Lew Brown was a lyricist for popular songs in the United States. During World War I and the Roaring Twenties, he wrote lyrics for several of the top Tin Pan Alley composers Albert Von Tilzer. Brown was one third of a successful songwriting and music publishing team with Buddy DeSylva and Ray Henderson from 1925 until 1931. Brown wrote or co-wrote many Broadway shows and Hollywood films. Among his most-popular songs are "Button Up Your Overcoat", "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree", "Life Is Just a Bowl of Cherries", "That Old Feeling", "The Birth of the Blues". Brown was born December 1893, in Odessa, Russian Empire, part of today's Ukraine; when he was five, his family settled in New York City. He attended DeWitt Clinton High School but, at the suggestion of a teacher, he left to pursue his songwriting career without graduating. Lew Brown was married first to Sylvia Fiske to Catherine "June" Brown until his death, he had two daughters from Naomi Brown Greif and Arlyne Brown Mulligan. The latter was married to the prominent jazz saxophonist Gerry Mulligan.
Brown started writing for Tin Pan Alley in 1912 and collaborated with established composers, like Albert Von Tilzer. Two of their well-known works that year were " Kentucky Sue" and "I'm the Lonesomest Gal in Town". Brown wrote a string of popular World War I songs during 1914–1918, teaming with Von Tilzer, Al Harriman, other composers. In 1925, Brown formed his most-successful songwriting partnership with Buddy DeSylva and Ray Henderson, their cheerful hits, such as "Button Up Your Overcoat" and "The Birth of the Blues", earned lasting appreciation for "the rich variety of verbal mosaics" and "the suggestive imagery, their trademark". DeSylva left in 1931 but Brown and Henderson continued scoring Broadway shows. Brown worked with other composers, like Sammy Fain. "Brown in 1939 estimated that he had written or collaborated on about 7,000 songs."Brown wrote the lyrics to "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree", which appeared in the film Private Buckaroo. Recordings by Glenn Miller and by the Andrews Sisters popularized the song with World War II soldiers and radio audiences.
Not long after this hit, Brown retired from songwriting. Brown and Fain's "That Old Feeling". "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. Von Tilzer, DeSylva and Henderson were all included in the inaugural class of the Songwriters Hall of Fame; the DeSylva and Henderson songwriting team was the subject of the 1956 musical biopic: The Best Things in Life Are Free. Brown was portrayed by Ernest Borgnine. Brown died of a heart attack at home in New York City on February 5, 1958. Cecil Mack and Lew Brown, "Shine". Music: Ford Dabney. 1910. Albert Von Tilzer and Lew Brown. " Kentucky Sue". New York: The York Music Co. 1912. OCLC 16992118 Albert Von Tilzer and Lew Brown. "I'm The Lonesomest Gal In Town". New York: The York Music Co. 1912. Edgar Leslie and Lew Brown. "They Start in to Battle Again". New York, 1914. Albert Von Tilzer and Lew Brown. "Au Revoir But Not Good Bye, Soldier Boy". Broadway Music, 1917. OCLC 459552706 Albert Von Tilzer and Lew Brown. "I May Be Gone for a Long, Long Time".
Broadway Music, 1917. OCLC 20119729 Albert Von Tilzer, Charles McCarron, Lew Brown. "What Kind of an American are You?". Broadway Music, 1917. OCLC 72437572 Darl MacBoyle and Lew Brown. "Since Johnny Got His Gun". Music: Albert Von Tilzer. New York, 1917. "I'll Come Back to You When It's All Over". Music: Kerry Mills. 1917. Al Harriman and Lew Brown. "I'm Writing to You, Sammy". New York, 1917. Al Harriman and Lew Brown. "I Can't Stay Here While You're Over There". New York, 1918. Lew Brown and Al Harriman. "I Wonder What They're Doing To-Night". Music: Jack Egan. New York, 1918. Al Harriman and Lew Brown. "We'll Do Our Share". Music: Jack Egan. New York, 1918. Will Clayton and Lew Brown. " Little Girl". New York, 1918. Albert Von Tilzer and Lew Brown. "I May Stay Away a Little Longer". New York, 1918. Albert Von Tilzer and Lew Brown. "Oh By Jingo!" 1919. Max Friedman, Lew Porter and Lew Brown. "Tillie Don't Be So Silly". New York, 1919. Albert Von Tilzer and Lew Brown. "Dapper Dan", 1921. "Last Night on the Back Porch". Music: Carl Schraubstader.
1923. Lew Brown and Sidney Clare. "Then I'll Be Happy". Music: Cliff Friend. 1925. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "The Birth of the Blues". Music: Ray Henderson. 1926. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "It All Depends on You". Music: Ray Henderson. 1926. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "Lucky Day". Music: Ray Henderson. 1926. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "The Best Things in Life Are Free". Music: Ray Henderson. 1927. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "So Blue". Music: Ray Henderson. 1927. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "The Varsity Drag". Music: Ray Henderson. 1927. OCLC 223326831 Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "Button Up Your Overcoat". Music: Ray Henderson. 1928. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "You're the Cream in My Coffee". Music: Ray Henderson. 1928. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "Sonny Boy". Music: Ray Henderson. 1928. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "Together". Music: Ray Henderson. 1928. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "I'm A Dreamer, Aren't We All?". Music: Ray Henderson. 1929. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. "Sunny Side Up". Music: Ray Henderson. 1929. Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown.
"One More Time". Music: Ray Henderson. 1931. "Life Is Just a Bowl of Cherries". Music: Ray Henderson. 1931. "That's Why Darkies Were Born". Music: Ray Henderson. 1931. "Stand Up and Cheer". Music: Harry Akst. 1934. "That Old Feeling". Mus
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
George Gard "Buddy" DeSylva was an American songwriter, film producer and record executive. He wrote or co-wrote many popular songs and along with Johnny Mercer and Glenn Wallichs, he founded Capitol Records. DeSylva was born in New York City, but grew up in California and attended the University of Southern California, where he joined the Theta Xi Fraternity, his father, Aloysius J. De Sylva, was better known to American audiences as the Portuguese-born actor, Hal De Forrest, his mother, Georgetta Miles Gard, was the daughter of Los Angeles police chief George E. Gard. DeSylva's first successful songs were those used by Al Jolson on Broadway in the 1918 Sinbad production, which included "I'll Say She Does". Soon thereafter he met Jolson and in 1918 the pair went to New York and DeSylva began working as a songwriter in Tin Pan Alley. In the early 1920s, DeSylva worked with composer George Gershwin. Together they created the experimental one-act jazz opera Blue Monday set in Harlem, regarded as a forerunner to Porgy and Bess ten years later.
In April 1924, DeSylva married a Ziegfeld Follies dancer. In 1925, DeSylva became one third of the songwriting team with lyricist Lew Brown and composer Ray Henderson, one of the top Tin Pan Alley songwriters of the era; the team was responsible for the song Magnolia, popularized by Lou Gold's orchestra. The writing and publishing partnership continued until 1930, producing a string of hits and the perennial Broadway favorite Good News; the popularity of this team was so great that Gershwin's mother chided her sons for not being able to write the sort of hits turned out by the trio. DeSylva joined ASCAP in 1920 and served on the ASCAP board of directors between 1922 and 1930, he became a producer of screen musicals. DeSylva went under contract to Fox Studios. During this tenure, he produced movies such as The Little Colonel, The Littlest Rebel, Captain January, Poor Little Rich Girl and Stowaway. In 1941, he became the Executive Producer at Paramount Pictures, a position he would hold until 1944.
At Paramount, he was an uncredited executive producer for Double Indemnity, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Story of Dr. Wassell and The Glass Key. Betty Hutton always credited DeSylva for launching her film career; the Paramount all-star extravaganza Star Spangled Rhythm, which takes place at the Paramount film studio in Hollywood, features a fictional movie executive named "B. G. DeSoto", a parody of DeSylva. In 1942, Johnny Mercer, Glenn Wallichs and DeSylva together founded Capitol Records, he founded the Cowboy label. He is sometimes credited as: Buddy De Sylva, Buddy DeSylva, Bud De Sylva, Buddy G. DeSylva and B. G. DeSylva. Buddy DeSylva died in Hollywood, aged 55, is buried at Glendale's Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery. Desylva, Buddy, B. G. De Sylva, Lew Brown, Ray Henderson. Good News: vocal selection.: Chappell, n.d. OCLC 495863850 Henderson, Ray, B. G. De Sylva, Bud Green. Alabamy Bound. New York: Shapiro, Bernstein & Co, 1925. OCLC 645628000 De Sylva, B. G. Lew Brown, Ray Henderson. Magnolia.
1927. OCLC 918927178 Sonny Boy 1919 - La La Lucille 1922 - George White's Scandals of 1922 1922 - Orange Blossoms 1922 - The Yankee Princess 1923 - George White's Scandals of 1923 1924 - Sweet Little Devil 1924 - George White's Scandals of 1924 music by George Gershwin 1925 - Big Boy 1925 - Tell Me More! 1925 - George White's Scandals of 1925 1925 - Captain Jinks 1926 - George White's Scandals of 1926 1926 - Queen High 1927 - Good News 1927 - Manhattan Mary 1928 - George White's Scandals of 1928 1928 - Hold Everything! 1929 - Follow Thru 1930 - Flying High 1932 - Take a Chance Stepping Sisters My Weakness The Stork Club The 1956 Hollywood film The Best Things in Life Are Free, starring Gordon MacRae, Dan Dailey, Ernest Borgnine, depicted the De Sylva and Henderson collaboration. Ewen, David. Great Men of American Popular Song ASIN: B000OKLHXU Green, Stanley; the World Of Musical Comedy. Publisher: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80207-4 Buddy DeSylva at the Internet Broadway Database Buddy G. DeSylva on IMDb Buddy DeSylva and the 1909 Copyright Act Buddy DeSylva at the Internet Archive
Harold Arlen was an American composer of popular music who composed over 500 songs, a number of which have become known worldwide. In addition to composing the songs for the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, including the classic "Over the Rainbow", Arlen is a regarded contributor to the Great American Songbook. "Over the Rainbow" was voted the 20th century's No. 1 song by the Recording Industry Association of America and the National Endowment for the Arts. Arlen was born in New York, United States, the child of a cantor, his twin brother died the next day. He learned to play the piano as a youth, formed a band as a young man, he achieved some local success as a pianist and singer before moving to New York City in his early twenties, where he worked as an accompanist in vaudeville and changed his name to Harold Arlen. Between 1926 and about 1934, Arlen appeared as a band vocalist on records by The Buffalodians, Red Nichols, Joe Venuti, Leo Reisman, Eddie Duchin singing his own compositions. In 1929, Arlen composed his first well-known song: "Get Happy".
Throughout the early and mid-1930s, Arlen and Koehler wrote shows for the Cotton Club, a popular Harlem night club, as well as for Broadway musicals and Hollywood films. Arlen and Koehler's partnership resulted in a number of hit songs, including the familiar standards "Let's Fall in Love" and "Stormy Weather". Arlen continued to perform as a pianist and vocalist with some success, most notably on records with Leo Reisman's society dance orchestra. Arlen's compositions have always been popular with jazz musicians because of his facility at incorporating a blues feeling into the idiom of the American popular song. In the mid-1930s, Arlen married, spent increasing time in California, writing for movie musicals, it was at this time that he began working with lyricist E. Y. "Yip" Harburg. In 1938, the team was hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to compose songs for The Wizard of Oz, the most famous of, "Over the Rainbow", for which they won the Academy Award for Best Music, Original Song, they wrote "Down with Love", "Lydia the Tattooed Lady", for Groucho Marx in At the Circus in 1939, "Happiness is a Thing Called Joe", for Ethel Waters in the 1943 movie Cabin in the Sky.
Arlen was a longtime friend and onetime roommate of actor Ray Bolger, who starred in The Wizard of Oz. In the 1940s, he teamed up with lyricist Johnny Mercer, continued to write hit songs like "Blues in the Night", "Out of this World", "That Old Black Magic", "Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive", "Any Place I Hang My Hat Is Home", "Come Rain or Come Shine" and "One for My Baby". Arlen composed two defining tunes which bookend Judy Garland's musical persona: as a yearning, innocent girl in "Over the Rainbow" and a world-weary, "chic chanteuse" with "The Man That Got Away", the last written for the 1954 version of the film A Star Is Born. Arlen died of cancer at his Manhattan apartment at the age of eighty-one. 1905 Arlen born in Buffalo, New York 1920 He formed his first professional band, Hyman Arluck's Snappy Trio. 1921 Against his parents' wishes. 1923 With his new band – The Southbound Shufflers, performed on the Crystal Beach lake boat "Canadiana" during the summer of 1923. 1924 Performed at Lake Shore Manor during the summer of 1924.
1924 Wrote his first song, collaborating with friend Hyman Cheiffetz to write "My Gal, My Pal". Copyrighting the song as "My Gal, Won't You Please Come Back to Me?" and listed lyrics by Cheiffetz and music by Harold Arluck. 1925 Makes his way to New York City with The Buffalodians, with Arlen playing piano. 1926 Had first published song, collaborating with Dick George to compose "Minor Gaff" under the name Harold Arluck. 1928 Chaim Arluck renames himself a name that combined his parents' surnames. 1929 Landed a singing and acting role as Cokey Joe in the musical The Great Day. 1929 Composed his first well known song – "Get Happy" – under the name Harold Arlen. 1929 Signed a yearlong song writing contract with the George and Arthur Piantadosi firm. 1930–1934 Wrote music for the Cotton Club. 1933 At a party, along with partner Ted Koehler, wrote the major hit song "Stormy Weather" 1933 Billboard heralded Shakespeare as the most prolific playwright in history, Arlen as the most prolific composer. 1934 Wrote "Ill Wind" with lyrics by Ted Koehler for their last show at the Cotton Club Parade, in 1934, sung by Adelaide Hall 1935 Went back to California after being signed by Samuel Goldwyn to write songs for the film Strike Me Pink.
1937 Composed the score for the Broadway musical Hooray for What!. Married 22-year-old Anya Taranda, a celebrated Powers Agency model and former Earl Carroll and Busby Berkeley showgirl and one of the Original "Breck Girls". 1938 Hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to compose songs for The Wizard of Oz. 1938 While driving along Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood and stopping in front of Schwab's Drug Store, seeing a rainbow appear over Hollywood, came up with the song "Over the Rainbow". 1941 Wrote "Blues in the Night" 1942 Along with Johnny Mercer, he wrote one of his most famous songs, "That Old Black Magic". 1943 Wrote "My Shining Hour" 1944 While driving with songwriter partner Johnny Mercer came up with the song "Accentuate the Positive". 1945 In a single evening's work in October with Johnny Mercer came up with the song "Come Rain or Come Shine". 1949 Collaborated with Ralph Blane
Early life of Frank Sinatra
Francis Albert "Frank" Sinatra was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, on December 12, 1915. He grew up in a tenement with his parents. Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey, the only child of Italian immigrants Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa and Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra; the couple had eloped on Valentine's Day, 1913, were married at the city hall in Jersey City, New Jersey. Sinatra weighed 13.5 pounds at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek and ear, perforated his ear drum, damage that remained for life. Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism was delayed for several months. A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that scarred his face and neck; some children called him "Scarface". Sinatra was raised Roman Catholic; when Sinatra's mother, was a child, her pretty face earned her the nickname "Dolly".
As an adult, she stood less than five feet tall and weighed 90 pounds. Sinatra biographer James Kaplan describes her as having a "politician's temperament—restless, unreflective", she was the daughter of a lithographer. Born in Genoa in northern Italy, she was brought to the United States. Dolly was influential in local Democratic Party circles, she used her knowledge of Italian dialects and fluent English to translate for immigrants during court proceedings those pertaining to requests for citizenship. This earned her the respect of local politicians, she was the first immigrant woman to hold that position in her local third ward, reliably delivered as many as six hundred votes for Democratic candidates. In 1919, she chained herself to city hall in support of the Women's suffrage movement, she worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, a fair amount of money at the time. These activities kept Dolly away from home during much of her son's childhood. Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelley claims that Dolly ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls, was so well known for this doctors referred their patients to her, for whom she would travel as far afield as Jersey City and Union City.
Sinatra's father, Antonino – a small, blue-eyed, ruddy-complexioned man – was from Lercara Friddi, near Palermo, Sicily. His parents had been vineyard cultivators, he arrived at Ellis Island with his mother and sisters in 1903, when they joined his father, Francesco Sinatra, who had immigrated to the US in 1900. Francesco worked for 17 years at the American Pencil company, which "wrecked his lungs" according to granddaughter Nancy. Antonino was a bantamweight boxer. Though a boxer, who would talk "loud and rough", he had a reserved demeanor, he retired from boxing in 1926, after having broken both wrists, found work on the docks as a boilermaker, but was soon laid off due to problems with asthma. He served with the Hoboken Fire Department for 24 years. Kaplan claims. In 1920, Prohibition of alcohol became law in the US. Dolly and Marty ran a tavern during those years, allowed to operate by local officials who refused to enforce the law. Kaplan notes the possibility that the Sinatras procured their liquor from members of the American Mafia.
They purchased the bar, which they named Marty O'Brien's, with money they borrowed from Dolly's parents. When they were busy with the tavern, Sinatra was watched by relatives and sometimes a Jewish neighbor named Mrs. Goldberg, who taught him Yiddish; when Sinatra was six, his uncle Babe, Dolly's brother, was arrested for driving a getaway car after a Railway Express truck driver was murdered. Though Dolly attended his trial daily and attempted to evoke sympathy, her brother was convicted and sentenced to prison for 15 years. Other family members had minor clashes with the law. Sinatra recalled spending time at the bar, working on his homework and singing a song on top of the player piano for spare change. During the Great Depression, Dolly provided money to her son for outings with friends, for him to buy expensive clothes, he earned pocket money by singing on street corners. Neighbors described him as the "best-dressed kid in the neighborhood" and the "richest kid on the block", aided by the fact that he was an only child, had his own bedroom.
According to Kaplan, Dolly doted on her son, but she abused him when he angered her, hitting him with small bat she kept at Marty O'Brien's. Excessively thin and small as a child and young man, Sinatra's skinny frame became a staple of his own jokes and those of the Rat Pack members during stage shows, one self-effacing joke being: "A little kid, skinny. So skinny my eyes were single file. Between those two and my belly button my old man thought I was a clarinet". Sinatra developed an interest in music big band jazz, from a young age, became addicted to listening to the radio, "entranced by the new musical and comedy routines and captivated by the huge audiences they commanded", according to biographer Chris Rojek, he began singing at a young age, sitting on top of the piano at his parent's bar in Hoboken, "Marty's O'Brien's. Dolly was not enthusiastic at the idea of her son becoming a singer, but she realized when Sinatra was as young as 11 he had something
Cole Albert Porter was an American composer and songwriter. Born to a wealthy family in Indiana, he defied the wishes of his domineering grandfather and took up music as a profession. Classically trained, he was drawn to musical theatre. After a slow start, he began to achieve success in the 1920s, by the 1930s he was one of the major songwriters for the Broadway musical stage. Unlike many successful Broadway composers, Porter wrote the lyrics as well as the music for his songs. After a serious horseback riding accident in 1937, Porter was left disabled and in constant pain, but he continued to work, his shows of the early 1940s did not contain the lasting hits of his best work of the 1920s and'30s, but in 1948 he made a triumphant comeback with his most successful musical, Kiss Me, Kate. It won the first Tony Award for Best Musical. Porter's other musicals include Fifty Million Frenchmen, DuBarry Was a Lady, Anything Goes, Can-Can and Silk Stockings, his numerous hit songs include "Night and Day", "Begin the Beguine", "I Get a Kick Out of You", "Well, Did You Evah!", "I've Got You Under My Skin", "My Heart Belongs to Daddy" and "You're the Top".
He composed scores for films from the 1930s to the 1950s, including Born to Dance, which featured the song "You'd Be So Easy to Love". Porter was born in Peru, the only surviving child of a wealthy family, his father, Samuel Fenwick Porter, was a druggist by trade. His mother, was the indulged daughter of James Omar "J. O." Cole, "the richest man in Indiana", a coal and timber speculator who dominated the family. J. O. Cole built the couple a house on his Peru-area property. After high school, Porter returned to his childhood home only for occasional visits. Porter's strong-willed mother began his musical training at an early age, he learned the violin at age six, the piano at eight, wrote his first operetta at ten. She falsified his recorded birth year, changing it from 1891 to 1893 to make him appear more precocious, his father, a shy and unassertive man, played a lesser role in Porter's upbringing, although as an amateur poet, he may have influenced his son's gifts for rhyme and meter. Porter's father was a talented singer and pianist, but the father-son relationship was not close.
J. O. Cole wanted his grandson to become a lawyer, with that in mind, sent him to Worcester Academy in Massachusetts in 1905. Porter brought an upright piano with him to school and found that music, his ability to entertain, made it easy for him to make friends. Porter did well in school and came home to visit, he became class valedictorian and was rewarded by his grandfather with a tour of France and Germany. Entering Yale University in 1909, Porter majored in English, minored in music, studied French, he was a member of Scroll and Key and Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, contributed to campus humor magazine The Yale Record. He was an early member of the Whiffenpoofs a cappella singing group and participated in several other music clubs. Porter wrote 300 songs while at Yale, including student songs such as the football fight songs "Bulldog" and "Bingo Eli Yale" that are still played at Yale today. During college, Porter became acquainted with New York City's vibrant nightlife, taking the train there for dinner and nights on the town with his classmates, before returning to New Haven, early in the morning.
He wrote musical comedy scores for his fraternity, the Yale Dramatic Association, as a student at Harvard – Cora, And the Villain Still Pursued Her, The Pot of Gold, The Kaleidoscope and Paranoia – which helped prepare him for a career as a Broadway and Hollywood composer and lyricist. After graduating from Yale, Porter enrolled in Harvard Law School in 1913, he soon felt that he was not destined to be a lawyer, and, at the suggestion of the dean of the law school, switched to Harvard's music department, where he studied harmony and counterpoint with Pietro Yon. Kate Porter did not object to this move. In 1915, Porter's first song on Broadway, "Esmeralda", appeared in the revue Hands Up; the quick success was followed by failure: his first Broadway production, in 1916, See America First, a "patriotic comic opera" modeled on Gilbert and Sullivan, with a book by T. Lawrason Riggs, was a flop, closing after two weeks. Porter spent the next year in New York City before going overseas during World War I.
In 1917, when the United States entered World War I, Porter moved to Paris to work with the Duryea Relief organization. Some writers have been skeptical about Porter's claim to have served in the French Foreign Legion, but the Legion lists Porter as one of its soldiers and displays his portrait at its museum in Aubagne. By some accounts, he served in North Africa and was transferred to the French Officers School at Fontainebleau, teaching gunnery to American soldiers. An obituary notice in The New York Times said that, while in the Legion, "he had a specially constructed portable piano made for him so that he could carry it on his back and entertain the troops in their bivouacs." Another account, given by Porter, is that he joined the recruiting department of the American Aviation Headquarters, according to his biographer Stephen Citron, there is no record of his joining this or any other branch of the forces. Porter maintained a luxury apartment in Paris, his parties were extrava