Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Personal life of Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra had many close relationships throughout his life. He had at least six other notable relationships in between, he had three verified children, as well as more than one of questionable relationship. Frank Sinatra met Nancy Rose Barbato when he was nineteen, they were married on February 4, 1939, in Jersey City, New Jersey, Barbato's home town, their wedding was held at Our Lady of Sorrows Church at 93 Clerk Street, after which the newlyweds resided in an apartment house at 137 Bergen Avenue. Their first child, their elder daughter Nancy Sinatra, was born on June 8, 1940, their son, Francis Wayne Sinatra, known as Frank Sinatra Jr. was born on January 10, 1944. Both children were born at the Margaret Hague Hospital in Jersey City. Following their move to Hollywood, Los Angeles, Sinatra errantly strayed from his marriage into extra-marital affairs, the first known with Marilyn Maxwell; these affairs became public knowledge and caused great embarrassment to Nancy Barbato Sinatra, who considered calling off their marriage and had an abortion when she became pregnant in 1946.
A third child, Christina Sinatra, known as "Tina", was born on June 20, 1948. Nancy Barbato Sinatra and Frank Sinatra announced their separation on Valentine's Day, February 14, 1950, with Frank's additional extra-marital affair with Ava Gardner compounding his transgressions and becoming public knowledge once again. After just seeking a legal separation and Nancy Sinatra decided some months to file for divorce, this divorce became final on October 29, 1951. Frank Sinatra's affair and relationship with Gardner had become more and more serious, she became his second wife. What was less known was the fact of Sinatra’s continuing visits. “Throughout the many years after they split, my grandfather came to visit whenever his crazy life would allow it,” Mrs. Sinatra’s granddaughter A. J. Lambert wrote in a 2015 remembrance in Vanity Fair. “I can remember times when she would be on the phone with her ex-husband, the next thing I knew some eggplant was coming out of the freezer to thaw so that she could make him some sandwiches when he showed up.”
She remained profoundly private, uttering a word in public about her life with Sinatra, though their mutual feelings were clear, her granddaughter recalled, to those who knew them best.“I know he never stopped loving her,” Ms. Lambert wrote. “And I know she never stopped loving him.”Nancy Barbato Sinatra died in 2018 at the age of 101, she was never remarried and having outlived not only her ex-husband, but her son Frank Jr. as well, who died in 2016. Kitty Kelley claims that Sinatra had first seen photographs of Ava Gardner in a magazine and had sworn that he would marry her. Ruth Rosenthal, a friend of Gardner's, stated that Gardner detested him upon meeting him at MGM, finding him to be "conceited and overpowering", their similarities, from vices like smoking, drinking hard liquor and cursing, to their volatile tempers and love of violent sports, soon became apparent. Sinatra separated from Nancy on Valentine's Day 1950, after he confessed to his passionate affair with Gardner, she subsequently locked him out of the house and hired a lawyer.
Although Nancy refused to divorce him, Sinatra was granted a divorce in Nevada in October 1951, subsequently obtained a marriage license in Pennsylvania, marrying Gardner in a small ceremony on November 7, 1951. A turbulent marriage, with many well-publicized fights and altercations, an abortion in November 1952, the couple formally announced their separation on October 29, 1953 through MGM. Gardner filed for divorce in June 1954, at a time when she was dating matador Luis Miguel Dominguín, but the divorce wasn't settled until July 1957. Sinatra blamed Peter Lawford for the split, who had dated Gardner before, it took six years for Sinatra to forgive him, he was inconsolable in the fall of 1953 after the split, according to Kelley, on November 18, Van Heusen found him in the elevator of his 57th Street apartment with his wrists slashed. Sinatra took responsibility for Gardner's business affairs long after the split, was still dealing with her finances in 1976; when she fell into financial difficulty in years, Sinatra paid $50,000 towards her medical bills.
Gardner's power in Hollywood helped Sinatra get cast in From Here to Eternity and his subsequent Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor helped revitalize Sinatra's film career. Sinatra married actress Mia Farrow on July 19, 1966, when she was 21 and he was 50. At the time, Sinatra was enjoying a wave of renewed popularity as the song "Strangers in the Night" returned him to the top of the Billboard charts only seventeen days later, they met on the set of Von Ryan's Express. She agreed to appear in his 1968 film, The Detective, but when she reneged as her filming schedule for Rosemary's Baby overran, Sinatra served her divorce papers in front of the cast and crew, they were divorced in Mexico in August 1968. In an interview for the November 2013 issue of Vanity Fair, Farrow said that she and Sinatra "never split up" and answered "possibly" when asked if her son Ronan might be Sinatra's. On July 11, 1976, Sinatra married Barbara Blakeley Marx, she remained his wife until his death, although her relations with Sinatra's children were portrayed as stormy, something Nancy Sinatra confirmed when she publicly claimed that Barbara had not bothere
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Jerome David Kern was an American composer of musical theatre and popular music. One of the most important American theatre composers of the early 20th century, he wrote more than 700 songs, used in over 100 stage works, including such classics as "Ol' Man River", "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man", "A Fine Romance", "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes", "The Song Is You", "All the Things You Are", "The Way You Look Tonight", "Long Ago" and "Who?". He collaborated with many of the leading librettists and lyricists of his era, including George Grossmith Jr. Guy Bolton, P. G. Wodehouse, Otto Harbach, Oscar Hammerstein II, Dorothy Fields, Johnny Mercer, Ira Gershwin and E. Y. Harburg. A native New Yorker, Kern created dozens of Broadway musicals and Hollywood films in a career that lasted for more than four decades, his musical innovations, such as 4/4 dance rhythms and the employment of syncopation and jazz progressions, built on, rather than rejected, earlier musical theatre tradition. He and his collaborators employed his melodies to further the action or develop characterization to a greater extent than in the other musicals of his day, creating the model for musicals.
Although dozens of Kern's musicals and musical films were hits, only Show Boat is now revived. Songs from his other shows, are still performed and adapted. Many of Kern's songs have been adapted by jazz musicians to become standard tunes. Kern was born in New York City, on Sutton Place, in what was the city's brewery district, his parents were Henry Kern, a Jewish German immigrant, Fannie Kern née Kakeles, an American Jew of Bohemian parentage. At the time of Kern's birth, his father ran a stable. Kern grew up on East 56th Street in Manhattan, he showed an early aptitude for music and was taught to play the piano and organ by his mother, an accomplished player and teacher. In 1897, the family moved to New Jersey, where Kern attended Newark High School, he wrote songs for the school's first musical, a minstrel show, in 1901, for an amateur musical adaptation of Uncle Tom's Cabin put on at the Newark Yacht Club in January 1902. Kern left high school before graduation in the spring of his senior year in 1902.
In response, Kern's father insisted that his son work with him instead of composing. Kern, failed miserably in one of his earliest tasks: he was supposed to purchase two pianos for the store, but instead he ordered 200, his father relented, in 1902, Kern became a student at the New York College of Music, studying the piano under Alexander Lambert and Paolo Gallico, harmony under Dr. Austin Pierce, his first published composition, a piano piece, At the Casino, appeared in the same year. Between 1903 and 1905, he continued his musical training under private tutors in Heidelberg, returning to New York via London. For a time, Kern worked as a rehearsal pianist in Broadway theatres and as a song-plugger for Tin Pan Alley music publishers. While in London, he secured a contract from the American impresario Charles Frohman to provide songs for interpolation in Broadway versions of London shows, he began to provide these additions in 1904 to British scores for An English Daisy, by Seymour Hicks and Walter Slaughter, Mr. Wix of Wickham, for which he wrote most of the songs.
In 1905, Kern contributed the song "How'd you like to spoon with me?" to Ivan Caryll's hit musical The Earl and the Girl when the show transferred to Chicago and New York in 1905. He contributed to the New York production of The Catch of the Season, The Little Cherub and The Orchid, among other shows. From 1905 on, he spent long periods of time in London, contributing songs to West End shows like The Beauty of Bath and making valuable contacts, including George Grossmith Jr. and Seymour Hicks, who were the first to introduce Kern's songs to the London stage. In 1909 during one of his stays in England, Kern took a boat trip on the River Thames with some friends, when the boat stopped at Walton-on-Thames, they went to an inn called the Swan for a drink. Kern was much taken with the proprietor's daughter, Eva Leale, working behind the bar, he wooed her, they were married at the Anglican church of St. Mary's in Walton on October 25, 1910; the couple lived at the Swan when Kern was in England. Kern is believed to have composed music for silent films as early as 1912, but the earliest documented film music which he is known to have written was for a twenty-part serial, Gloria's Romance in 1916.
This was one of the first starring vehicles for Billie Burke, for whom Kern had earlier written the song "Mind the Paint", with lyrics by A. W. Pinero; the film is now considered lost. Another score for the silent movies, followed in 1919. Kern was one of the founding members of ASCAP. Kern's first complete score was Broadway's The Red Petticoat, one of the first musical-comedy Westerns; the libretto was by Rida Johnson Young. By World War I, more than a hundred of Kern's songs had been used in about thirty productions Broadway adaptations of West End and European shows. Kern contributed two songs to To-Night's another Rubens musical, it went on to become a hit in London. The best known of Kern's songs from this period is "They Didn't Believe Me", a hit in the New York version of the Paul Rubens and Sidney Jones musical, The Girl from Utah, for which Kern wrote five songs. Kern's song, with four beats to a bar, departed from the customary waltz-rhythms of E
The Way You Look Tonight
"The Way You Look Tonight" is a song from the film Swing Time, performed by Fred Astaire and written by Dorothy Fields and Jerome Kern. It won the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1936. Fields remarked, "The first time Jerry played that melody for me I started to cry; the release killed me. I couldn't stop, it was so beautiful."In the movie, Astaire sang "The Way You Look Tonight" to Ginger Rogers while she was washing her hair in an adjacent room. His recording reached the top of the charts in 1936. Other versions that year were by Teddy Wilson with Billie Holiday. To take advantage of the success of the song, pianist Teddy Wilson brought Billie Holiday into a studio ten weeks after the movie was released. Holiday was twenty-one when she recorded "The Way You Look Tonight" as a duet with Wilson in October 1936. Six years passed before the song appeared on the charts again, this time in a version by Benny Goodman with Peggy Lee on vocals and Mel Powell on celeste; the most popular and imitated version was recorded by Frank Sinatra with the Nelson Riddle orchestra in 1964.
Versions were recorded by Clifford Brown, Tina Brooks, Johnny Griffin, Charlie Parker, Tony Bennett. Bing Crosby and his wife Dixie Lee recorded it as a duet on August 19, 1936; the Lettermen found their first hit when their version reached No. 13 on the Billboard magazine Hot 100 singles chart in 1961 and No. 36 on the UK Singles Chart that same year. Sonny Rollins and Thelonious Monk recorded it in 1954. Cassandra Wilson included the song in her 2015 album Coming Forth by Day. List of 1930s jazz standards Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Jazz standards - The Way You Look Tonight
Songs by Sinatra
Songs by Sinatra, Volume 1 is the second studio album by Frank Sinatra. The tracks were conducted by Axel Stordahl and his orchestra, it is a collection of eight recordings from six different sessions. It was released as a set of four 78 rpm records similar to The Voice of Frank Sinatra and re-issued in 1950 as a 10" record. "I'm Sorry I Made You Cry" "How Deep is the Ocean?" "Over the Rainbow" – 3:16 "She's Funny That Way" "Embraceable You" "All the Things You Are" "That Old Black Magic" "I Concentrate on You" – 3:03 Frank Sinatra – Vocals Axel Stordahl – Arranger, Conductor MUSICIANS – Victor Arno, Robert Barene, Alex Beller, Eddie Bergman, William Bloom, Harry Blostein, Harry Bluestone, Werner Callies, Sam Cytron, Walter Edelstein, Peter Ellis, Sam Freed, David Frisina, David Jefferson, Gerald Joyce, George Kast, Sol Kindler, Morris King, Samuel Levine, Sam Middleman, Fred Olson, Anthony Perrotti, Nick Pisani, Gene Powers, Ted Rosen, Mischa Russell, Felix Slatkin, Marshall Sosson, Oreste Tomasso, Olcott Vail, Allan Harshman,William Hymanson, Paul Lowenkron, Alexander Neiman, Maurice Perlmutter, Paul Robyn, Leonard Selic, William Spear, Dave Sterkin, Gary White, Cy Bernard, Fred Goerner, Arthur Kafton, Nicholas Ochi-Albi, John Sewell, Julius Tannenbaum, May Cambern, Irma Clow, Heinie Beau, Fred Dornbach, Manny Gershman, Leonard Hartman, Herbie Haymer, Jules Kinsler, Harold Lawson, Don Logiudice, Harry Schuchman, Arthur Smith, Willie Smith, Fred Stulce, Don Anderson, Charles Griffard, Max Herman, Ray Linn, Leonard Mach, Billy May, Horace Nelson, Rubin "Zeke" Zarchey, Hoyt Bohannon, Dave Hallett, George Jenkins, Carl Loeffler, Pullman "Tommy" Pederson, Jack Schaeffer, Jimmy Skiles, Elmer Smithers, Paul Weigand, Joe Yukl, Fred Fox, Richard Perissi, James Stagliano, Mark McIntyre, Dave Barbour, Allan Reuss, John Ryan, Artie Shapiro, Phil Stephens, Ray Hagan