"Sinatra Doctrine" was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact states to determine their own internal affairs. The name alluded to the song "My Way" popularized by Frank Sinatra—the Soviet Union was allowing these states to go their own way, its implementation was part of Gorbachev's doctrine of "new political thinking". The Sinatra Doctrine was a major break with the earlier Brezhnev Doctrine, under which the internal affairs of satellite states were controlled by Moscow; this had been used to justify the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, as well as the invasion of the non-Warsaw Pact nation of Afghanistan in 1979. By the late 1980s, structural flaws within the Soviet system, growing economic problems, the rise of anti-communist sentiment and the effects of the Soviet–Afghan War made it impractical for the Soviet Union to impose its will on its neighbors.
The phrase was coined on 25 October 1989 by Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov. He was speaking to reporters in Helsinki about a speech made two days earlier by Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze; the latter had said that the Soviets recognized the freedom of choice of all countries including the other Warsaw Pact states. Gerasimov told the interviewer, he has a song, I Did It My Way. So every country decides on its own which road to take." When asked whether this would include Moscow accepting the rejection of communist parties in the Soviet bloc, he replied: "That's for sure… political structures must be decided by the people who live there." The Sinatra Doctrine has been seen as Moscow giving permission to its allies to decide their own futures. In fact, it was a retrospective policy, as Soviet allies had acquired much greater freedom of action. A month before Gerasimov's statement, Poland had elected its first non-communist government since the 1940s; the government of Hungary had opened its border with Austria on 2 May 1989, dismantling the Iron Curtain on its own border.
As Hungary was one of the few countries that East Germans could travel to, thousands travelled there so that they could flee across the newly opened border to the West. To the great annoyance of the East German government, the Hungarians refused to stop the exodus; these developments disturbed hardline communists such as the East German leader Erich Honecker, who condemned the end of the traditional "socialist unity" of the Soviet bloc and appealed to Moscow to rein in the Hungarians. Honecker faced a growing crisis at home, with massive anti-government demonstrations in Leipzig and other East German cities. Shevardnadze's speech and Gerasimov's memorable description of the new policy amounted to a rebuff of Honecker's appeals; the proclamation of the "Sinatra Doctrine" had dramatic effects across the Soviet bloc. The beleaguered East German government had hoped for a Soviet intervention to defend communism in East Germany and elsewhere. However, the announcement of the "Sinatra Doctrine" signalled that the Soviet Union would not aid the East German communists.
A few weeks the communist governments of East Germany and Bulgaria were ousted, two months the communist rulers of Romania suffered the same fate, signalling an end to the Cold War and to the division of Europe. Revolutions of 1989 New political thinking "'Sinatra Doctrine' at Work in Warsaw Pact, Soviet Says", Los Angeles Times, 1989-10-25
St. Patrick High School is a Roman Catholic high school in the city of North Platte, in the state of Nebraska in the Midwestern United States, it is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Grand Island. St. Patrick High School is part of North Platte Catholic Schools, which includes McDaid Elementary and Little Leprechaun Pre-School. Nativity Convent School was established on September 8, 1891. Among the first students was Irma Cody, daughter of William F. Cody. Five young women were the first graduates in 1895. In 1916, St. Patrick School was constructed at Fourth and Walnut Streets, at an expense of $52,000; the building was described as the "finest educational structure in the area."The current St. Patrick High School building was opened in 1955 near E and Silber Streets; the former building continued to serve as the elementary school. In 1967, it was renamed McDaid Elementary, in honor of Father Patrick McDaid, the pastor of the parish from 1910 to 1948. Increasing enrollment in the late 1950s and 1960s necessitated expansion of the facilities, which took place in 1963 and 1967.
During that time, the junior high program was established at the high school building. In 1968, Bill McGahan was appointed principal of McDaid Elementary, he became the first lay school administrator in the Diocese of Grand Island. In 1970, he was named principal of both the high school, he became superintendent in 1974, retired in July 2011. He was succeeded as superintendent by coach Kevin Dodson. St. Patrick's first football team was organized in 1939, under former University of Nebraska All-Star Leo Scherer; the school has been a member of the South Platte Valley Association athletic conference since 1969. Athletic facilities for St. Patrick High School include two gymnasiums, a football field, a weight room, a practice field. Varsity basketball and volleyball hold their practices and games in the McGahan Activities Center at McDaid Elementary. Wrestling practice is held in the weight room at McDaid. Wrestling meets are held in the McGahan Activities Center; the gymnasium at St. Patrick High School was the only gym, until McGahan Activities Center was opened in 2000.
The St. Patrick gym is used for junior high activities; the football team plays all home games at Knights of Columbus Field. Football practices are held at the practice field east of McDaid. Home track meets are held at North Platte High School; the golf team holds their activities at courses in North Platte. St. Patrick won its first state championship, in boys' basketball, in 1928. Since it has won state football championships in 1948, 1984, 1985, 2004; the entire North Platte Catholic Schools system has an operating budget of around $2 million. Enrollment is about 420, making up 11% of school-aged children in North Platte. North Platte Catholic Schools has a professional staff of 39 and a service staff of 15; the school has had over 2,200 graduates. Bill Hayes, former MLB player Joseph A. Krzycki, discovered the 22nd amino acid, pyrrolysine School website
Camilo Bonilla Paz is a retired Honduran football player who made his name with the national team in the 1990s. Bonilla started his career at Real España for, he had spell with Peruvian club Sipesa, where he played alongside compatriot Mario Peri. He played the final seasons of his career in Guatemala and El Salvador, joining Atlético Balboa for the 2002 Clausura. In summer 2005 he went in pre-season training with Salvadoran side Isidro Metapán from Dragón. Bonilla made his debut for Honduras in a May 1991 UNCAF Nations Cup match against Panama and has earned a total of 18 caps, scoring no goals, he has represented his country at the 1991, 1997 UNCAF Nations Cups, as well as at the 1991, 1998 CONCACAF Gold Cups. He was a non-playing squad member at the 1996 CONCACAF Gold Cup, his final international was a February 1998 CONCACAF Gold Cup match against Mexico. Camilo Bonilla at National-Football-Teams.com
Ashok K. Chandra was a computer scientist at Microsoft Research in Mountain View, United States, where he was a general manager at the Internet Services Research Center. Chandra received his PhD in Computer Science from Stanford University, an MS from University of California, a BTech from IIT Kanpur, he was Director of Database and Distributed Systems at IBM Almaden Research Center. Chandra co-authored several key papers in theoretical computer science. Among other contributions, he introduced alternating Turing machines in computational complexity, conjunctive queries in databases, computable queries, multiparty communication complexity, he was a founder of the annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science and served as conference chair of the first three conferences, in 1986–8. He was an IEEE Fellow. "Ashok Chandra: Distinguished Scientist". Microsoft. Archived from the original on February 5, 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011. Ashok K. Chandra at DBLP Bibliography Server
The Candelária massacre was a mass killing in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on July 23, 1993. During the night, eight homeless people, including six minors, were killed by a group of men beside the Candelária Church. Several of the men were members of the police and were tried for the killings, but only two were convicted; the Candelária Church is a famous historic Roman Catholic church in Brazil. The church itself and the buildings around it in Pius X Square became known as a popular location for hundreds of Rio de Janeiro's street children to form a makeshift home at night; the church's personnel provides food, shelter and religious advice to as many of these children as possible. Many of the homeless children are involved with the illegal drug trade and prostitution, because many of these children live around the church during the day, police keep a constant watch on the church's surroundings. In the early 1990s, the area around the Candelária Church developed a high crime rate as street children began to commit criminal activities such as pickpocketing and robbery.
According to survivors, on the morning of July 22, 1993, the day before the massacre, a group of children threw stones at police cars, with some of the policemen saying "don't worry, we will get you soon!" to threaten them. As the children from the Candelária Church area were only given warnings by policemen, the young perpetrators left without worrying too much about the threat. At midnight, several Chevrolet Chevette cars with covered license plates came to a halt in front of the Candelária Church, the occupants began shooting at the group of seventy street children sleeping in the vicinity of the church. Paulo Roberto de Oliveira, 11 years old Anderson de Oliveira Pereira, 13 years old Marcelo Cândido de Jesus, 14 years old Valdevino Miguel de Almeida, 14 years old "Gambazinho", 17 years old Leandro Santos da Conceição, 17 years old Paulo José da Silva, 18 years old Marcos Antônio Alves da Silva, 20 years old Six children and two adults were killed and numerous others were wounded outside the Candelária Church.
Subsequently, during the investigations the shots were found to be fired by policemen, fifty officers were accused of the massacre. One of them, Mauricio da Conceição, died during a shootout as he was about to be arrested in 1994. Two others, Marcos Emmanuel and Nelson Cunha, were handed sentences equivalent to life sentences. However, they could avoid the imprisonment, as Brazilian law says that anyone who gets a sentence of twenty or more years in jail, automatically qualifies for a second trial. One of the children that survived that attack was shot several times before he could testify against policemen that were to go to trial, ended up fleeing from Brazil in order to save his life; the international community condemned the attack, many in Brazil asked for the prosecution of those who shot the Candelária Church children. The event was mentioned in the song The Candelaria Massacre recorded by a Brazilian death metal band Lacerated And Carbonized. A social worker who tracked the fate of these homeless survivors of the Candelária massacre found out that 39 of them were either killed by police or by elements of street life, discusses this in Bus 174, centered around the Nascimento incident.
List of massacres in Brazil Street children in Brazil Movie review and director interview Amnesty International report and information Brazilian trooper convicted of slaughtering street children, CNN.com, May 1, 1996 Trial begins for Rio police accused of killing homeless kids, CNN.com, December 9, 1996 Killing of 4 Beggars Shocks Rio And Recalls Earlier Massacre, New York Times, December 12, 1997
USS Conestoga was a civilian side-wheel towboat built at Brownsville, Pennsylvania, in 1859. She was acquired by the U. S. Army in June 1861 and converted to a 572-ton "timberclad" river gunboat for use by the Western Gunboat Flotilla, with officers provided by the navy. Conestoga's first combat action took place in September 1861 when she engaged CSS Jackson near Lucas Bend, Kentucky. Other skirmishes punctuated the routine of river patrol service into 1862. In February, she participated in an expedition up the Tennessee River that led to the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson. In the month, she saw action at Columbus, Kentucky, a Confederate strongpoint on the Mississippi River. During the rest of her service, Conestoga continued to operate along the rivers, she took part in the bombardment of Saint Charles, Arkansas, in June 1862 and was formally transferred to the navy in October of that year. In April and July 1863, she was involved in expeditions to Palmyra, up the Red River, Louisiana; the following March, she went up Louisiana's Ouachita Rivers.
Soon after, on 8 March 1864, USS Conestoga was sunk in a collision with USS General Price. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. USS Conestoga images