Sind Province (1936–55)

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Sind
Province of British India (1936–47)
Province of Pakistan (1947–55)

1936–1955

Flag of Sind

Flag

Location of Sind
Map of Pakistan highlighting Sind's borders, unchanging during 1936-1955
Capital Karachi
History
 •  Renaming of Sind Division 1 April 1936
 •  Province of Pakistan 14 August 1947
 •  Disestablished 14 October 1955
Area 123,080 km2 (47,521 sq mi)
Government of Sindh
Coat of arms of Pakistan
This article is part of the series
Former administrative units of Pakistan

Sind was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. Under the British, it encompassed the current territorial limits excluding the princely state of Khairpur with the capital at Karachi. After Pakistan's creation, the province lost the city of Karachi, as it became the capital of the newly created country.

Location[edit]

The province was bordered by Karachi (within The Federal Capital Territory after 1948) and the princely states of Las Bela and Kalat on the west. To the north were the provinces of Baluchistan and West Punjab. The province bordered the princely state of Bahawalpur on the northeast and it enclosed on three sides the princely state of Khairpur. The nation of India's states of Rajasthan and Gujarat bordered to the east and south. On the southwest lay the Arabian Sea, with the Sind's coastline consisting entirely of river deltas, including the Indus River Delta up to Sind's border with the city of Karachi, now the capital of modern Sindh.

History[edit]

Sindh was first settled by the Indus Valley Civilization and Mohenjo-daro, as early as 7000 BC. It had Greek influence during its history after the expansion of the Macedonian Empire, and developed trade with surrounding regions. Several Sunni Muslim and Rajput kingdoms were set up there, beginning with the Rai Dynasty and ending with the Arghun dynasty. The Mughal Empire conquered Sindh under the rule of Akbar in 1509. Soon after the coming of European companies, namely the British East Indian Company, the Mughal hold on the area loosened, and Sindh became part of the Bombay Presidency in 1843. Soon, it became the Sind Province.

1936–1947[edit]

After conquest by the British in 1843 Sindh had been part of the Bombay Presidency, however on 1 April 1936 Sindh Division was separated from the Bombay Presidency and made into a province of British India.

1947–1955[edit]

The independence and passage of the resolution joining Pakistan in the Sindh Assembly, Sindh becoming part of Pakistan in 1947. The province was merged into the province of West Pakistan in 1955 under the One Unit policy announced by Prime Minister Chaudhry Mohammad Ali.

Demographics[edit]

By the time of independence in 1947 Sindh had a Muslim majority for centuries but there were significant minorities of Hindus throughout the province. In 1947 due to communal tensions and the influx of two million Muslim refugees from India many Hindus were forced to flee to India.

The refugees from India were mostly Urdu speakers, and although the official language of Sindh was Sindhi, many schools in big cities of Sindh and switched to Urdu schools.

Government[edit]

The offices of Governor of Sindh and Chief Minister of Sindh were established in 1936 when Sindh became a province. This system continued until 1955 when Sindh was dissolved.

Tenure Governor of Sindh[1]
1 April 1936 Province of Sindh established
1 April 1936 – 1 August 1938 Sir Lancelot Graham (first time)
1 August 1938 – 1 December 1938 Joseph Garrett (acting)
1 December 1938 – 1 April 1941 Sir Lancelot Graham (2nd time)
1 April 1941 – 15 January 1946 Sir Hugh Dow
15 January 1946 – 14 August 1947 Sir Robert Francis Mudie
14 August 1947 Independence of Pakistan
14 August 1947 – 4 October 1948 Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah
4 October 1948 – 19 November 1952 Sheikh Din Muhammad
19 November 1952 – 1 May 1953 Mian Aminuddin
1 May 1953 – 12 August 1953 George Baxandall Constantine
12 August 1953 – 23 June 1954 Habib Ibrahim Rahmatullah
23 June 1954 – 14 October 1955 Iftikhar Hussain Khan
14 October 1955 Province of Sindh dissolved
Tenure Chief Minister of Sind[1] Political party
24 April 1937 – 23 March 1938 Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah Muslim Political Party
23 March 1938 – 18 March 1940 Allah Bux Soomro (1st time) Sind United Party
18 March 1940 – 7 March 1941 Mir Band-e-Ali Khan Talpur Muslim League
7 March 1941 – 14 October 1942 Allah Bux Soomro (2nd time) Sind United Party
14 October 1942 – 14 August 1947 Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah Muslim Political Party
14 August 1947 Independence of Pakistan
14 August 1947 – 28 April 1948 Mohammad Ayub Khuhro (1st time) Pakistan Muslim League
3 May 1948 – 4 February 1949 Pir Illahi Bakhsh Pakistan Muslim League
18 February 1949 – 7 May 1950 Yusuf Haroon Non-partisan
8 May 1950 – 24 March 1951 Qazi Fazlullah Ubaidullah Non-partisan
25 March 1951 – 29 December 1951 Mohammad Ayub Khuhro (2nd time) Pakistan Muslim League
29 December 1951 – 22 May 1953 Governor's rule
22 May 1953 – 8 November 1954 Pirzada Abdus Sattar Pakistan Muslim League
9 November 1954 – 14 October 1955 Mohammad Ayub Khuhro (3rd time) Pakistan Muslim League
14 October 1955 Province of Sindh dissolved

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ben Cahoon, WorldStatesmen.org. "Pakistan Provinces". Retrieved 2007-10-03. 

See also[edit]

Coordinates: 26°06′N 68°34′E / 26.10°N 68.56°E / 26.10; 68.56