Single-elimination tournament

A single-elimination, knockout, or sudden death tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each match-up is eliminated from the tournament. Each winner will play another in the next round, until the final match-up, whose winner becomes the tournament champion; each match-up may be a single match or several, for example two-legged ties in European football or best-of series in American pro sports. Defeated competitors may play no further part after losing, or may participate in "consolation" or "classification" matches against other losers to determine the lower final rankings. In a shootout poker tournament, there are more than two players competing at each table, sometimes more than one progressing to the next round; some competitions are held with a pure single-elimination tournament system. Others have many phases, with the last being a single-elimination final stage called playoffs. In English, the round in which only eight competitors remain is called the quarter-final round.

The round before the quarterfinals has multiple designations. It is called the round of sixteen, last sixteen, or pre quarter-finals. In many other languages the term for these eight matches translates to eighth-final, though this term is rare in English itself; the round before the round of sixteen is sometimes called round of thirty-two in English. Terms for this in other languages translate as "sixteenth final". Earlier rounds are numbered counting forwards from the first round, or by the number of remaining competitors. If some competitors get a bye, the round at which they enter may be named the first round, with the earlier matches called a preliminary round, qualifying round, or the play-in games". Examples of the diverse names given to concurrent rounds in various select disciplines: Notes: The final three rounds of the 2014 Australian Open – Women's Singles knock-out tournament: When matches are held to determine places or prizes lower than first and second, these include a match between the losers of the semifinal matches called third place playoffs, the winner therein placing third and the loser fourth.

Many Olympic single-elimination tournaments feature the bronze medal match if they do not award bronze medals to both losing semifinalists. The FIFA World Cup has long featured the third place match, though the UEFA Euro has not held one since the 1980 edition. Sometimes, contests are held among the losers of the quarterfinal matches to determine fifth to eighth places – this is most encountered in the Olympic Games, with the exception of boxing, where both fighters are deemed to be third place. In one scenario, two "consolation semifinal" matches may be conducted, with the winners of these facing off to determine fifth and sixth places and the losers playing for seventh and eighth; the number of distinct ways of arranging a single-elimination tournament is given by the Wedderburn–Etherington numbers. Thus, for instance, there are three different arrangements for five players: The players may be divided into brackets of two and three players, the winners of which meet in the final game The bottom four players may play a two-round tournament, the winner of which plays the top player The bottom two players may meet, after which each subsequent game pairs the winner of the previous game with the next playerHowever, the number of arrangements grows for larger numbers of players and not all of them are used.

Opponents may be allocated randomly. Brackets are set up so that the top two seeds could not meet until the final round, none of the top four can meet prior to the semifinals, so on. If no seeding is used, the tournament is called a random knockout tournament. One version of seeding is where brackets are set up so that the quarterfinal pairings would be the 1 seed vs. the 8 seed, 2 vs. 7, 3 vs. 6 and 4 vs. 5. This may result in some brackets consisting of stronger players than other brackets, since only the top 32 players are seeded at all in Tennis Grand Slam tournaments, it is conceivable that the 33rd-best player in a 128-player field could end up playing the top seed in the first round. A good example of this occurring was when World No. 33 Florian Mayer was drawn against then-World No. 1 Novak Djokovic in the first round of the 2013 Wimbledo

Max Liebermann

Max Liebermann was a German painter and printmaker of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, one of the leading proponents of Impressionism in Germany. The son of a Jewish fabric manufacturer turned banker from Berlin, Liebermann grew up in an imposing town house alongside the Brandenburg Gate, he first studied law and philosophy at the University of Berlin, but studied painting and drawing in Weimar in 1869, in Paris in 1872, in the Netherlands in 1876–77. During the Franco-Prussian War, Liebermann served as a medic with the Order of St. John near Metz. After living and working for some time in Munich, he returned to Berlin in 1884, where he remained for the rest of his life, he was married in 1884 to Martha Marckwald. He used his own inherited wealth to assemble an impressive collection of French Impressionist works, he chose scenes of the bourgeoisie, as well as aspects of his garden near Lake Wannsee, as motifs for his paintings. In Berlin, he became a famous painter of portraits. In his work he steered away from religious subject matter, with one cautionary exception being an early painting, The 12-Year-Old Jesus in the Temple With the Scholars.

His painting of a Semitic-looking boy Jesus conferring with Jewish scholars sparked debate. At the International Art Show in Munich it stirred up a storm for its supposed blasphemy, with one critic describing Jesus as "the ugliest, most impertinent Jewish boy imaginable." Noted for his portraits, Liebermann painted himself from time to time. On the occasion of his 50th birthday, Liebermann was given a solo exhibition at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin, the following year he was elected to the academy. From 1899 to 1911 he led the premier avant-garde formation in the Berlin Secession. In his various capacities as a leader in the artistic community, Liebermann spoke out for the separation of art and politics. In the formulation of arts reporter and critic Grace Glueck he "pushed for the right of artists to do their own thing, unconcerned with politics or ideology", his interest in French Realism was offputting to conservatives, for whom such openness suggested what they thought of as Jewish cosmopolitanism.

He did contribute to a newspaper put out by artists during World War I. Beginning in 1920 he was president of the Prussian Academy of Arts. On his 80th birthday, in 1927, Liebermann was celebrated with a large exhibition, declared an honorary citizen of Berlin and hailed in a cover story in Berlin's leading illustrated magazine, but such public accolades were short lived. In 1933 he resigned when the academy decided to no longer exhibit works by Jewish artists, before he would have been forced to do so under laws restricting the rights of Jews. While watching the Nazis celebrate their victory by marching through the Brandenburg Gate, Liebermann was reported to have commented: "Ich kann gar nicht soviel fressen, wie ich kotzen möchte.". In 1909 Liebermann bought property in Wannsee, a wealthy suburb of summer homes on the outskirts of Berlin, designed a villa with gardens there. From the 1910s until his death, images of the gardens dominated his work. Liebermann recruited Lovis Corinth, Ernst Oppler and Max Slevogt for the Berlin Secession, together they were the most famous painters of the German Impressionism.

Liebermann died on February 8, 1935, at his home on Berlin's Pariser Platz, near the Brandenburg Gate. According to Käthe Kollwitz, he was gone. Although Liebermann had been famous, his death was not reported in the media, now controlled by the Nazis, there were no representatives of the Prussian Academy of Arts or the city at his funeral in the Jewish Cemetery on Schönhauser Allee. However, despite official strictures by the Gestapo, more than 100 friends and relatives attended the funeral. Among the mourners were Kollwitz, Hans Purrmann, Otto Nagel, Ferdinand Sauerbruch, Bruno Cassirer, Georg Kolbe, Max J. Friedländer and Adolph Goldschmidt. In 2005/2006, the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles and the Jewish Museum in New York mounted the first major museum exhibition in the United States of Liebermann's work. On 30 April 2006 the Max Liebermann Society opened a permanent museum in the Liebermann family's villa in the Wannsee district of Berlin; the artist's wife, Martha Liebermann, was forced to sell the villa in 1940.

On 5 March 1943, at the age of 85 and bedridden from a stroke, she was notified to get ready for deportation to Theresienstadt concentration camp. Instead, she committed suicide in the family home, Haus Liebermann, hours before police arrived to take her away. There is a stolperstein for her in front of their former home by the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. In 2011, the Israel Museum returned a painting to the Max Liebermann estate, decades after the masterpiece was looted from a Jewish museum in Nazi Germany. Liebermann had loaned his painting to the Jewish Museum in Berlin in the 1930s; the work, along with many others, disappeared from the museum during World War II. His painting Riders on the Beach was found as part of the Munich Art Hoard. Works by Max Liebermann at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Max Liebermann at Internet Archive Works by Max Liebermann at LibriVox German masters of the nineteenth century: paintings and drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Max Liebermann Gallery of Liebermann's paintings at Guide to the Max Liebermann Collection at the Leo Baeck Institute, N

Sascha Dikiciyan

Sascha Dikiciyan, known professionally as Sonic Mayhem, is a German game musician and professional sound designer of Armenian origin, who has produced the soundtrack for Quake II, Tomorrow Never Dies and Hellgate: London, as well as half of the soundtrack for Quake III Arena and all the weapon sound effects for Unreal Tournament and, since the build 222 patch its predecessor, Unreal. Dikiciyan has produced independent music albums. Dikiciyan's style is a driving and forceful form of aggro-industrial, with an emphasis on repeated musical phrases. Sascha collaborates with Cris Velasco, responsible for orchestral moods in their music. Dikiciyan is known under the name Toksin, producing dance remixes for the likes of BT and Celldweller and many others. Dikiciyan's work came to prominence when he sent a copy of his first CD Methods of Destruction, an alternate Quake soundtrack, to id Software in 1996; as a result, John Romero asked him to score the soundtrack for Quake II. Dikiciyan has contributed sound patches to Moog Music's award-winning Animoog app.

Sascha Dikiciyan on IMDb Sonic Mayhem on IMDb Sonic Mayhem website Steinberg Tron Evolution interview Artist profile at OverClocked ReMix GameSlice Interview: The Music of Quake <- Broken link Sascha Dikiciyan Interview at Tracksounds Interview at