Elu Thingol is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, he appears in The Silmarillion, The Lays of Beleriand and Children of Húrin as well as in numerous stories in the many volumes of The History of Middle-earth. He is notably a major character in many of the stories about the First Age of Tolkien's Middle-earth and he is an essential part of the ancestral backgrounding of the romance between Aragorn and Arwen in The Lord of the Rings. Thingol is introduced as the King of King of the Sindar, High-king and Lord of Beleriand, he is said to be "the tallest of all the Children of Ilúvatar" and the "mightiest of the Eldar save Fëanor only". In The Silmarillion as Elwë, he is introduced as one of the three chieftains of the Elves who depart from Cuiviénen with Oromë as ambassadors of Valinor and become Kings. Upon his return, he persuades many of the Nelyar, to follow him back to that country; this host becomes known as the Teleri. On the Great Journey to the West the Teleri lag behind, loving Middle-earth and having mixed feelings about leaving it for Valinor, do not arrive at the coast until after the departure of the moving island of Tol Eressëa.
Thus, they stay in Beleriand for many years. During this time Elwë encounters Melian the Maia in the woods of Nan Elmoth and, enchanted by her, he falls in love with her, they remain entranced together for some 200 years. Many of the Teleri would not leave without him. After Thingol awoke from the trance, many of the Teleri had grown to like Beleriand and decided to stay there. Thingol and Melian become queen of the Sindar, the Teleri who stay in Beleriand. Thingol's brother Olwë becomes the King of Alqualondë and High King of the Teleri who do journey to Aman. Thingol visited Valinor as an ambassador and is, both of the Sindar and of the Calaquendi, his and Melian's daughter, Lúthien, is said to be the fairest of the Children of Ilúvatar to live. Thingol's heir is son of Beren and Lúthien. Other kin of Thingol, stated by Tolkien, for which the family relation is unrecorded or unexplained in the tales are Círdan, Celeborn, Eöl, he is the ancestor of many prominent characters and Men, including Elros, Elrond and Arwen.
He is family to Galadriel, as she is the child of his niece, Eärwen. When the War of the Jewels began Thingol fought the First Battle of Beleriand defeating Morgoth's invading east host. After that battle Thingol realised that he could not match Morgoth in open battle and adopted a defensive strategy for his kingdom by closing the borders with a military March Ward and Melian's magical Girdle, a maze of mists and shadows. Sensing unspoken, dire causes for the arrival of the Noldor, he denied entry to Doriath without his leave to all except the house of Finarfin, for they were descended from Olwë; the lords of the Noldor concealed from Thingol the Kinslaying at Alqualondë, where Thingol's Telerin kinsmen in Valinor were slaughtered and their ships stolen by Fëanor's followers. Those Noldor who bore no direct responsibility for the crime felt the shame of it, they grew angry at the sons of Fëanor for their pride. Círdan the Shipwright heard rumour of the Kinslaying, sent word to Thingol. Outraged, Thingol confronted Finrod Felagund with this news, but Finrod made no reply rather than accuse his kinsmen.
His brother Angrod could not bear the blame any longer. In great anger, he revealed Fëanor and Fëanor's sons' responsibility for the Kinslaying, for the misery of the long passage of the Helcaraxë which Finarfin's and Fingolfin's kin suffered. Thingol forgave the houses of Fingolfin and Finarfin, but he decreed that their language would never again be heard or spoken in Beleriand and still bore hatred for the Fëanorian Noldor. Following the Dagor Bragollach, a Man named Beren fled to Doriath, driven by a destiny that thwarted Melian's power, Lúthien, Thingol's daughter, fell in love with him. Thingol did not wish them to marry, he demanded as a bride-price a Silmaril, which jewels were at that time set in Morgoth's crown, thinking it would be death to make the attempt to recover them. Though intended by Thingol as a way to get rid of this presumptuous mortal, as the quest was deemed impossible, the quest he laid on Beren had the effect of placing Doriath under the sway of the Oath of Fëanor, since against all odds, Beren succeeded in retrieving the Silmaril after many difficult adventures and married Lúthien.
As was required by their oath, the sons of Fëanor demanded. In spite of Melian's counsel to the contrary, he refused, remembering the sacrifices that his daughter and son-in-law had to endure to retrieve it, being enamoured of its beauty. Maedhros remained silent, since he was attempting to build an alliance to assault Angband, but his brothers Celegorm and Curufin vowed to slay Thingol and lay waste to Doriath should they return from battle victorious. Thingol thus fortified his borders and sent no aid to the Union of Maedhros, but gave permission to his marchwardens Beleg Cúthalion and Mablung to participate, under the condition that they not serve the sons of Fëanor. After the disastrous defeat of the Eldar at the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, Beleg returned to Doriath with the young Túrin Turambar, a grand-nephew of Beren, sent by his mother Morwen Eledhwen from Dor-lómin, soon to be overrun by Morgoth's forces, Thingol received him gladly. Túrin caused the death of the Nandorin elf Saeros, after the latter gave him a mortal insult.
Thingol was at first outraged, but pardoned Túrin after hearing the whole story. However, Túr
Lindon is the land beyond the Ered Luin, the Blue Mountains, in the northwest of Middle-earth in the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, it is the westernmost land of the continent. The Gulf of Lune divides it into Harlindon. Mithlond or the Grey Havens stood near the mouth of the River Lhûn at the gulf's eastern end. Lindon serves as a narrative plot device, the final point of transition from the mortal changing world of Middle-earth to the unchanged Arda of the past. Ossiriand was the most eastern region of Beleriand during the First Age, lying between the Ered Luin and the river Gelion. Ossiriand was a forested land; the Seven Rivers were, from north to south: River Gelion River Ascar or Rathlóriel River Thalos River Legolin River Brilthor River Duilwen River Adurant Along the northern side of the Ascar ran the Dwarf-road to Nogrod. North of Ossiriand lay the land of Thargelion, ruled by Caranthir son of Fëanor; the island Tol Galen in Ossiriand's southernmost river, the Adurant, was named the Land of the Dead that Live when Lúthien and Beren lived their second lives there.
The first settlers of Beleriand were the Sindarin Elves, but they did not venture into Ossiriand except as "wandering hunters". Ossiriand continued to remain unoccupied for many centuries, a situation not disturbed when Dwarves appeared, built their road along the northern boundary. Another Elven people, the Nandor, entered Ossiriand under their leader Denethor; the Nandor were given permission by Thingol to settle the lands. There they lived in "long years of peace", they chose no more leaders, many of them removed to Thingol's kingdom of Doriath. The Nandor remaining in Ossiriand withdrew into its woods, became known as the Laiquendi, or Green Elves; the Laiquendi were prodigious singers. At the drowning of Beleriand in the War of Wrath, only parts of Ossiriand and Thargelion survived, along with what became the islands of Tol Fuin and Himring. Belegaer the Great Sea broke through the Blue Mountains on the eastern boundary of Beleriand to create the Gulf of Lhûn; the War of Wrath ended the First Age, thereafter the name Lindon was applied to the surviving parts of Ossiriand and Thargelion.
This new Elven realm was ruled by King Gil-galad until his death in S. A. 3441, subsequently by the lord Círdan. Many of the Elves of Beleriand relocated to Lindon at the beginning of the Second Age, where they were ruled by King Gil-galad; the Noldor dwelt in the northern section of Forlindon, while the Sindar and surviving Laiquendi were in the southern section of Harlindon. Together they built Mithlond, the Grey Havens, on the eastern end of the Gulf of Lhûn along the banks of the River Lhûn in its deep firth. Círdan the Shipwright was the master of the Havens since its founding; the general map of Middle-earth in The Lord of the Rings shows other anchorages farther west in the Gulf of Lhûn: Harlond and Forlond on the southern and northern shores, respectively. Lindon was one of the two Noldorin realms during the other being Eregion, or Hollin; because of its cultural and spiritual importance to the Elves, Mithlond in time became the primary Elvish settlement west of the Misty Mountains prior to the establishment of Eregion and of Imladris.
After the death of Gil-galad, as the Elves dwindled in numbers by the year, Mithlond remained a focal point of the history of the northern part of Middle-earth. During the War of the Elves and Sauron, the Dark Lord Sauron attempted to invade and conquer the Havens in order to gain the Three Elven Rings but was halted and defeated at the Lhûn by Gil-galad with the timely arrival of the great Númenórean armament of Tar-Minastir; the Second Age ended with the Last Alliance of Men. The Last Alliance was the final great military effort of the Elves and they raised their largest army since the First Age for the war. Gil-galad was killed by Sauron during the last battle of the war; the Elves of Lindon suffered severe losses in the war and afterwards most of the surviving Noldor departed for Valinor and much of Lindon became depopulated. In the Third Age Lindon was ruled by Gil-galad's ally, the Sindarin elf Círdan the Shipwright, master of Mithlond. Círdan ruled as a "lord" and never with Gil-galad's title "king".
Círdan's main task was to build ships for the Elves departing Middle-earth to sail to the West. By the end of the Third Age, the majority of Lindon's population resided in or around the harbour of the Grey Havens, while the rest settled along the shores of the Gulf of Lhûn. Lindon was one of the few populated areas of northwestern Middle-earth that remained untouched by the War of the Ring. Sauron never achieved the strength and reach he had in the Second Age and he was unable to make a direct assault though the realm was a strategically important location populated by his enemies. During the Fourth Age, it was one of the last Elven havens as the remaining Elves of Rivendell and Lothlórien left Middle-earth. In the beginning of the first century, Fourth Age, it experienced a population growth as migrants from the east came to
In J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth, Doriath is a forest realm of the Sindar in Beleriand ruled by King Thingol and his queen Melian, it serves as a principal stage for the stories of the First Age, such as The Tale of Beren and Lúthien from The Lays of Beleriand, parts of The Children of Húrin and The Silmarillion. It is called the "Fenced Land" because of a girdle of enchantment Melian put about it, allowing none to enter the kingdom without her leave or Thingol's. Doriath was a land of forests located in central Beleriand adjoining the great River Sirion and its eastern tributaries: Mindeb, Esgalduin and Aros, it contained the forests the northern beech forest. Additionally, the forests of Brethil and Nan Elmoth were considered part of Doriath, though these last two lay outside the Girdle of Melian. Elu Thingol, lord of the Sindar, had claimed all of Beleriand from the Gelion to Belegaer as his realm, but after the return of the Noldor to Middle-Earth Doriath was the centre of his power.
It is said that of all rulers of Beleriand in the legends "the most mighty and the longest free was Thingol of the Woods."In the middle of Doriath was a natural feature, a vast hill with many caves, located on the south banks of the Esgalduin. Toward the end of the Ages of Melkor's captivity, Melian counselled Thingol that the peace of his realm would not long endure, so he turned these caves into a citadel called Menegroth, the Thousand Caves, which became his capital city and principal fortress. Thingol commissioned the Dwarves of Nogrod to build the halls of Menegroth, its gates were carved into a rocky hill beside the Esgalduin, the vast caverns beneath were considered one of the finest works of the Elves of the Elder Days in either Middle-earth or Valinor. Dwarves were employed in its construction, its halls were carved to look like a beech forest, complete with animals. A great stone bridge across the Esgalduin provided the only access to the gates. Just across the Esgalduin from Menegroth, the great tree Hírilorn stood in the forest of Neldoreth.
Hírilorn had a tree-house, wherein Lúthien was confined by Thingol to prevent her from meeting Beren. Long before Doriath was founded, during the march of the Elves from Cuiviénen, the Vanyar and the Noldor passed through its woods on the Great Journey. Finwë and the Noldor dwelt there for a time before they were ferried across the Great Sea on Tol Eressëa. Treebeard the Ent wandered through the woods in an early era, although it's not clear whether this was before or after any Elves. Shortly after the third kindred of Elves, the Teleri, arrived in Beleriand their lord Elwë became enamoured with the Maia Melian and was lost in the forest of Nan Elmoth; when Ulmo returned to take the Teleri to Valinor, a part of that people remained behind to continue the search for their lord. Those Teleri who did journey to Valinor were led by Elwë's brother Olwë, became the Sea-elves or Falmari of Alqualondë; those who remained in Beleriand called themselves "the forsaken", called Doriath Eglador, meaning "Land of the Forsaken".
For them, Elwë returned, revealed as a lord of great reverence, accompanied by his queen Melian. He became known as Elu Thingol, the king of the Teleri of Middle-earth, ruled his people throughout Beleriand from Doriath, his people became known as the Sindar, Elves of the Twilight, or Grey Elves, enjoyed thousands of years of peace. However, in the last years before the Noldor returned to Middle-earth the Orcs assailed the Sindar of Beleriand. After that Battle, the first of many in the Wars of Beleriand, Melian fenced the forests of Neldoreth and Nivrim with unseen walls of shadow that would prevent any from entering without her consent or Thingol's. Thingol defended his realm with companies of archers, called March Wardens, who guarded the borders. With the help of the Dwarves, he armed the Elves with axes, long spears and swords, armoured coats of scale-mail, shields. Thingol summoned all the wandering Sindar to Doriath, but many remained in the wild or at the havens of Falas under the lordship of Cirdan.
After the first battle, many Laiquendi as well as some Avari removed to Doriath, establishing themselves as "Guest Elves" of Arthórien. When the Noldor returned to Middle-earth at the beginning of the First Age, they were welcomed in Doriath, but Thingol was outraged upon learning of the first Kinslaying at Alqualondë, the victims of which were the people of his brother Olwë. Thingol forbade the Noldorin language of the kinslayers to be spoken by or to the Sindar, leading many Noldor to adopt Sindarin. Furthermore, he barred the Noldor, he allowed entry to the Houses of Finarfin. He judged that the former had atoned for their part in the Kinslaying through their crossing the ice of the Helcaraxë, while the latter had taken no part in the slaying, their lords were his kin through their maternal grandfather Olwë. Finarfin's daughter Galadriel came to live in Doriath, there married the noble Sinda Celeborn; when Men arrived in Beleriand, they were refused entry to Doriath, for Thingol felt foreboding at their arrival.
But at Finrod's request the Haladin were allowed to live in Brethil as vassals to Thingol, charged with the protection of the Crossings of Teiglin. Despite the ban on Men, Melian foretold that a Man would indeed break her defences and enter Doriath, being driven by a doom g
Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
In J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional universe of Middle-earth, Hithlum is the region north of Beleriand near the Helcaraxë. Hithlum was separated from Beleriand proper by the Ered Wethrin mountain chain, was named after the sea mists which formed there at times: Hithlum is Sindarin for "Mist-shadow". Hithlum was subdivided in Mithrim, where the High Kings of the Noldor had their halls, Dor-lómin, which became a fief of the House of Hador; the Ered Wethrin formed the southern and eastern wall, had only a few passes. The western wall was formed by the Ered Lómin or "Echoing Mountains", which curved north-westward to the Helcaraxë; the land of Lammoth was not part of Beleriand or Hithlum. The land of Nevrast was separated from Hithlum by the southern part of the Ered Lómin range. Nevrast was seen as part of Hithlum, but its climate was that of Beleriand. Hithlum was quite fertile; the Noldor first camped at the shores of Lake Mithrim. In the First Age, Hithlum was continually under attack by Morgoth being lost after the Nírnaeth Arnoediad.
The Hadorians were scattered, killed, or enslaved, the Noldor were enslaved in Morgoth's mines if they could not flee in time, Morgoth trapped the Easterlings there. Hithlum was destroyed during the War of Wrath. Mithrim formed a part of Hithlum, was the south-eastern corner of it, bordering Dor-lómin to the west, from which it was divided by the Mountains of Mithrim. Mithrim's climate was the same as Hithlum's, the air was cool and the winters were cold but it was a fair land; the area was home to a great lake, the Lake of Mithrim, the body of water north of Beleriand where the Noldor first dwelt in Middle-earth: the Sons of Fëanor on the northern shore and Fingolfin's host on the southern shore. The Noldor dwelt here for a while until their feud was healed, they removed to other lands. Mithrim was home to Sindarin Elves, who soon mingled with the Noldor after they had learned Sindarin. In the First Age Mithrim was ruled by Fingolfin, as it formed the most densely populated part of Hithlum; the Mithrim Montes on Titan, the great moon of Saturn, are named after Tolkien's Mountains of Mithrim.
Dor-lómin, "Land of Echoes", was the south-western part of Hithlum, bordered in the east by the Mountains of Mithrim, in the north by the river which formed the Rainbow Cleft known as Annon-in-Gelydh, or "Gate of the Noldor". It was first colonized by the Noldor shortly after they arrived in Middle-earth, for a long time was ruled by Fingon son of Fingolfin, before he took over as High King of the Noldor after his father was killed. By this time the Edain who became known as the House of Hador had entered Beleriand, Fingon granted them the land of Dor-lómin as a fief, he gave them the Dragon-helm of Dor-lómin, it was thereafter their chief heirloom. Húrin son of Galdor, the last Edain lord of Dor-lómin dwelt in its south-western corner, near the mountain known as Amon Darthir, where the river Nen Lalaith began. After the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, when the House of Hador was destroyed or scattered, Easterlings dwelt in Dor-lómin, Tuor — Húrin's orphaned nephew — was fostered by the Elves of Androth in the nearby Mountains of Mithrim.
Like the rest of Hithlum Dor-lómin was destroyed during the War of Wrath. Dagor Bragollach Hithlum at the Tolkien Gateway
Minor places in Middle-earth
The stories of J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium contain references to numerous places; some of these fictional places are described below. Aldburg is a hill fort and settlement in Rohan, in the region known as the Folde, some miles to the southeast of Edoras. Aldburg was the capital of the realm, where Eorl the Young, the first King of Rohan, founded his hall in T. A. 2510. Though his son, King Brego, moved to Edoras early in Rohan's history, Aldburg remained the residence of the descendants of Éofor, Brego's third son. One of these descendants was Éomer, a nephew of King Théoden. At the time of the War of the Ring, Éomer was the Third Marshal of the Mark and became heir to the king; the All-welcome Inn was an inn located at the junction of the Northway and the East Road on the Hobbiton side of Frogmorton. It was much used by travellers Dwarves from the Ered Luin. Amon Hen is a hill located on the western bank of the river Anduin, at the southern end of Nen Hithoel, the lake above the Falls of Rauros.
It was one of the three peaks at the Falls of Rauros at the southern end of the Emyn Muil, the others being Amon Lhaw, the Hill of the Ear, Tol Brandir, an island located between the two hills. The Seat of Seeing was built at the summit of Amon Hen, serving as a watchtower for the northern borders of Gondor, it was constructed in the early days of Gondor. In The Fellowship of the Ring, the Fellowship travelled down the Anduin from Lothlórien to Parth Galen, the lake-side lawn at the feet of Amon Hen, but here the Fellowship was broken: Boromir attempted to take the One Ring by force from Frodo Baggins, who fled. After Frodo escaped from Boromir, he sat upon the Seat of Seeing while still wearing the Ring, was able to see events hundreds of miles distant. From Amon Hen and Samwise Gamgee crossed the Anduin on their way east to Mordor, while Merry and Pippin were carried by Saruman's Orcs in the direction of his hold at Isengard, the rest of the Fellowship set out in pursuit of the Orcs. Tolkien's aerial view of the Emyn Muil shows Tol Brandir to be much taller than Amon Hen and Amon Lhaw.
The sketch is published in J. R. R. Tolkien: Illustrator; the bulletin of The Tolkien Society has been named Amon Hen since December 1972. Amon Lhaw is one of the three peaks above the Falls of Rauros which drained the lake known as Nen Hithoel, it towered amongst the Emyn Muil on the eastern banks of the Anduin, its twin, Amon Hen, lay upon the western bank. Between them, at the centre of the stream above Rauros, was the island peak Tol Brandir upon which none had set foot. Although at one time Amon Lhaw had been on the northern boundary of Gondor and a high seat was built there, this was no longer the case at the time of the War of the Ring. Called the Hill of Hearing and Hill of the Ear in Westron. Tolkien's aerial view of the Emyn Muil shows Tol Brandir to be much taller than Amon Lhaw and Amon Hen; the sketch is published in J. R. R. Tolkien: Illustrator. See: Hill of Guard Andrath is a narrow pass through which the North-South Road passed between the Barrow-downs on the west and the South Downs on the east.
To the north of Andrath the road met the Great East Road, just west of the gates of Bree. When the Nazgûl came north from Mordor to seek the Ring in the Shire at the end of the Third Age, their leader, the Witch-king of Angmar, camped in Andrath, it is mentioned in the appendices of The Return of the King that it is that the Witch-king aroused the Barrow-wights in the nearby Barrow-downs while camped at Andrath. Two separate areas in Middle-earth were known as the Angle, each defined by the angle between two converging rivers; the Angle in Lothlórien lay between the Silverlode. It was more referred to as Egladil; the Angle in Eriador was a much larger area. It lay between the Mitheithel on the Bruinen on the east; this Angle was part of the province of Rhudaur in the kingdom of Arnor. Many Stoors, a tribe of Hobbits, settled in the Angle circa T. A. 1150, but left about T. A. 1356. Tom Shippey notes a number of similarities between the migration history of Hobbits and that of the Anglo-Saxons; the Argonath is a monument comprising two enormous pillars carved in the likenesses of Isildur and Anárion, standing upon either side of the River Anduin at the northern approach to Nen Hithoel.
The figures were constructed about T. A. 1240 at the order of King Rómendacil II to mark the northern border of Gondor. However the effective border had receded southwards by the time of the War of the Ring. A. 3019. Each of the two figures was shown wearing a crown and a helm, with an axe in its right hand and its left hand raised in a gesture of defiance to the enemies of Gondor. It's that the figure on the east bank, which technically stood in the province of Ithilien, represented Isildur, while the western figure, standing in the province of Anórien, represented Anárion. Known as the Pillars of the Kings or the Gate of Kings. See Ered Lithui see Dimrill Dale Bamfurlong is the farmland of Farmer Maggot, located in the Marish of the eastern part of the Shire; the boggy nature of the land makes fo
In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Elves are one of the races that inhabit a fictional Earth called Middle-earth, set in the remote past, they appear in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings, but their complex history is described more in The Silmarillion. Tolkien had been writing about Elves; the modern English word elf derives from the Old English word ælf. Numerous types of elves appear in Germanic mythology, the West Germanic concept appears to have come to differ from the Scandinavian notion in the early Middle Ages, Anglo-Saxon concept diverged further under Celtic influence. Tolkien would make it clear in a letter that his Elves differ from those "of the better known lore", referring to Scandinavian mythology. By 1915 when Tolkien was writing his first elven poems, the words elf and gnome had many divergent and contradictory associations. Tolkien had been warned against using the term'fairy', which John Garth supposes may have been due to the word becoming used to indicate homosexuality, although despite this warning Tolkien continued to use it.
By the late 19th century, the term'fairy' had been taken up as a utopian theme, was used to critique social and religious values, a tradition which Tolkien along with T. H. White are seen to continue. One of the last of the Victorian Fairy-paintings, The Piper of Dreams by Estella Canziani, sold 250,000 copies and was well known within the trenches of World War I where Tolkien saw active service. Illustrated posters of Robert Louis Stevenson's poem Land of Nod had been sent out by a philanthropist to brighten servicemen's quarters, Faery was used in other contexts as an image of "Old England" to inspire patriotism. According to Marjorie Burns, Tolkien chose the term elf over fairy, but still retained some doubts. In his 1939 essay On Fairy-Stories, Tolkien wrote that "English words such as elf have long been influenced by French. Traditional Victorian dancing fairies and elves appear in much of Tolkien's early poetry, have influence upon his works in part due to the influence of a production of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan in Birmingham in 1910 and his familiarity with the work of Catholic mystic poet, Francis Thompson which Tolkien had acquired in 1914.
O! I hear the tiny horns Of enchanted leprechauns And the padded feet of many gnomes a-coming! As a philologist, Tolkien's interest in languages led him to invent several languages of his own as a pastime. In considering the nature of who might speak these languages, what stories they might tell, Tolkien again turned to the concept of elves. In his The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien develops a theme that the diminutive fairy-like race of Elves had once been a great and mighty people, that as Men took over the world, these Elves had "diminished" themselves; this theme was influenced by the god-like and human-sized Ljósálfar of Norse mythology, medieval works such as Sir Orfeo, the Welsh Mabinogion, Arthurian romances and the legends of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Some of the stories Tolkien wrote as elven history have been seen to be directly influenced by Celtic mythology. For example, "Flight of The Noldoli" is based on the Tuatha Dé Danann and Lebor Gabála Érenn, their migratory nature comes from early Irish/Celtic history.
John Garth sees that with the underground enslavement of the Noldoli to Melkor, Tolkien was rewriting Irish myth regarding the Tuatha Dé Danann into a Christian eschatology. The name Inwe, given by Tolkien to the eldest of the elves and his clan, is similar to the name found in Norse mythology as that of the god Ingwi-Freyr, a god, gifted the elf world Álfheimr. Terry Gunnell claims that the relationship between beautiful ships and the Elves is reminiscent of the god Njörðr and the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir, he retains the usage of the French derived term "fairy" for the same creatures. The larger Elves are inspired by Tolkien's personal Catholic theology—as representing the state of Men in Eden who have not yet "fallen", similar to humans but fairer and wiser, with greater spiritual powers, keener senses, a closer empathy with nature. Tolkien wrote of them: "They are made by man in his own likeness, they are immortal, their will is directly effective for the achievement of imagination and desire."In The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien includes both the more serious "medieval" type of elves such as Fëanor and Turgon alongside the frivolous, Jacobean type of elves such as the Solosimpi and Tinúviel.
Alongside the idea of the greater Elves, Tolkien developed the idea of children visiting Valinor, the island-homeland of the Elves in their sleep. Elves would visit children at night and comfort them if they had been chided or were upset; this theme, linking elves with children's dreams and nocturnal travelling was abandoned in Tolkien's writing. Along with Book of Lost Tales, Douglas Anderson shows that in The Hobbit, Tolkien again includes both the more serious'medieval' type of elves, such as Elrond and the Wood-elf king, frivolous elves, such as those at Rivendell. In 1937, having had his manuscript for The Silmarillion rejected by a publisher who disparaged all the "eye-splitting Celtic names" that Tolkien had given his Elves, Tolkien denied the names had a Celtic origin: Needless t