Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation. A sine wave is a continuous wave, it is named after the function sine. It occurs in pure and applied mathematics, as well as physics, signal processing and many other fields, its most basic form as a function of time is: y = A sin ⁡ = A sin ⁡ where: A, the peak deviation of the function from zero. F, ordinary frequency, the number of oscillations that occur each second of time. Ω = 2πf, angular frequency, the rate of change of the function argument in units of radians per second φ, specifies where in its cycle the oscillation is at t = 0. When φ is non-zero, the entire waveform appears to be shifted in time by the amount φ /ω seconds. A negative value represents a delay, a positive value represents an advance; the sine wave is important in physics because it retains its wave shape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency and arbitrary phase and magnitude. It is the only periodic waveform; this property makes it acoustically unique.

In general, the function may have: a spatial variable x that represents the position on the dimension on which the wave propagates, a characteristic parameter k called wave number, which represents the proportionality between the angular frequency ω and the linear speed ν. The wavenumber is related to the angular frequency by:. K = ω v = 2 π f v = 2 π λ where λ is the wavelength, f is the frequency, v is the linear speed; this equation gives a sine wave for a single dimension. This could, for example, be considered the value of a wave along a wire. In two or three spatial dimensions, the same equation describes a travelling plane wave if position x and wavenumber k are interpreted as vectors, their product as a dot product. For more complex waves such as the height of a water wave in a pond after a stone has been dropped in, more complex equations are needed; this wave pattern occurs in nature, including wind waves, sound waves, light waves. A cosine wave is said to be sinusoidal, because cos ⁡ = sin ⁡, a sine wave with a phase-shift of π/2 radians.

Because of this head start, it is said that the cosine function leads the sine function or the sine lags the cosine. The human ear can recognize single sine waves as sounding clear because sine waves are representations of a single frequency with no harmonics. To the human ear, a sound, made of more than one sine wave will have perceptible harmonics. Presence of higher harmonics in addition to the fundamental causes variation in the timbre, the reason why the same musical note played on different instruments sounds different. On the other hand, if the sound contains aperiodic waves along with sine waves the sound will be perceived to be noisy, as noise is characterized as being aperiodic or having a non-repetitive pattern. In 1822, French mathematician Joseph Fourier discovered that sinusoidal waves can be used as simple building blocks to describe and approximate any periodic waveform, including square waves. Fourier used it as an analytical tool in the study of waves and heat flow, it is used in signal processing and the statistical analysis of time series.

Since sine waves propagate without changing form in distributed linear systems, they are used to analyze wave propagation. Sine waves traveling in two directions in space can be represented as u = A sin ⁡ When two waves having the same amplitude and frequency, traveling in opposite directions, superpose each other a standing wave pattern is created. Note that, on a plucked string, the interfering waves are the waves reflected from the fixed end


Karwan is a major suburb in Hyderabad, India. It is a part of the old city of Hyderabad, it is 10 km from the IT hubs like HITECH City, etc.. It had major importance in the trade. Karwan has a mixed population of both Muslims; the festival of Bonalu is famous here and is celebrated in grandeur. The main worship during Bonalu happens at the Darbar Maisamma temple; the celebrations start a week before and on a penultimate day, the thotella is installed in front of Maisamma temple. On the last day many cultural programs take place, along with the distribution of prizes to the meritorious students from UG to PG; the festival culminates with numerous palaharam carts which display various traditions and the removal of thotella along with the procession. Karwan has long history dating back to the Nizam rule it was a well known diamond pearls market till today there are old buildings and other old temples and masjids constructed during Nizam period. Andaroon or Inside karwan has few old buildings and was the place of the old pearl and diamond market existed.

It is famous for handloom clothes. Shree Vithalnathji Temple & shree Santhoshi matha temple along with Lord Narsimha swamy temple and Kesari Hanuman temple at are famous and old temples which are well known in the area. There is an old temple named Ranganathswamy temple, expected to be built during Nizam period, it is famous for Vaikunta Ekadashi celebrations in Jiyaguda. In earlier days it was known as Jiyargudem, under Karwan constituency. Jiyaguda Purana Pool Begum Bazar Attapur Internet Marketing Consultant - Bharath Bhushan Mee Seva Jyothi Communications The Mehdipatnam Rythu Bazaar and Gudimalkapur vegetable market are close to Karwan. There are many convention centres and big function halls on Karwan road, including: The Vintage Palace Crown Function Hall Mahaboob Pride Palace KS Palace SBA Garden - Jiyaguda Road Grand Garden Hall SDA Palace S V C Eeshwar Asian Cinemas M Cube Cinepolis ALankar Cinemas - Langar House There are schools which cater to all budgets, such as: Bharathi High School, Vivekananda High School, St. Mary's High School, D'Drop High School.

MESCO College in Mustaidpura, Sri Gayatri e-Techno School, Newgen School of Excellence Kakatiya Vidyaniketan SchoolThere are government-run schools such as Govt. High School Mustaidpura, Govt. High School Kulsumpura, Bharath Abyudaya High School, the last of, one of the biggest government schools in Telangana. There are many banks in the area, including: Andhra Bank Vijaya Bank State Bank of Hyderabad State Bank of India There are many buses that connect to different parts of the city like CBS, Secunderabad by TSRTC; this area is close to Mehdipatnam Bus Depot. The Karwan/Jiyaguda Bus Stand, near Kesari Hanuman Temple, serves routes to as far as Secunderabad and L. B. Nagar passing through Afzalgunj. There is another station in an area called Tallagadda, with buses to Secunderabad and Ramnagar There is no close MMTS Train station near Karwan, but Nampally Railway Station is near to the Karwan

Emergency Management Assistance Compact

The Emergency Management Assistance Compact is a mutual aid agreement among states and territories of the United States. It enables states to share resources including terrorism. EMAC complements the national disaster response system. EMAC is used alongside federal assistance. EMAC facilitates the maximum use of all available resources within member states' inventories. Under EMAC, requests and deployment of resources are made at the discretion of the affected state. At all times, affected states retain the choice of seeking resource support from states, the federal government, or both as may be determined by the size of the disaster event; the main contact for agencies and the private sector to learn more about EMAC is the state emergency management agencies. EMAC works as follows: When a disaster occurs, the governor of the affected state or territory declares a state of emergency; the impacted state assesses its resource needs and identifies shortfalls for which assistance will be requested, authorized representatives from the affected state activate EMAC.

These authorized representatives as well as EMAC Advance Team members determine the state's needs for personnel and equipment and broadcasts an EMAC requisition to other states. States with available resources negotiate costs with the affected state through the EMAC network, executing EMAC Form Req-A. Assisting states that commit to an agreement mobilize and deploy the agreed-upon resources to the affected state. Once the mission is completed, the resources are redeployed to their home states. Deployed personnel provide receipts and records to their home state to develop a reimbursement package, sent to the affected state, which reimburses the assisting state. EMAC is administered by the National Emergency Management Association, which provides the day-to-day support and technical backbone for EMAC education and operations at its headquarters in Lexington, Kentucky. EMAC was proposed by former Florida Governor Lawton Chiles after 1992's Hurricane Andrew, it was formed in 1993, in 1995 any state was allowed to join and the National Emergency Management Association was made the administrator.

Following the 1996 consent of the 104th U. S. Congress to EMAC, required by the Compact Clause of the U. S. Constitution for any compact between states, EMAC has grown to become a nationwide system for providing mutual aid. To be a member of EMAC, each state or territory legislature must have passed legislation, signed into law, adopting the standard language of the Compact. Since at least 2003, all U. S. states, the District of Columbia, U. S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam are members of EMAC. In 2004, EMAC was utilized during the response to Hurricanes Charley, Frances and Jeanne. Through EMAC, more than 800 state and local personnel from 38 states were deployed to Florida and West Virginia; the cost was $15 million in personnel and National Guard expenditures. In 2005, EMAC was activated ten times in response to one wildfire, one flood, one tropical storm, two winter storms, five hurricanes. Most striking, more than 65,000 personnel from 48 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.

S. Virgin Islands were deployed under EMAC through the state emergency management agencies in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Total costs for the 2005 EMAC events are expected to exceed $840 million. In addition to providing another avenue for states to receive assistance in times of disaster, EMAC offers the following benefits: Assistance may be more available. EMAC allows states to ask for whatever assistance they need for any type of emergency—from earthquakes to acts of terrorism. EMAC's simple procedures help. Legislation solves the problems of liability and responsibilities of cost. Once the conditions for providing assistance to a requesting state have been set, the terms constitute a binding contractual agreement that makes affected states responsible for reimbursement. Responding states can rest assured that sending aid will not be a financial or legal burden, personnel who are deployed are protected under workers compensation and liability provisions. Legislation allows for credentials to be honored across state lines.

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