuation of the General National Congress, elected in 2012.
After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, the GNC disbanded to support it. Parts of Libya remain outside either government's control, with various Islamist and tribal militias administering some areas; as of July 2017, talks are still ongoing between the GNA and the Tobruk-based authorities to end the strife and unify the divided establishments of the state, including the Libyan National Army and the Central Bank of Libya. Libya is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC; the country's official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims. The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile corresponding to its central location in North Africa visited by many Mediterranean cultures which referred to its original inhabitants as the "Libúē." The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the historical name for Northwest Africa, from the ancient Greek Λιβύη.
It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the coastal region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania. The name "Libya" was brought back into use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Libyan Kingdom, changing its name to the Kingdom of Libya in 1963. Following a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969, the name of the state was changed to the Libyan Arab Republic; the official name was "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1977 to 1986, "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1986 to 2011. The National Transitional Council, established in 2011, referred to the state as "Libya"; the UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011, based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye" in French.
In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya". The coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC; the Afroasiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. The earliest known name of such a tribe was the Garamantes, based in Germa; the Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya. By the 5th century BC, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. In 630 BC, the ancient Greeks colonized the area around Barca in Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as