Light truck or light-duty truck is a US classification for trucks or truck-based vehicles with a gross vehicle weight up to 8,500 pounds and a payload capacity up to 4,000 pounds. Similar goods vehicle classes in the European Union, Canada and New Zealand are termed light commercial vehicles and are limited to a gross vehicle weight of up to 3,500 kg. Federal regulations define a light-duty truck to be any motor vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating of no more than 8,500 pounds, “ Designed for purposes of transportation of property or is a derivation of such a vehicle, or Designed for transportation of persons and has a capacity of more than 12 persons, or Available with special features enabling off-street or off-highway operation and use.” Light trucks includes vans and sport utility vehicles. The United States government uses light truck as a vehicle class in regulating fuel economy through the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard; the class includes vans, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks.
Light trucks have lower fuel economy standards than cars, under the premise that these vehicles are used for utilitarian purposes rather than personal transportation. Since light trucks sold in the United States are being used for personal use, some have advocated applying higher economy standards to light trucks that are not used for utilitarian purposes. Production of light trucks in the United States are protected by the Chicken Tax, a 25% tariff on imported light trucks. California Air Resources Board Commercial vehicle Emission standard Regulatory Announcement on EPA changing definitions of the light and heavy-duty trucks
A vehicle is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, motor vehicles, railed vehicles, amphibious vehicles and spacecraft. Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled, railed or skied. ISO 3833-1977 is the standard internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types and definitions; the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation are logboats, with the oldest logboat found, the Pesse canoe found in a bog in the Netherlands, being carbon dated to 8040 - 7510 BC, making it 9,500–10,000 years old, a 7,000-year-old seagoing boat made from reeds and tar has been found in Kuwait. Boats were used in the Indian Ocean. There is evidence of camel pulled wheeled vehicles about 4000–3000 BC; the earliest evidence of a wagonway, a predecessor of the railway, found so far was the 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece since around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. In 200 CE, Ma Jun built a vehicle with an early form of guidance system. Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages; the earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau dating from around 1350. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. 1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in 1769. In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, gear box and bearings. 1783 Montgolfier brothers first balloon vehicle 1801 Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, which many believe was the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, though it could not maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use.
1817 Push bikes, draisines or hobby horses were the first human means of transport to make use of the two-wheeler principle, the draisine, invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais, is regarded as the forerunner of the modern bicycle. It was introduced by Drais to the public in Mannheim in summer 1817. 1885 Karl Benz built the first automobile, powered by his own four-stroke cycle gasoline engine in Mannheim, Germany 1885 Otto Lilienthal began experimental gliding and achieved the first sustained, reproducible flights. 1903 Wright brothers flew the first controlled, powered aircraft 1907 First helicopters Gyroplane no.1 and Cornu helicopter 1928 Opel RAK.1 rocket car 1929 Opel RAK.1 rocket glider 1961 Vostok vehicle carried the first human, Yuri Gagarin, into space 1969 Apollo Program first manned vehicle landed on the moon 2010 The number of road motor vehicles in operation worldwide surpassed the 1 billion mark – one for every seven people. There are over 1 billion bicycles in use worldwide.
In 2002 there were an estimated 590 million cars and 205 million motorcycles in service in the world. At least 500 million Chinese Flying Pigeon bicycles have been made, more than any other single model of vehicle; the most-produced model of motor vehicle is the Honda Super Cub motorcycle, having passed 60 million units in 2008. The most-produced car model is the Toyota Corolla, with at least 35 million made by 2010; the most common fixed-wing airplane is the Cessna 172, with about 44,000 having been made as of 2017. The Soviet Mil Mi-8, at 17,000, is the most-produced helicopter; the top commercial jet airliner is the Boeing 737, at about 10,000 in 2018. Locomotion consists of a means that allows displacement with little opposition, a power source to provide the required kinetic energy and a means to control the motion, such as a brake and steering system. By far, most vehicles use wheels which employ the principle of rolling to enable displacement with little rolling friction, it is essential.
Energy can be extracted from external sources, as in the cases of a sailboat, a solar-powered car, or an electric streetcar that uses overhead lines. Energy can be stored, provided it can be converted on demand and the storing medium's energy density and power density are sufficient to meet the vehicle's needs. Human power is a simple source of energy. Despite the fact that humans cannot exceed 500 W for meaningful amounts of time, the land speed record for human-powered vehicles is 133 km/h, as of 2009 on a recumbent bicycle; the most common type of energy source is fuel. External combustion engines can use anything that burns as fuel, whilst internal combustion engines and rocket engines are designed to burn a specific fuel gasoline, diesel or ethanol. Another common medium for storing energy is batteries, which have the advantages of being responsive, useful in a wide range of power levels, environmentally friendly, simple to install, easy to maintain. Batteries facilitate the use of electric motors, which have thei
High-occupancy vehicle lane
A high-occupancy vehicle lane is a restricted traffic lane reserved for the exclusive use of vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers, including carpools and transit buses. These restrictions may apply at all times; the normal minimum occupancy level is 3 occupants. Many jurisdictions exempt other vehicles, including motorcycles, charter buses and law enforcement vehicles, low-emission and other green vehicles, and/or single-occupancy vehicles paying a toll. HOV lanes are created to increase average vehicle occupancy and persons traveling with the goal of reducing traffic congestion and air pollution, although their effectiveness is questionable. Regional and corporate-sponsored vanpools and rideshare communities give commuters a way to increase occupancy. For places without such services, online rideshare communities can serve a similar purpose. Slugging lines are common in some places, where solo drivers pick up a passenger to share the ride and allow them to use the HOV lane. High-occupancy toll lanes, which allow solo driver vehicles to use HOV lanes on payment of a fee which varies depending on demand, have been introduced in the United States and Canada.
The introduction of HOV lanes in the United States progressed during the 1970s and early 1980s. Major growth occurred from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s; the first freeway HOV lane in the United States was implemented in the Henry G. Shirley Memorial Highway in Northern Virginia, between Washington, DC, the Capital Beltway, was opened in 1969 as a bus-only lane; the busway was opened in December 1973 to carpools with four or more occupants, becoming the first instance in which buses and carpools shared a HOV lane over a considerable distance. In 2005, the two lanes of this HOV 3+ facility carried during the morning peak hour a total of 31,700 people in 8,600 vehicles, while the three or four general-purpose lanes carried 23,500 people in 21,300 vehicles. Average travel time in the HOV facility was 29 minutes, 64 minutes in the general traffic lanes; as of 2012, the I-95/I-395 HOV facility is 30 mi long and extends from Washington, D. C. to Dumfries and has two reversible lanes separated from the regular lanes by barriers, with access through elevated on- and off-ramps.
Three or more people in a vehicle are required to travel on the facility during rush hours on weekdays. The second freeway HOV facility was the contraflow bus lane on the Lincoln Tunnel Approach and Helix in Hudson County, New Jersey, opened in 1970. According to the Federal Highway Administration, the Lincoln Tunnel XBL is the country's HOV facility with the highest number of peak hour persons among HOV facilities with utilization data available, with 23,500 persons in the morning peak, 62,000 passengers during the four-hour morning peak; the first permanent HOV facility in California was the bypass lane at the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge toll plaza, opened to the public in April 1970. The El Monte Busway in Los Angeles was only available for buses when it opened in 1973. Three-person carpools were allowed to use the bus lane for three months in 1974 due to a strike by bus operators, permanently at a 3+ HOV from 1976, it is one of the most efficient HOV facilities in North America and is being converted into a high-occupancy toll lane operation to allow low-occupancy vehicles to bid for excess capacity on the lane in the Metro ExpressLanes project.
Beginning in the 1970s, the Urban Mass Transit Administration recognized the advantages of exclusive bus lanes and encouraged their funding. In the 1970s the FHWA began to allow state highway agencies to spend federal funds on HOV lanes; as a result of the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo, interest in ridesharing picked up, states began experimenting with HOV lanes. In order to reduce crude oil consumption, the 1974 Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act mandated maximum speed limits of 55 mph on public highways and became the first instance when the U. S. federal government provided funding for ridesharing and states were allowed to spend their highway funds on rideshare demonstration projects. The 1978 Surface Transportation Assistance Act made funding for rideshare initiatives permanent. During the early 1970s, ridesharing was recommended for the first time as a tool to mitigate air quality problems; the 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments established the National Ambient Air Quality Standards and gave the Environmental Protection Agency substantial authority to regulate air quality attainment.
A final control plan for the Los Angeles Basin was issued in 1973, one of its main provisions was a two-phase conversion of 184 mi of freeway and arterial roadway lanes to bus/carpool lanes and the development of a regional computerized carpool matching system. However, it took until 1985 before any HOV project was constructed in Los Angeles County, by 1993 there were only 58 mi of HOV lanes countywide. A significant policy shift took place in October 1990, when a memorandum from the FHWA administrator stated that "FHWA supports the objective of HOV preferential facilities and encourages the proper application of HOV technology." Regional administrators were directed to promote related facilities. In the early 1990s, two laws reinforced the U. S. commitment to HOV lane construction. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 included HOV lanes as one of the transportation control measures that could be included in state implementation plans to attain federal air qualit
Carpooling is the sharing of car journeys so that more than one person travels in a car, prevents the need for others to have to drive to a location themselves. By having more people using one vehicle, carpooling reduces each person's travel costs such as: fuel costs and the stress of driving. Carpooling is a more environmentally friendly and sustainable way to travel as sharing journeys reduces air pollution, carbon emissions, traffic congestion on the roads, the need for parking spaces. Authorities encourage carpooling during periods of high pollution or high fuel prices. Car sharing is a good way to use up the full seating capacity of a car, which would otherwise remain unused if it were just the driver using the car. In 2009, carpooling represented 43.5 % of 10 % of commute trips. The majority of carpool commutes are "fam-pools" with family members. Carpool commuting is more popular for people who work in places with more jobs nearby, who live in places with higher residential densities. Carpooling is correlated with transport operating costs, including fuel prices and commute length, with measures of social capital, such as time spent with others, time spent eating and drinking and being unmarried.
However, carpooling is less among people who spend more time at work, elderly people, homeowners. Drivers and passengers offer and search for journeys through one of the several mediums available. After finding a match they contact each other to arrange any details for the journey. Costs, meeting points and other details like space for luggage are agreed on, they meet and carry out their shared car journey as planned. Carpooling is implemented for commuting but is popular for longer one-off journeys, with the formality and regularity of arrangements varying between schemes and journeys. Carpooling is not always arranged for the whole length of a journey. On long journeys, it is common for passengers to only join for parts of the journey, give a contribution based on the distance that they travel; this enables more people to share journeys and save money. Some carpooling is now organized in online marketplaces or ride-matching websites that allow drivers and passengers to find a travel match and/or make a secured transaction to share the planned travel cost.
Like other online marketplaces, they use community-based trust mechanisms, such as user-ratings, to create an optimal experience for users. Arrangements for carpooling can be made through many different mediums including public websites, social media, acting as marketplaces, employer websites, smartphone applications, carpooling agencies and pick-up points. Many companies and local authorities have introduced programs to promote carpooling. In an effort to reduce traffic and encourage carpooling, some governments have introduced high-occupancy vehicle lanes in which only vehicles with two or more passengers are allowed to drive. HOV lanes can create strong practical incentives for carpooling by reducing travel expense. In some countries, it is common to find parking spaces reserved for carpoolers. In 2011, an organization called Greenxc created a campaign to encourage others to use this form of transportation in order to reduce their own carbon footprint. Carpooling, or car sharing as it is called in British English, is promoted by a national UK charity, whose mission is to promote responsible car use in order to alleviate financial and social costs of motoring today, encourage new approaches to car dependency in the UK.
Carplus is supported by Transport for London, the British government initiative to reduce congestion and parking pressure and contribute to relieving the burden on the environment and to the reduction of traffic-related air-pollution, in London. However, not all countries are helping carpooling to spread: in Hungary it is a tax crime to carry someone in a car for a cost share unless the driver has a taxi license and there is an invoice issued and taxes are paid. Several people were fined by undercover tax officers during a 2011 crackdown, posing as passengers looking for a ride on carpooling websites. On 19 March 2012 Endre Spaller, a member of the Hungarian Parliament interpellated Secretary of the State X about this practice who replied that carpooling should be endorsed instead of punished, however care must be taken for some people trying to turn it into a way to gain untaxed profit. Carpooling means to divide the travel expenses between all the occupants of the vehicle; the driver doesn’t try to earn money, but to share with several people the cost of a trip he would do anyway.
The expenses to be divided include the fuel and possible tolls. But if we include in the calculation the depreciation of the vehicle purchase and maintenance and taxes paid by the driver, we get a cost around $1/mile. There are platforms that facilitate carpooling by connecting people seeking passengers and drivers. There is a fare set up by the car driver and accepted by passengers because they get an agreement before trip start; the second generation of these platforms is designed to manage urban trips in real time, using the travellers’ smartphones. They make possible to occupy the vehicle’s empty seats on the fly and delivering passengers along its entire route; this system automatically performs an equitable sharing of travel costs, allowing each passenger to reimburse the driver a fair share according to the benefit gained by the vehicle usage, proportional
Microcar is a term used for the smallest size of cars, with three or four wheels and an engine smaller than 700 cc. Specific types of microcars include bubble cars, cycle cars and voiturettes, the Japanese equivalent is the kei car. Microcars are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, having relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Most microcars are powered by petrol or diesel engines, however electric-powered microcars have become more common in recent years. Voiturette is a term used by some small cars and tricycles manufactured from 1895 to 1910. Cyclecars are a type of small and inexpensive car manufactured between 1910 and the late 1920s; the first cars to be described as microcars were built in the United Kingdom and Germany following World War II and remained popular until the 1960s. These cars were called minicars, however they became known as microcars. France produced large numbers of similar tiny vehicles called voiturettes, however these were sold abroad. A common characteristic of these microcars is an engine displacement of less than 700 cc, although several cars with engines up to 1,000 cc are considered to be microcars.
The engine was designed for a motorcycle. Microcars have four wheels; the origin of these microcars is in the years following World War II. To provide better weather protection, three-wheeled microcars began increasing in popularity in the United Kingdom, where they could be driven using a motorcycle licence. Microcars became popular in Europe, due to their greater fuel efficiency than larger cars. One of the first microcars was the 1949 Bond Minicar. Micro cars became popular in Europe at that time as a demand for cheap personal motorised transport emerged and fuel prices were high due in part to the 1956 Suez Crisis. Most of them were three-wheelers, which in many places qualified them for inexpensive taxes and licensing as motorcycles; the microcar boom lasted until the late 1950s, when larger cars regained popularity The 1959 introduction of the Mini, which provided greater size and performance at an affordable price, contributed to the decline in popularity of microcars. Production of microcars had ceased by the end of the 1960s, due to competition from the Mini, Citroen 2CV, Fiat 500 and Renault 4.
Several microcars of the 1950s and 1960s— produced in Germany— were nicknamed bubble cars. This was due to the aircraft-style bubble canopies of cars like the Messerschmitt KR175, Messerschmitt KR200 and the FMR Tg500. Other microcars, such as the Isetta had a bubble-like appearance. German manufacturers bubble cars included former military aircraft manufacturers Messerschmitt and Heinkel. BMW manufactured the Italian Iso Rivolta Isetta under licence, using an engine from one of their own motorcycles; the United Kingdom had licence-built right-hand drive versions of the Isetta. The British version of the Isetta was built with only one rear wheel instead of the narrow-tracked pair of wheels in the normal Isetta design in order to take advantage of the three-wheel vehicle laws in the United Kingdom. There were indigenous British three-wheeled microcars, including the Peel Trident. Examples include the Citroën Prototype C, FMR Tg500, Heinkel Kabine, Messerschmitt KR175, Messerschmitt KR200, Peel P50, Peel Trident and Trojan 200.
Kleinschnittger F125. Recent microcars include the 2001 Aixam 5xx series; the Smart Fortwo is called a microcar in the United States. Electric-powered microcars which have reached production include the 1987 CityEl, the 1990 Automobiles ERAD Spacia, the 1999 Corbin Sparrow, the 2001 REVAi, the 2009 Tazzari Zero and the 2011 Peel P50; the European Union introduced the quadricycle category in 1992. In several European countries since microcars are classified by governments separately to normal cars, sometimes using the same regulations as motorcycles or mopeds. Therefore, compared with normal cars, microcars have relaxed requirements for registration and licensing, can be subject to lower taxes and insurance costs. Kei car is the Japanese legal category for the smallest and most limited power, highway-legal motor vehicles, including passenger cars and Kei trucks. There are a variety of microcar trucks of the "forward control" or van style to provide more cargo room; these might be used for local deliveries on narrow streets.
The Piaggio Ape is a three-wheeled example. Car classification Economy car Neighborhood Electric Vehicle
Transportation planning is the process of defining future policies, goals and designs to prepare for future needs to move people and goods to destinations. As practiced today, it is a collaborative process that incorporates the input of many stakeholders including various government agencies, the public and private businesses. Transportation planners apply a multi-modal and/or comprehensive approach to analyzing the wide range of alternatives and impacts on the transportation system to influence beneficial outcomes. Transportation planning is commonly referred to as transport planning internationally, is involved with the evaluation, assessment and siting of transport facilities. Transportation planning, or transport planning, has followed the rational planning model of defining goals and objectives, identifying problems, generating alternatives, evaluating alternatives, developing plans. Other models for planning include rational actor, transit oriented development, incremental planning, organizational process, collaborative planning, political bargaining.
Planners are expected to adopt a multidisciplinary approach due to the rising importance of environmentalism. For example, the use of behavioural psychology to persuade drivers to abandon their automobiles and use public transport instead; the role of the transport planner is shifting from technical analysis to promoting sustainability through integrated transport policies. For example, in Hanoi, the increasing number of motorcycles is responsible for not only environmental damage but slowing down economic growth. In the long run, the plan is to reduce traffic through a change in urban planning. Through economic incentives and attractive alternatives experts hope to lighten traffic in the short run. In the United Kingdom, transport planning has traditionally been a branch of civil engineering. In the 1950s and the 1960s, it was believed that the motor car was an important element in the future of transport as economic growth spurred on car ownership figures; the role of the transport planner was to match motorway and rural road capacity against the demands of economic growth.
Urban areas would need to be redesigned for the motor vehicle or impose traffic containment and demand management to mitigate congestion and environmental impacts. The policies were popularised in Traffic in Towns; the contemporary Smeed Report on congestion pricing was promoted to manage demand but was deemed politically unacceptable. In more recent times, the approach has been caricatured as "predict and provide" to predict future transport demand and provide the network for it by building more roads; the publication of Planning Policy Guidance 13 in 1994, followed by A New Deal for Transport in 1998 and the white paper Transport Ten Year Plan 2000 again indicated an acceptance that unrestrained growth in road traffic was neither desirable nor feasible. The worries were threefold: concerns about congestion, concerns about the effect of road traffic on the environment and concerns that an emphasis on road transport discriminates against vulnerable groups in society such as the poor, the elderly and the disabled.
These documents reiterated the emphasis on integration: integration within and between different modes of transport integration with the environment integration with land use planning integration with policies for education and wealth creation. This attempt to reverse decades of underinvestment in the transport system has resulted in a severe shortage of transport planners, it was estimated in 2003 that 2,000 new planners would be required by 2010 to avoid jeopardising the success of the Transport Ten Year Plan. In 2006, the Transport Planning Society defined the key purpose of transport planning as: to plan, deliver and review transport, balancing the needs of society, the economy and the environment; the following key roles must be performed by transport planners: take account of the social and environmental context of their work understand the legal, regulatory policy and resource framework within which they work understand and create transport policies and plans that contribute to meeting social and environmental needs design the necessary transport projects and services understand the commercial aspects of operating transport systems and services know about and apply the relevant tools and techniques must be competent in all aspects of management, in particular communications, personal skills and project management.
The UK Treasury recognises and has published guidance on the systematic tendency for project appraisers to be overly optimistic in their initial estimates. Transportation planning in the United States is in the midst of a shift similar to that taking place in the United Kingdom, away from the single goal of moving vehicular traffic and towards an approach that takes into consideration the communities and lands through which streets and highways pass. More so, it places a greater emphasis on passenger rail networks, neglected until recently; this new approach, known as Context Sensitive Solutions, seeks to balance the need to move people efficiently and safely with other desirable outcomes, including historic preservation, environmental sustainability, the creation of vital public spaces. The initial guiding principles of CSS came out of the 1998 "Thinking Beyond the Pavement" conference as a means to describe and foster transportation projects that preserve and enhance the natural and built environments, as well as the economic and social assets of the neighbor
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated