The Straits Times
The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore owned by Singapore Press Holdings. Singapore Press Holdings claims that the print and digital editions of the newspaper have a daily average circulation of 383,600, it was established on 15 July 1845 as The Straits Times and Singapore Journal of Commerce, There are specific Myanmar and Brunei editions published, with a newsprint circulation of 5,000 and 2,500 respectively. The Straits Times was started by an Armenian, Catchick Moses. Moses's friend, Martyrose Apcar, had intended to start a local paper, but met with financial difficulties. To fulfil his friend's dream, Moses appointed Robert Carr Woods as editor. On 15 July 1845, The Straits Times was launched as an eight-page weekly, published at 7 Commercial Square using a hand-operated press; the subscription fee was Sp.$1.75 per month. In September 1846, he sold the paper to Robert Woods. On 20 February 1942, five days after the British had surrendered to the Japanese, The Straits Times became known as The Shonan Times and The Syonan Shimbun.
This name change lasted until 5 September 1945. During the early days of Singaporean self-governance, the paper had an uneasy relationship with some politicians, including the leaders of the People's Action Party. Editors were warned that any reportage that may threaten the merger between the Malayan Federation and Singapore may result in subversion charges, that they may be detained without trial under the Preservation of Public Security Ordinance Act; the Straits Times functions with 16 bureaus and special correspondents in major cities worldwide. The paper has five sections: the main section consist of Asian and international news, with sub-sections of columns and editorials and the Forum Page; the Home section consist of local news and topics on Education for Monday and Body for Tuesday, Digital for Wednesday, Community for Thursday and Science for Friday. There are a sports and finance section, a classified ads and job listing section and a lifestyle, style and the arts section titled "Life!".
The newspaper publishes special editions for primary and secondary schools in Singapore. The primary-school version contains a special pull-out, titled "Little Red Dot" and the secondary-school version contains a pull-out titled "In". A separate edition The Sunday Times is published on Sundays. Owing to political sensitivities, The Straits Times is not sold in neighboring Malaysia, the Malaysian newspaper New Straits Times is not sold in Singapore; the ban was imposed before independence in Malaysia. A specific Myanmar and Brunei edition of this paper was launched on 25 Mar 2014 and 30 October 2014, it is published daily with local newspaper printers on licence with SPH. This paper is distributed on ministries, major hotels, airlines and supermarkets on major cities and target sales to local and foreign businessmen in both countries. Circulation of the Myanmar edition stands at 5,000 and 2,500 for the Brunei edition; the Brunei edition is sold at B$1 per copy and an All-in-One Straits Times package consisting of the print edition and full digital access via online and smartphones, will be introduced in Brunei.
Launched on 1 January 1994, The Straits Times' website was free of charge and granted access to all the sections and articles found in the print edition. On 1 January 2005, the online version began requiring registration and after a short period became a paid-access-only site. Only people who subscribe to the online edition can read all the articles on the Internet, including the updated "Latest News" section. A free section, featuring a selection of news stories, is available at the site. Regular podcast and twice-daily—mid-day and evening updates—radio-news bulletins are available for free online; the Straits Times School Pocket Money Fund was initiated on October 1, 2000 by The Straits Times, to heighten public awareness of the plight of children from low-income families who were attending school without proper breakfast, or pocket money to sustain their day in school. The aim is to alleviate the financial burden faced by parents in providing for their children's education. At the same time the funds will help children who are facing difficulties in remaining in school to stay on.
The Straits Times Media Club is a youth programme to encourage youth readership and interest in news and current affairs. Schools will have to subscribe for at least 500 copies, will receive their papers every Monday. A youth newspaper, IN, is slotted in together with the main paper for the students; the newspaper is sometimes referred as "the mouthpiece" of the ruling party or at least "mostly pro-government" and "close to the government". Chua Chin Hon ST’s bureau chief for the United States, was quoted as saying that SPH’s “editors have all been groomed as pro-government supporters and are careful to ensure that reporting of local events adheres to the official line” in a 2009 US diplomatic cable leaked by WikiLeaks. Past chairpersons of Singapore Press Holdings have been public servants. Current SPH Chairman Lee Boon Yang is a former PAP cabinet minister who took over from Tony Tan, former Deputy Prime Minister. Many current ST management and senior editors have close links to the government as well.
SPH CEO Alan Chan was a former top civil servant and Principal Private Secretary of Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew. Current editor-in-chief Warren Fernandez was considered as a PAP candidate for the 2006 elections. In his memoir OB Markers: My Straits Times Story, former edi
Cleo is a Malaysian, Singaporean and Indonesia monthly women's magazine. The magazine was founded in 1972 in Australia. Aimed at an older audience than the teenage-focused Australian magazine Dolly, Cleo was published by Bauer Media Group in Sydney and was known for its Cleo Bachelor of the Year award. Launched in November 1972 under the direction of Ita Buttrose, the magazine's founding editor, Cleo became one of Australia's most iconic titles due to its mix of controversial content, including the first nude male centerfold and detailed sex advice. According to the magazine's editorial philosophy, "Cleo gets women, it strikes the perfect balance, offers a bright, light-hearted tone and aesthetic without shying away from the more serious issues that are important to their readers.". Audited circulation in June 2014 was 53,221 copies monthly. Readership numbers for September 2014 are estimated to be 173,000. With a strong online presence of 300,000+ visitors monthly, the magazine established its brand online.
In addition, Beauty Bites, Cleo's digital app, offered an interactive component to technologically minded Gen Y readers, including how-to video tutorials, expert advice and reader-generated content. Bauer announced on 20 January 2016. In the early 1970s, journalist and editor, Ita Buttrose, Kerry Packer, heir to what was Australia's most influential publishing house, Australian Consolidated Press, created a new and bold Australian women's magazine which would become an instant sensation. Cleo was modelled in a large part on Cosmopolitan after the Packers lost the rights to the latter title to rivals Fairfax; the first issue was launched in November 1972, the same month that Gough Whitlam came to power in Australia. In the original promotional video for Cleo, Buttrose observes "the changing personality of the Australian woman." In an era when hopes for social and political change were high, Cleo was a fitting and welcome addition for women aged between 20 and 40 who were looking for something more than the recipes, knitting tips and coverage of royal births and weddings that the Australian Women's Weekly focused on at the time.
Cleo was politically provocative with its journalism. Alongside articles on group sex, contraception, "happy hookers" and Jack Thompson as the first nude "Mate of the Month", the launch issue featured tips on "How to be a sexy housekeeper." In stark contrast to the lack of literary content in modern glossy magazines, Buttrose ran a short story by Norman Mailer, a prominent author at the time. This trend continued in subsequent issues. In two days, 105,000 copies of the first issue were sold and by the end of its first year circulation reached 200,000; when the magazine conducted the first national readership survey in 1974, figures revealed that 30 percent of women aged between 13 and 24 read Cleo every month. Through Cleo, feminism became a part of their identity. Ita Buttrose and her staff were committed to many of the ideas of sexual liberation. However, it is important to note that Cleo's editorial agenda was that of liberal rather than radical feminism. In her first editorial letter, Buttrose described who she thought the Cleo reader was: "You're an intelligent woman who's interested in everything that's going on, the type of person who wants a great deal more out of life.
Like us, certain aspects of Women's Lib appeal to you but you're not aggressive about it.". The feminist tone and ideas proliferated on the pages of Cleo throughout the 1970s; every month, there were feature articles covering issues including: the work/life balance, the pressure to get married and raise a family, contraception, women's education, domestic violence and rape. "The celebrities Cleo chose to interview were women who had succeeded in politics and culture. There were discussions of the Women's Liberation Movement itself, with writers for and against". Ordinary, every-day women gained understanding of feminism through the pages of Cleo; the magazine helped create the feminist public sphere, opening doors for discussions about new ideas which modern women treat as mainstream today. Cleo pushed boundaries in mainstream publishing with candid articles on topics ranging from sex toys and orgasms, to lesbianism and contraception. "We wrote about sex as if we had discovered it", recalls Buttrose.
Cleo was the first Australian women's magazine to feature non-frontal nude male centrefolds in 1972, with Jack Thomson, a prominent Australian actor at the time, the magazine's first Mate of the Month. What Buttrose thought would be a light hearted, one-off feature became an essential component of what made Cleo so popular. Other mates were Eric Oldfield, Peter Blasina and the band Skyhooks; the centrefold feature was discontinued in 1985, the last being a bare-chested picture of Mel Gibson. University of Sydney media academic Megan Le Masurier interprets the centerfold phenomenon as an incentive for popular feminist desire; the centerfold attempted to reverse the dominant tradition of representing men as viewers, women as viewed. The representation of the male nude "offered women the chance to imagine themselves as active sexual agents, quite capable of holding the gaze"; the naked man was a reminder that women could, should, enjoy sex, reaffirmed their right to talk about sex. In 2013, new editor Sharri Markson announced.
More than 40 years after revamping women's magazines with male centrefolds, it was the first time that sex had not
President of Singapore
The President of the Republic of Singapore is the country's head of state. Singapore has a parliamentary system of government. Executive authority is exercised by the Cabinet led by the Prime Minister of Singapore; the current president is Halimah Yacob, elected unopposed at the 2017 presidential election. She is the first female President of Singapore and first Malay head of state in 47 years since the death of Yusof Bin Ishak, Singapore's first president; the national constitution sets strict eligibility conditions for the presidency. Before 1993, the president was chosen by the Parliament of Singapore; as a result of constitutional amendments passed in 1991, the presidency became a popularly elected office with certain custodial powers over government expenditure and key appointments to public offices. Wee Kim Wee was the first president to exercise custodial powers pursuant to the constitutional amendments of 1991; the first president elected by popular vote was Ong Teng Cheong, who served from 1993 to 1999.
In 2016, further amendments were passed providing for "reserved elections" for a particular community, if that community has not provided a president in the past five presidential terms. The president's official residence and office is the Istana. However, no presidents since Yusof Ishak have lived there; the office of president was created in 1965 after Singapore became a republic upon its secession from the Federation of Malaysia that year. It replaced the office of Yang di-Pertuan Negara, created when Singapore attained self-government in 1959; the last Yang di-Pertuan Negara, Yusof Ishak, became the first president. After his death he was replaced by Benjamin Sheares, who served until his death in 1981, when he was succeeded by Chengara Veetil Devan Nair. Owing to personal problems, Nair stepped down in 1985 and was replaced by Wee Kim Wee, who served as president until 1993. In January 1991, the Constitution was amended to provide for the popular election of the President, a major constitutional and political change in Singapore's history.
Under the revision, the President is empowered to veto the use of the country's past reserves and key civil service appointments. He or she can examine the administration's enforcement of the Internal Security Act and Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act, authorise corruption investigations; the first popularly elected President was a former cabinet minister. He served as president from 1 September 1993 to 31 August 1999. However, the Singapore Government has, on the advice of the Attorney-General's Chambers, deemed Ong's predecessor Wee Kim Wee the first elected president, on the basis that he had held and exercised the powers of the Elected President; this was a result of transitional provisions in the Constitution of Singapore in 2017, which were affirmed by the High Court following a legal challenge by presidential hopeful Tan Cheng Bock. He appealed against this decision, but the Court of Appeal dismissed it; the sixth president was S. R. Nathan, he was not elected by the people in a vote, but became president by virtue of being the sole candidate deemed qualified by the Presidential Elections Committee.
His first term of office was from 1 September 1999 to 31 August 2005. He was re-elected on 17 August 2005. After he stepped down, Tony Tan won the 27 August 2011 presidential election by a narrow 0.34% margin. He was sworn in as the seventh President of Singapore on 1 September 2011; the eighth and current president, Halimah Yacob, took office on 14 September 2017, becoming the first president elected as she was the sole eligible candidate under the new reform terms which took effect earlier that year. She is the first female President of Singapore; the President is the head of state of Singapore. The executive authority of the nation is vested in the President and exercisable by him or her or by the Cabinet or any minister authorised by the Cabinet. However, the Cabinet is vested with the "general direction and control of the Government," and in most cases the President is bound to exercise his or her powers in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority.
The President only exercises limited powers in his or her personal discretion to block attempts by the government of the day to draw down past reserves it did not accumulate, to approve changes to key appointments, to exercise oversight over the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau and decisions of the Executive under the Internal Security Act and the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act. As a component of the legislature together with Parliament, the President is jointly vested with the legislative power of Singapore; the President's primary role in the exercise of legislative power to make laws is assenting to bills passed by Parliament. As he or she exercises this constitutional function in accordance with Cabinet's advice and not in his or her personal discretion except in certain circumstances, in general he or she may not refuse to assent to bills that Parliament has validly passed; the words of enactment in Singapore statutes are: "Be it enacted by the President with the advice and consent of the Parliament of Singapore, as follows:".
The President opens each Parliamentary session with an address drafted by the Cabinet setting out the Government's agenda for the session, may address Parliament and send messages to it. The President has been called "Singapore's No. 1 diplomat". Ambassadors and high commissioners accredited to Singapore present their credentials to him, he is called upon by visiting foreign leaders. In addition, he or she contributes to the nation's external relations by undertaking overseas trips on Cabinet's advic
A correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is a journalist or commentator for magazines, or more speaking, an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or radio or television news, or another type of company, from a remote distant, location. A foreign correspondent is stationed in a foreign country; the term "Correspondent" refers to the original practice of filing news reports via postal letter. The largest networks of correspondents belong to ARD and BBC. In Britain, the term'correspondent' refers to someone with a specific specialist area, such as health correspondent. A'reporter' is someone without such expertise, allocated stories by the newsdesk on any story in the news. A'correspondent' can sometimes have direct executive powers, for example a'Local Correspondent' of the Open Spaces Society has some delegated powers to speak for the Society on path and commons matters in their area including representing the Society at Public Inquiries. A capitol correspondent is a correspondent. A legal or justice correspondent reports on issues involving legal or criminal justice topics, may report from the vicinity of a courthouse.
A red carpet correspondent is an entertainment reporter, selected to report from the red carpet of an entertainment or media event, such as a premiere, award ceremony or festival. A foreign correspondent is any individual who reports from foreign locations. A war correspondent is a foreign correspondent. A foreign bureau is a news bureau set up to support a news gathering operation in a foreign country. In TV news, a "live on-the-scene" reporter reports from the field during a "live shot"; this has become an popular format with the advent of Eyewitness News. A recent cost-saving measure is for local TV news to dispense with out-of-town reporters and replace them with syndicated correspondents supplied by a centralized news reporting agency; the producers of the show schedule time with the correspondent, who appears "live" to file a report and chat with the hosts. The reporter will do a number of similar reports for other stations. Many viewers may be unaware; this is a popular way to report the weather.
For example, AccuWeather doesn't just supply data, they supply on-air meteorologists from television studios at their headquarters. From Our Own Correspondent John Pory Letter from America List of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War Parachute journalism People's correspondent Press pool Reporters Without Borders Stringer Media related to Correspondents at Wikimedia Commons
Tony Tan Keng Yam is a Singaporean politician, the seventh President of Singapore & Commander-in-Chief of Singapore Armed Forces, holding office from 2011 to 2017 after winning the Singaporean presidential election, 2011. A member of the country's governing People's Action Party, he was the Minister for Finance, Minister for Defence, Minister for Education, Coordinating Minister for Security and Defence and Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore, he was a Member of Parliament representing Sembawang GRC between 1988 and 2006 and Sembawang SMC between 1979 and 1988. He is the only living former president of Singapore, he received 35.20 % of the votes. Tan was sworn in as President on 1 September 2011 and held office until 31 August 2017. Tan was educated at St Joseph's Institution; as a recipient of a government scholarship, he graduated with first class honours in physics from the University of Singapore, topping his class. As an Asia Foundation scholar, he attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he completed a Master of Science in operations research.
He earned a Doctor of Philosophy in applied mathematics at the University of Adelaide, went on to lecture mathematics in the University of Singapore. In 1969, Tan left the University of Singapore to begin a career in banking with Overseas-Chinese Banking Corporation, where he rose to become General Manager, before leaving the bank to pursue a career in politics in 1979. A member of the People's Action Party until June 2011, Tan became a Member of Parliament in 1979, he was appointed as a Senior Minister of State in the Ministry of Education in 1979. He joined the Cabinet in 1980; as the Minister for Education, Tan scrapped a policy that favoured children of more well-educated mothers ahead of children of less-educated mothers in primary school placement in response to popular discontent and public criticism of the policy which saw PAP receiving the lowest votes since independence during the 1984 general election. He introduced the independent schools system, allowing established educational institutions in Singapore to charge its own fees and have control over their governance and teaching staff, though this was criticised by parents as being "elitist" and made top-ranked schools out of reach to poorer families due to subsequent fee hikes.
Tan took on the role of Minister for Trade & Industry from 1981 to 1986. He was appointed Minister for Finance, Minister for Health. Tan espoused a cut in the Central Provident Fund in the 1980s, which Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew had said would not be allowed except "in an economic crisis". Tan was known to have opposed the shipping industry strike in January 1986, the first for about a decade in Singapore, sanctioned by fellow cabinet member Ong Teng Cheong, the secretary-general of the National Trades Union Congress, who felt the strike was necessary; as Minister for Trade and Industry, Tan was concerned about investors' reactions to a perceived deterioration of labour relations and the impact on foreign direct investment. In his analysis, historian Michael Barr explains that older union leaders" bore "increasing disquiet" at their exclusion from consultation in NTUC's policies, which were managed by "technocrats" in the government. Unlike the previous NTUC secretary-general Lim Chee Onn, Lee Kuan Yew's protégé Ong Teng Cheong in 1983 had an "implicit pact" with the trade unions—involving grassroots leaders in top decisions and "working and forcefully" in the interests of the unions "in a way Lim had never seen to do"—in exchange for the unions' continued "cooperation on the government's core industrial relations strategies".
Although striking was prohibited and trade unions were barred from negotiating such matters as promotion, employment, dismissal and reinstatement, issues that "accounted for most earlier labour disputes", the government provided measures for workers' safety and welfare, serious union disputes with employers were always handled through the Industrial Arbitration Court, which had powers of both binding arbitration and voluntary mediation. However, Ong felt these measures did not prevent "management taking advantage of the workers", recalling in a 2000 interview in Asiaweek: "Some of them were angry with me about that... the minister for trade and industry was angry, his officers were upset. They had calls from America, asking what happened to Singapore?" However the fact that the strike only lasted two days before "all the issues were settled" was cited by Ong in a 2000 interview with Asiaweek as proof that "management was just trying to pull a fast one". Separately, Tan opposed the timing of building the Mass Rapid Transit in 1981 when it was raised by Ong.
Tan held the view that the local construction industry was overheated at the time, public housing should take priority. In December 1991, Tan stepped down from the Cabinet to return to the private sector, rejoined the Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer from 1992 to 1995, while retaining his seat in Parliament as a representative for the Sembawang Group Representation Constituency. After Ong Teng Cheong and Lee Hsien Loong were diagnosed with cancer in 1992, 1993 Tan was asked to return to Cabinet in August 1995 as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Defence, it was reported that he declined an offer of make-up pay, w
Singapore Telecommunications Limited is a Singaporean telecommunications company. The company is the largest mobile network operator in Singapore with 4.1 million subscribers and through subsidiaries, has a combined mobile subscriber base of 640 million customers at the end of financial year 2017 The company was known as Telecommunications Equipment until 1995. Singtel provides IPTV and mobile phone networks and fixed line telephony services. Singtel has expanded aggressively outside its home market and owns shares in many regional operators, including 100% of the second largest Australian telco, acquired in 2001 from Cable & Wireless and other shareholders of Optus, 32.15% of Bharti Airtel, the second largest carrier in India. Singtel controls significant market share in Singapore, with 82% of the fixed-line market, 47% of the mobile market and 43% of the broadband market in Singapore. Singtel is the second-largest company by market capitalisation listed on the Singapore Exchange and is majority owned by Temasek Holdings, the investment arm of the Singapore government.
Singtel is an active investor in innovation companies through its Singtel Innov8 subsidiary, founded in 2011 with S$200 million start up capital. 1883: Singapore's phone network was operated by the Oriental Telephone and Electric Company. The Public Telephone Exchange set up 60 telephone lines connecting local businesses of that era. 1907: OTEC was replaced by a new Central Telephone Exchange in Hill Street 1955: The Singapore Telephone Board is incorporated as a statutory board with exclusive rights to operate telephone service within Singapore. This is followed by the merger of STB and Telecommunications Authority of Singapore in 1974. Up until that time, STB was responsible for local services, while TAS provided international services. 1982 saw the merger of the Postal Department with Telecoms. 1992: SingTel is incorporated in March and became a public company in October 1993. 1992: SingTel introduces the call zone service, made defunct in 1997. 1997 Singtel was compensated $1.5 billion by the Singaporean Government for early termination of its monopoly, based on projected earnings lost between 2000 and 2007 due to its loss of monopoly.
In 2000, Singtel lost its domestic monopoly in Singapore, with the government deregulating the telecommunications industry. 2001: SingTel is awarded a 3G licence in April. In March 2001, Singtel purchased Optus for between $7.4 billion to $8.5 billion 2003: SingTel sells 60% of Singapore Post in May during an IPO in an effort to focus on its core telecommunications services business. 2003: SingTel divested its stakes in Yellow Pages in June, its directory business to CVC Asia Pacific and J. P. Morgan Partners Asia for S$220 million. 2003: SingTel announced that it has appointed Ericsson as the vendor for its 3G network in Singapore in July. 2005: SingTel launches its commercial 3G services in February. 2007: mio TV was launched commercially on 20 July 2007 and began its services on 21 July 2007. 2007: SingTel Generation mio was launched commercially on 9 January 2007 and began its services on 21 January 2007 2008: SingTel and Apple jointly announced that SingTel will be the first mobile operator to launch the iPhone 3G and its services to Singapore in June.
In the month of June, SingTel becomes the title sponsor of the inaugural Singapore Grand Prix in Singapore. On 10 July 2009, SingTel launched the iPhone 3GS commercially in Singapore. In May 2011, SingTel announced that they will be aiming to double the size of its satellite business, with two additional launches by 2013. In November 2011, SingTel launched Singapore's first e-book provider, available through the web, iOS or Android. 2012: SingTel acquired mobile advertising technology company Amobee in March 2012 for $321 million. 2012: SingTel secured broadcast rights for the 2012 Summer Olympics and provided 15 new ESPN STAR Sports channels free of charge to its mio TV Services. 2012: Singtel was fined $300,000 for breaches of the Service Resiliency Code by the IDA. Since December 2012, SingTel started providing 4G LTE services across Singapore. Since 1 August 2013, mio TV was renamed SingTel TV. In 2013 SingTel announced the sale of its entire 30% stake in Warid Telecom Limited to Warid Telecom Pakistan LLC which took place on 15 March 2013 In 2013 SingTel was fined $180,000 for the disruption of its mio TV service where 115,000 subscribers were affected while watching the Premier League games.
The problems included screen freezing, blurred images and picture distortion that happened on 13 May 2012 from 10:15 pm. Full service quality was resumed at 12:15 am the next day. In late 2013, Singtel shutdown its Skoob e-book store. In 2014 SingTel was fined $6 million for its Bukit Panjang fire in the previous year; this is the highest fine imposed on a telco in Singapore. In August 2014, SingTel announced it was joining forces with five other global companies, including Google, to build a super-fast undersea data cable linking the U. S. and Japan. In 2014 Bharati Airtel became first telecommunication company to serve 4G internet in India. On 21 January 2015, Singtel launched the first in 16 years. On 19 March 2015, Singtel dismissed all connections with Gushcloud; this is after a Singapore blogger Xiaxue, exposed Gushcloud's brief to its "influencers" to execute a negative campaign on M1 and Starhub. SingTel apologised to Starhub for the campaign, its competitors in the telecommunication industry.
On 7 April 2015, Singtel revealed it would be acquiring US cyber security firm Trustwave for $810 million, its largest acquisition outside the telec
Internal Security Department (Singapore)
The Internal Security Department is a domestic intelligence agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs of Singapore. It has the utmost right to detain without trial individuals suspected to be a threat to national security; the stated mission is to confront and address security threats, including international terrorism, foreign subversion and espionage. The ISD monitors and addresses potential threats from communism, prevention of racial tension which might affect the public peace, domestic counterterrorism, international counterterrorism, fraud against the state, apprehension of suspected militants or terrorists and protection of Singapore's national borders. Most of its manpower is drawn from the Singapore Police Force. ISD was first established as part of the Special Branch in 1948 by the British colonial government. In 1963, it became part of the Malaysian Special Branch. After Singapore gained independence, Internal Security Department was formally established on 17 February 1966, it was part of the Ministry of Interior and Defence until it was split on 11 August 1970.
In 2004, it was placed under the National Security Coordination Secretariat to improve intelligence sharing with other national intelligence agencies. The powers of investigation and arrest of the ISD are regulated by several laws, including: Criminal Procedure Code Official Secrets Act Internal Security Act Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act These events are related to ISD and internal security of Singapore. 1950, Maria Hertogh riots. 1963, arrest of left-wing politicians and trade unionists during Operation Coldstore. 1964, 21 July - 8 September, race riots, took place on the Prophet Muhammad's birthday. 1965, 10 March, MacDonald House bombing by Indonesian saboteurs killed three people, during the konfrontasi period. 1966, arrest of 22 members of Barisan Sosialis. 1969, communal clashes spillover from the 13 May incident. 1974, 31 January, Laju incident, the Japanese Red Army bombed petroleum tanks at Pulau Bukom and hijacked a ferry boat. 1982, uncovered Singapore People's Liberation Organisation activities.
1982, two Soviet spies, Anatoly Alexeyevich Larkin and Alexander Alexandrovich Bondarev, exposed for espionage activities. 1985, local network of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam uncovered. 1987, arrest of 22 alleged pro-Marxist activists during Operation Spectrum. 1991, four Pakistanis hijacked Singapore Airlines Flight 117. 1997, 1998, six arrested for involvement in espionage and foreign subversive activities. 2001, 9 December, members of Jemaah Islamiyah arrested for bomb plots on the American, Australian and Israeli embassies. 2008, 27 February, Mas Selamat bin Kastari, alleged leader of JI's Singapore branch, escaped while under the ISD's custody. 2009, 1 April, the Malaysian authorities captured Mas Selamat in Skudai, Johor. 2010, 8 February, the ISD summoned Pastor Rony Tan of Lighthouse Evangelism over video clips posted on the church website that were deemed'highly inappropriate and unacceptable' as they "trivialised and insulted the beliefs of Buddhists and Taoists". The identity of ISD's director is not conspicuously made known to the public, until he relinquishes the post.
Many of ISD's former directors went on to take up higher offices, including:?-1974: Yoong Siew Wah 1974-?: Wang Hsu Chih 1975-1982: Lim Chye Heng 1982-1986: Eddie Teo chairman of the Public Service Commission 1986-1993: Tjong Yik Min 1993-1997: Chiang Chie Foo chairman of the Central Provident Fund Board 1997-2003: Benny Lim Siang Hoe Permanent Secretary for National Development?-2010: Pang Kin Keong, became Permanent Secretary afterwards, followed up by Permanent Secretary from 2012 to 1 Sep 2017 Permanent Secretary?-2016: Loh Ngai Seng Second Permanent Secretary from 1 Jan 2016 to 1 Sep 2017 Permanent Secretary Security and Intelligence Division, the external intelligence agency GeneralLee Kuan Yew.. The Singapore Story. Federal Publications. ISBN 0-13-020803-5 Mathew Jones, "Creating Malaysia: Singapore Security, the Borneo Territories and the Contours of British Policy, 1961-1963" in Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. 28, No. 2, May 2000. Pp. 85–109Specific Internal Security Department