A kerchief known as a bandana or bandanna, is a triangular or square piece of cloth tied around the head or neck for protective or decorative purposes. The popularity of head kerchiefs may vary by culture or religion, may vary among Orthodox Jewish and Christian, Catholic and Muslim people; the neckerchief and handkerchief are related items. A bandana or bandanna is a type of large colourful kerchief, originating from the Indian subcontinent worn on the head or around the neck of a person, it is considered to be a hat. Bandanas are printed in a paisley pattern and are most used to hold hair back, either as a fashionable head accessory, or for practical purposes. Bandanas originated in India as bright coloured handkerchiefs of silk and cotton with spots in white on coloured grounds, chiefly red and blue; the silk styles were made of the finest quality yarns, were popular. Bandana prints for clothing were first produced in Glasgow from cotton yarns, are now made in many qualities; the term, at present means a fabric in printed styles, whether silk and cotton, or all cotton.
The word bandana stems from the Hindi words'bāndhnū,' or "tie-dyeing," and'bāndhnā,' "to tie." These stem from Sanskrit roots'bandhnāti,' "he ties," and Sanskrit'bandhana', "a bond." In the 18th and 19th centuries bandanas were known as bandannoes. Pañuelo or alampay in the Philippines were lace-like embroidered neck scarves worn around the shoulders over the camisa, they were traditionally made from abaca fiber. They were an intrinsic part of the traditional traje de mestiza women's attire, along with the tapis and the abaniko fans, they were worn in the 18th and 19th centuries but are used today in modern versions of the terno dress. Kerchiefs are worn as headdresses by Austronesian cultures in maritime Southeast Asia. Among Malay men it is known as tengkolok, it is worn traditional occasions, such as weddings and the pesilat. Citations References Yule, Henry, & A. C. Burnell (2013 Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India.. ISBN 9780191645839 How to tie a bandanna
A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body. An undergarment worn by men, it has become, in American English, a catch-all term for a broad variety of upper-body garments and undergarments. In British English, a shirt is more a garment with a collar, sleeves with cuffs, a full vertical opening with buttons or snaps. A shirt can be worn with a necktie under the shirt collar; the world's oldest preserved garment, discovered by Flinders Petrie, is a "highly sophisticated" linen shirt from a First Dynasty Egyptian tomb at Tarkan, dated to c. 3000 BC: "the shoulders and sleeves have been finely pleated to give form-fitting trimness while allowing the wearer room to move. The small fringe formed during weaving along one edge of the cloth has been placed by the designer to decorate the neck opening and side seam."The shirt was an item of clothing that only men could wear as underwear, until the twentieth century. Although the women's chemise was a related garment to the men's, it is the men's garment that became the modern shirt.
In the Middle Ages, it was a plain, undyed garment worn next under regular garments. In medieval artworks, the shirt is only visible on humble characters, such as shepherds and penitents. In the seventeenth century, men's shirts were allowed to show, with much the same erotic import as visible underwear today. In the eighteenth century, instead of underpants, men "relied on the long tails of shirts... to serve the function of drawers. Eighteenth-century costume historian Joseph Strutt believed that men who did not wear shirts to bed were indecent; as late as 1879, a visible shirt with nothing over it was considered improper. The shirt sometimes cuffs. In the sixteenth century, men's shirts had embroidery, sometimes frills or lace at the neck and cuffs and through the eighteenth century long neck frills, or jabots, were fashionable. Coloured shirts began to appear in the early nineteenth century, as can be seen in the paintings of George Caleb Bingham, they were considered casual wear, for lower-class workers only, until the twentieth century.
For a gentleman, "to wear a sky-blue shirt was unthinkable in 1860 but had become standard by 1920 and, in 1980, constituted the most commonplace event."European and American women began wearing shirts in 1860, when the Garibaldi shirt, a red shirt as worn by the freedom fighters under Giuseppe Garibaldi, was popularized by Empress Eugénie of France. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Century Dictionary described an ordinary shirt as "of cotton, with linen bosom and cuffs prepared for stiffening with starch, the collar and wristbands being separate and adjustable"; the first documented appearance of the expression "To give the shirt off one's back", happened in 1771 as an idiom that indicates extreme desperation or generosity and is still in common usage. In 1827 Hannah Montague, a housewife in upstate New York, invents the detachable collar. Tired of washing her husband’s entire shirt when only the collar needed it, she cut off his collars and devised a way of attaching them to the neckband after washing.
It wasn't until the 1930s that collar stays became popular, although these early accessories resembled tie clips more than the small collar stiffeners available today. They connected the collar points to the necktie, keeping them in place Camp shirt – a loose, straight-cut, short sleeved shirt or blouse with a simple placket front-opening and a "camp collar". Dress shirt – shirt with a formal collar, a full-length opening at the front from the collar to the hem, sleeves with cuffs White shirt - dress shirt which its colour is white Dinner shirt – a shirt made to be worn with male evening wear, e.g. a black tie or white tie. Guayabera – an embroidered dress shirt with four pockets. Poet shirt – a loose-fitting shirt or blouse with full bishop sleeves with large frills on the front and on the cuffs. T-shirt – "tee shirt", a casual shirt without a collar or buttons, made of a stretchy, finely knit fabric cotton, short-sleeved. Worn under other shirts, it is now a common shirt for everyday wear in some countries.
Long-sleeved T-shirt – a T-shirt with long sleeves that extend to cover the arms. Ringer T-shirt – tee with a separate piece of fabric sewn on as the collar and sleeve hems Halfshirt – a high-hemmed T-shirt Sleeveless shirt – a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or one whose sleeves have been cut off called a tank top A-shirt or vest or singlet – a sleeveless shirt with large armholes and a large neck hole worn by labourers or athletes for increased movability. Camisole – woman's undershirt with narrow straps, or a similar garment worn alone. Referred to as a cami, shelf top, spaghetti straps or strappy top Polo shirt – a pullover soft collar short-sleeved shirt with an abbreviated button placket at the neck and a longer back than front. Rugby shirt – a long-sleeved polo shirt, traditionally of rugged construction in thick cotton or wool, but softer today Henley shirt – a collarless polo shirt Baseball shirt – distinguished by a three quarters sleeve, team insignia, flat waist seam Sweatshirt – long-sleeved athletic shirt of heavier material, with or without hood Tunic – primitive shirt, distinguished by two-piece construction.
A men's garment, is seen in modern times being worn by women Shirtwaist – a woman's tailored shirt (al
A cap is a form of headgear. Caps have crowns that fit close to the head, they are designed for warmth, when including a visor used for blocking sunlight from the eyes. They come in many shapes and sizes, various different brands. Ascot cap Ayam Baggy green Balmoral Baseball cap Beanie Bearskin Beret Biretta Busby Cap and bells Cap of Maintenance Casquette Caubeen Caul Coif Combination cap Coppola Cricket cap Deerstalker Do-rag Dutch cap Fez Fitted cap Flat cap Forage cap Gandhi cap Garrison cap Glengarry Greek fisherman's cap International cap Juliet cap Karakul Kepi Kippah Knit cap Kufi Lika cap M43 field cap Mao cap Monmouth cap Newsboy cap Nightcap Nurse cap Ochipok Papakhi Patrol cap Peaked cap Phrygian cap Rastacap Sailor cap Shako Shower cap Sindhi cap Snapback Sports visor Square academic cap Stormy Kromer cap Swim cap Tam o' Shanter Taqiyah, worn by Muslim males Toque Trucker hat Tubeteika Ushanka Utility cover Zucchetto Bonnet, until about 1700, the usual word for brimless male headgear Cap, metaphorical term List of headgear
A veil is an article of clothing or hanging cloth, intended to cover some part of the head or face, or an object of some significance. Veiling has a long history in European and African societies; the practice has been prominent in different forms in Judaism and Islam. The practice of veiling is associated with women and sacred objects, though in some cultures it is men rather than women who are expected to wear a veil. Besides its enduring religious significance, veiling continues to play a role in some modern secular contexts, such as wedding customs. Elite women in ancient Mesopotamia and in the Greek and Persian empires wore the veil as a sign of respectability and high status; the earliest attested reference to veiling is found a Middle Assyrian law code dating from between 1400 and 1100 BC. Assyria had explicit sumptuary laws detailing which women must veil and which women must not, depending upon the woman's class and occupation in society. Female slaves and prostitutes were faced harsh penalties if they did so.
The Middle Assyrian law code states:§ 40. A wife-of-a-man, or, or women who go out into the main thoroughfare their heads. A prostitute shall not veil herself, her head shall be bare. Whoever sees a veiled prostitute shall seize her, secure witnesses, bring her to the palace entrance, they shall not take her jewelry. And if a man should see a veiled prostitute and release her and not bring her to the palace entrance: they shall strike that man 50 blows with rods. Slave-women shall not veil themselves, he who should see a veiled slave-woman shall seize her and bring her to the palace entrance: they shall cut off her ears. Veiling was thus not only a marker of aristocratic rank, but served to "differentiate between'respectable' women and those who were publicly available"; the veiling of matrons was customary in ancient Greece. Between 550 and 323 B. C. E respectable women in classical Greek society were expected to seclude themselves and wear clothing that concealed them from the eyes of strange men.
The Mycenaean Greek term, a-pu-ko-wo-ko meaning "headband makers" or "craftsmen of horse veil", written in Linear B syllabic script, is attested since ca. 1300 BC. In ancient Greek the word for veil was καλύπτρα. Classical Greek and Hellenistic statues sometimes depict Greek women with both their head and face covered by a veil. Caroline Galt and Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones have both argued from such representations and literary references that it was commonplace for women in ancient Greece to cover their hair and face in public. Roman women were expected to wear veils as a symbol of the husband's authority over his wife. In 166 BC, consul Sulpicius Gallus divorced his wife because she had left the house unveiled, thus allowing all to see, as he said, what only he should see. Unmarried girls didn't veil their heads, but matrons did so to show their modesty and chastity, their pudicitia. Veils protected women against the evil eye, it was thought. A veil called flammeum was the most prominent feature of the costume worn by the bride at Roman weddings.
The veil was a deep yellow color reminiscent of a candle flame. The flammeum evoked the veil of the Flaminica Dialis, the Roman priestess who could not divorce her husband, the high priest of Jupiter, thus was seen as a good omen for lifelong fidelity to one man; the Romans thought of the bride as being "clouded over with a veil" and connected the verb nubere with nubes, the word for cloud. Intermixing of populations resulted in a convergence of the cultural practices of Greek and Mesopotamian empires and the Semitic peoples of the Middle East. Veiling and seclusion of women appear to have established themselves among Jews and Christians, before spreading to urban Arabs of the upper classes and among the urban masses. In the rural areas it was common to cover the hair, but not the face. For many centuries, until around 1175, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman women, with the exception of young unmarried girls, wore veils that covered their hair, their necks up to their chins. Only in the Tudor period, when hoods became popular, did veils of this type become less common.
This varied from one country to another. In Italy, including face veils, were worn in some regions until the 1970s. Women in southern Italy covered their heads to show that they were modest, well-behaved and pious, they wore a cuffia the fazzoletto a long triangular or rectangular piece of cloth that could be tied in various way, sometimes covered the whole face except the eyes, sometimes bende or a wimple underneath too. For centuries, European women have worn sheer veils, but only under certain circumstances. Sometimes a veil of this type was draped over and pinned to the bonnet or hat of a woman in mourning at the funeral and during the subsequent period of "high mourning", they would have been used, as an alternative to a mask, as a simple method of hiding the identity of a woman, traveling to meet a lover, or doing anyt
A hat is a head covering, worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safety, or as a fashion accessory. In the past, hats were an indicator of social status. In the military, hats may denote branch of service, rank or regiment. Police wear distinctive hats such as peaked caps or brimmed hats, such as those worn by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police; some hats have a protective function. As examples, the hard hat protects construction workers' heads from injury by falling objects and a British police Custodian helmet protects the officer's head, a sun hat shades the face and shoulders from the sun, a cowboy hat protects against sun and rain and a Ushanka fur hat with fold-down earflaps keeps the head and ears warm; some hats are worn for ceremonial purposes, such as the mortarboard, worn during university graduation ceremonies. Some hats are worn by members such as the Toque worn by chefs; some hats have religious functions, such as the mitres worn by the turban worn by Sikhs.
While there are not many official records of hats before 3000 BC, they were commonplace before that. The 27-30,000 year old Venus of Willendorf figurine may depict a woman wearing a woven hat. One of the earliest known confirmed hats was worn by a bronze age man whose body was found frozen in a mountain between Austria and Italy, where he'd been since around 3250 BC, he was found wearing a bearskin cap with a chin strap, made of several hides stitched together resembling a Russian fur hat without the flaps. One of the first pictorial depictions of a hat appears in a tomb painting from Thebes, which shows a man wearing a conical straw hat, dated to around 3200 BC. Hats were worn in ancient Egypt. Many upper-class Egyptians shaved their heads covered it in a headdress intended to help them keep cool. Ancient Mesopotamians wore conical hats or ones shaped somewhat like an inverted vase. Other early hats include a simple skull-like cap. Women wore veils, hoods and wimples. Like Ötzi, the Tollund Man was preserved to the present day with a hat on having died around 400 BC in a Danish bog, which mummified him.
He wore a pointed cap made of wool, fastened under the chin by a hide thong. St. Clement, the patron saint of felt hatmakers, is said to have discovered felt when he filled his sandals with flax fibers to protect his feet, around 800 AD. In the Middle Ages, hats used to single out certain groups; the 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran required that all Jews identify themselves by wearing the Judenhat, marking them as targets for anti-Semitism. The hats were yellow and were either pointed or square. In the Middle Ages, hats for women ranged from simple scarves to elaborate hennin, denoted social status. Structured hats for women similar to those of male courtiers began to be worn in the late 16th century; the term'milliner' comes from the Italian city of Milan, where the best quality hats were made in the 18th century. Millinery was traditionally a woman's occupation, with the milliner not only creating hats and bonnets but choosing lace and accessories to complete an outfit. In the first half of the 19th century, women wore bonnets that became larger, decorated with ribbons, flowers and gauze trims.
By the end of the century, many other styles were introduced, among them hats with wide brims and flat crowns, the flower pot and the toque. By the middle of the 1920s, when women began to cut their hair short, they chose hats that hugged the head like a helmet; the tradition of wearing hats to horse racing events began at the Royal Ascot in Britain, which maintains a strict dress code. All guests in the Royal Enclosure must wear hats; this tradition was adopted at other horse racing events, such as the Kentucky Derby in the United States. Extravagant hats were popular in the 1980s, in the early 21st century, flamboyant hats made a comeback, with a new wave of competitive young milliners designing creations that include turban caps, trompe-l'oeil-effect felt hats and tall headpieces made of human hair; some new hat collections have been described as "wearable sculpture." Many pop stars, among them Lady Gaga, have commissioned hats as publicity stunts. One of the most famous London hatters is James Co. of St James's Street.
The shop claims to be the oldest operating hat shop in the world. Another was Davis of 6 Fish Street Hill. In the late 20th century, museums credited London-based David Shilling with reinventing hats worldwide. Notable Belgian hat designers are Elvis Pompilio and Fabienne Delvigne, whose hats are worn by European royals. Philip Treacy OBE is an award-winning Irish milliner whose hats have been commissioned by top designers and worn at royal weddings. In North America, the well-known cowboy-hat manufacturer Stetson made the headgear for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Texas Rangers. John Cavanagh was one of the notable American hatters. Italian hat maker Borsalino has covered the heads of Hollywood stars and the world's rich and famous; the Philippi Collection is a collection of religious headgear assembled by a German entrepreneur, Dieter Philippi, located in Kirkel. The collection features over 500 hats, is the world's largest collection of cl
The bow tie is a type of necktie. A modern bow tie is tied using a common shoelace knot, called the bow knot for that reason, it consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar of a shirt in a symmetrical manner so that the two opposite ends form loops. There are three types of bow ties: the pre-tied, the clip on, the self tie. Pre-tied bow ties are ties in which the distinctive bow is sewn onto a band that goes around the neck and clips to secure; some "clip-ons" dispense with the band altogether. The traditional bow tie, consisting of a strip of cloth which the wearer has to tie by hand, is known as a "self-tie," "tie-it-yourself," or "freestyle" bow tie. Bow ties may be made of any fabric material, but most are made from silk, cotton, or a mixture of fabrics; some fabrics are much less common for bow ties than for ordinary four-in-hand neckties. The bow tie originated among Croatian mercenaries during the Thirty Years' War of the 17th century: the Croat mercenaries used a scarf around the neck to hold together the opening of their shirts.
This was soon adopted by the upper classes in France a leader in fashion, flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is uncertain whether the cravat evolved into the bow tie and four-in-hand necktie, or whether the cravat gave rise to the bow tie, which in turn led to the four-in-hand necktie; the most traditional bow ties are of a fixed length and are made for a specific size neck. Sizes can vary between 14 and 19 inches as with a comparable shirt collar. Fixed-length bow ties are preferred when worn with the most formal wing-collar shirts, so as not to expose the buckle or clasp of an adjustable bow tie. Adjustable bow ties are the standard when the tie is to be worn with a less formal, lie-down collar shirts which obscure the neckband of the tie. "One-size-fits-all" adjustable bow ties are a invention that help to moderate production costs. To its devotees, the bow tie suggests iconoclasm of an Old World sort, a fusty adherence to a contrarian point of view; the bow tie hints at intellectualism, real or feigned, sometimes suggests technical acumen because it is so hard to tie.
Bow ties are worn by magicians, country doctors and professors and by people hoping to look like the above. But most of all, wearing a bow tie is a way of broadcasting an aggressive lack of concern for what other people think. - Warren St John in The New York Times Popular perception tends to associate bow tie wearers with particular professions, such as architects, finance receipt collectors, university professors, teachers and politicians. Pediatricians wear bow ties since infants cannot grab them the way they could grab a four-in-hand necktie. Bow ties do not droop into places where they would get soiled or where they could, whether accidentally or deliberately, strangle the wearer. Clowns sometimes use an oversize bow tie for its comic effect. Classical musicians traditionally perform in white tie or black tie ensembles, of which both designs are bow ties. Bow ties are associated with weddings because of their universal inclusion in traditional formal attire. Bow ties, or slight variations thereof, have made their way into women's wear business attire.
The 1980s saw professional women in law and the corporate world, donning conservative tailored suits, with a rise of 6 million units in sales. These were worn with buttoned-up blouses, some with pleats up the front like tuxedo shirts, accessorized with bow ties that were fuller than the standard bow ties worn by their male counterparts, but consisting of the same fabrics and patterns as men's ties. Russell Smith, style columnist for Toronto's The Globe and Mail, records mixed opinions of bow tie wearers, he observed that bow ties were experiencing a potential comeback among men, though "the class conscious man recoils at the idea" of pre-tied bow ties and "eft-wingers"... "recoil at what they perceive to be a symbol of political conservatism." He argues that, that anachronism is the point, that bow tie wearers are making a public statement that they disdain changing fashion. Such people may not be economic conservatives, he argues, but they are social conservatives. In Smith's view, the bow tie is "the embodiment of propriety," an indicator of fastidiousness, "an instant sign of nerddom in Hollywood movies," but "not the mark of a ladies' man" and "not sexy."
To this image he attributes the association of the bow tie with newspaper editors, high-school principals, bachelor English teachers. Most men, only wear bow ties with formal dress; the four-in-hand necktie is still more prominent in contemporary Western society, it being seen the most at business meetings, formal functions and sometimes at home. However, the bow tie is making a comeback at fun-formal events such as dinners, cocktail parties, nights out on the town. Bow ties are worn with suits by those trying to convey a more dressed-up, formal image, whether in business or social venues. Bow ties are still popular with men of all ages in the American South, having never gone out of fashion there. Traditional opinion remains that it is inappropriate to wear anything other than a bow tie with a dinner jacket. Bow ties are sometimes worn as an alternative to ascot ties and four-in-hand neckties when wearing morning dress; the dress code of "black tie" requires a black bow tie. Most military mess dress uniforms incorporate a bow tie.
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Clothing is a collective term for items worn on the body. Clothing can be made of animal skin, or other thin sheets of materials put together; the wearing of clothing is restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depend on body type and geographic considerations; some clothing can be gender-specific. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking, it protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing provides protection from ultraviolet radiation. Wearing clothes is a social norm, being deprived of clothing in front of others may be embarrassing, or not wearing clothes in public such that genitals, breasts or buttocks are visible could be seen as indecent exposure.
There is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice which estimates the introduction of clothing at 42,000–72,000 years ago. The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are more important. Shelter reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, hats and other outer layers are removed when entering a warm home if one is living or sleeping there. Clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones. Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual and gender differentiation, social status. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion and social status.
Clothing may function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can be and has in the past been made from a wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn, worn on a single part of the body and removed, worn purely for adornment, or those that serve a function other than protection, are considered accessories rather than clothing, except for shoes. Clothing protects against many things. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing, too sheer, small, etc. offers less protection. Appropriate clothes can reduce risk during activities such as work or sport; some clothing protects from specific hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer: for instance doctors wear medical scrubs.
Humans have been ingenious in devising clothing solutions to environmental or other hazards: such as space suits, air conditioned clothing, diving suits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut, since clothes designed to be fashionable have protective value and clothes designed for function consider fashion in their design; the choice of clothes has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, serve other social purposes. Someone who lacks the means to procure reasonable clothing due to poverty or affordability, or lack of inclination, is sometimes said to be scruffy, ragged, or shabby. Serious books on clothing and its functions appear from the 19th century as imperialists dealt with new environments such as India and the tropics; some scientific research into the multiple functions of clothing in the first half of the 20th century, with publications such as J.
C. Flügel's Psychology of Clothes in 1930, Newburgh's seminal Physiology of Heat Regulation and The Science of Clothing in 1949. By 1968, the field of environmental physiology had advanced and expanded but the science of clothing in relation to environmental physiology had changed little. There has since been considerable research, the knowledge base has grown but the main concepts remain unchanged, indeed Newburgh's book is still cited by contemporary authors, including those attempting to develop thermoregulatory models of clothing development. In most cultures, gender differentiation of clothing is considered appropriate; the differences are in styles and fabrics. In Western societies, skirts and high-heeled shoes are seen as women's clothing, while neckties are seen as men's clothing. Trousers were once seen as male clothing, but can nowadays be worn by both genders. Male clothes are more practical, but a wider range of clothing styles are available for females. Males are allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places.