Silver Sands, Western Australia
Silver Sands is an inner northern coastal suburb of Mandurah, Western Australia. The suburb, along with neighbouring San Remo, were gazetted in 1989. Both suburbs were named after developer estates, which entered into popular local usage
Mandurah is a coastal city in Western Australia, situated 72 kilometres south of the state capital, Perth. It is the state's second-largest city, with a population just ahead of that of Bunbury. Mandurah's central business district is located on the Mandurah Estuary, an outlet for the Peel Inlet and Harvey Estuary; the city takes its name from a Noongar word meaning "meeting place" or "trading place". A townsite for Mandurah was laid out in 1831, two years after the establishment of the Swan River Colony, but attracted few residents; until the post-war boom of the 1950s and 1960s it was little more than a small fishing village. In subsequent years, Mandurah's reputation for boating and fishing attracted a large number of retirees to the canal developments in the city's south; the 1000-hectare suburb of Halls Head was developed during the 1980s by the Parry Corporation and the state Government Employees Superannuation Board—one of the notorious WA Inc deals which gave rise to a royal commission.
Along with four other local government areas, the City of Mandurah is included in the wider Peel region. Mandurah is sometimes grouped together with Perth for statistical purposes since the extension of the Kwinana Freeway and the completion of the Mandurah railway line in the late 2000s; the two cities now form a conurbation along the Indian Ocean coastline, although the Perth metropolitan area ends at Singleton. Mandurah has grown from isolated holiday communities along the shores of the Peel-Harvey Estuary to a major regional city in just over a decade, in a similar vein to the Gold Coast in Eastern Australia. In recent times, it has formed a conurbation with Perth along the coast. Mandurah has become a popular lifestyle alternative for Perth retirees and its connection with the Perth CBD has been strengthened with the opening of the Perth-Mandurah railway line in December 2007 and a direct road connection to the Kwinana Freeway built by late 2010. A housing affordability survey of 227 cities in 2008 ranked it the least affordable city in Australia.
The waters of the Peel Inlet and Harvey Estuary form the centre of Mandurah. The estuary is twice the size of Sydney Harbour; the city lies around this freshwater system which in turn feeds into the Indian Ocean. The city and its suburbs have many kilometres of ocean coastline most of, sandy beaches. Mandurah has a number of suburbs built around artificially created canal systems that extend from the Peel Inlet, such as Halls Head, Dudley Park and Wannanup. In terms of geology, much of Mandurah lies on the dune systems which dominate South Western WA's coastline, progressively grading towards the Swan Coastal Plain as one travels inland; the area has infertile soils due to the dunes being rather sandy, having poor water retention qualities. Limestone outcrops are found to the north of the city along the Mandurah Line. Mandurah is the closest city to Yalgorup National Park, home to modern thrombolites as well as an array of flora and fauna. Mandurah is located in the Swan Coastal Plain ecoregion.
The ecoregion contains an array of vegetation, from coastal dune and sandplains to banksia and eucalypt woodlands. Mandurah is covered by shoreline and dune deposits from the Pleistocene and Holocene that overlie Paleozoic and Neogene deposits of the Perth Basin. Coastal dunes feature scrub-heath communities, though banksia low woodlands occur on the soils of coastal dunes. Progressing inland give way to eucalypt woodlands. Seasonal wetlands are the most diverse habitat in the Swan Coastal Plain, which Mandurah has several wetland regions around the Peel Inlet; the wetlands feature several osprey nests and darters. Other fauna includes galah, short-billed black cockatoo, long-billed black cockatoo, Australian ringneck among others. Australian ringnecks face competition for nesting space from rainbow lorikeet, an introduced species in Western Australia, that has now spread to Mandurah. Despite attempts to eradicate rainbow lorikeets, the population has grown to the point that they can no longer be eradicated.
Mandurah is considered a marginal area for both major parties at both state and federal politics. Northern Mandurah lies in the safe Labor seat of Brand, held by Gary Gray, while southern and central Mandurah lies in the more marginal Canning, held by the Liberal Party's Andrew Hastie. State politics highlight a significant divide, with northern and central Mandurah located in the safe Labor seat of Mandurah held by David Templeman, while southern Mandurah located in the safe Liberal seat of Dawesville, held by Zak Kirkup. Despite technically being in a regional area, the National Party vote is negligible. Sharing a similar climate to Perth, Mandurah has a typical Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and mild wet winters. During summer, the average maximum temperature is 27 °C with an average minimum temperature of 19 °C. At its extreme it can get hot having a couple of days exceed 40 °C in the latter half of summer. In winter, the average maximum temperature is 18 °C with an average minimum temperature of 9 °C.
Mandurah's proximity to the ocean moderates diurnal temperatures somewhat, with temperatures a few kilometres inland 4 or 5 degrees warmer during summer days. Frosts are rare as a result, but do occur annually around suburbs such as Greenfields; the current weather station opened in 2001 and is situated right on
Division of Brand
The Division of Brand is an Australian electoral division in the state of Western Australia. The division was named after the longest-serving Premier of Western Australia. According to the 2006 census, Brand is the electorate with the lowest proportion of residents with a university qualification; the seat was created for the 1984 federal election from parts of the Divisions of Fremantle and Canning to cater for substantial population growth in the Rockingham–Mandurah coastal area south of the state capital Perth. It included country areas to the south and southeast, such as agricultural regions in the Shires of Murray and Harvey and the mining town of Collie, was more marginal for Labor—made abundantly clear by Labor's near-defeat in the seat at the 1996 federal election; the redistribution for the 1998 election saw the electorate become an urban seat, retreating north of the Peel Estuary to its present boundaries, the seat has been safe Labor since. Brand has had four members —two of whom had been sitting members for other seats.
Wendy Fatin had been the member for Canning for a single term prior to the creation of Brand, went on to win in four successive elections, becoming Minister for the Arts in the early 1990s. Upon her retirement from politics, Kim Beazley, Minister for Defence in the Hawke Government until 1990 and had several portfolios before becoming Deputy Prime Minister to Paul Keating in 1995, was preselected for the seat following 16 years as member for the marginal seat of Swan which polling suggested the party was certain to lose. At the 1996 election, Beazley won by just 387 votes against Liberal candidate Penny Hearne, to quit the party and run as an independent against Court minister Doug Shave in the 1996 state election for the seat of Alfred Cove; the third member was Gary Gray, from 2007 to 2016. On 25 March 2013, Gray was appointed to the Australian Cabinet as the Minister for Resources and Energy, the Minister for Tourism, the Minister for Small Business. From 2010 until 2013, Gray served as the Special Minister of State and the Minister for the Public Service and Integrity.
The redistribution for the 2010 federal election made the seat more secure for Labor by transferring some 12,000 Mandurah voters to the neighbouring Division of Canning. A redistribution ahead of the 2016 election removed the seat's share of Mandurah altogether, increasing the Labor majority from 52 percent to 54 percent. Gray retired in 2016, Madeleine King retained the seat for Labor on a swing just under 8 percent. Since the 2016 election, the division has consisted of enrolled voters resident in the City of Kwinana and the City of Rockingham. Suburbs presently included are: Division of Brand - Australian Electoral Commission
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
Wannanup is a residential suburb in Western Australia, located 12 kilometres southwest of Mandurah and 87 kilometres south-southwest of the state capital, Perth. It is surrounded on three sides by water — the Indian Ocean to the west, the Harvey Estuary to the east and the Dawesville Channel to the south — and is home to the Port Bouvard development, it is one of four suburbs. Wannanup is the original Aboriginal name for the suburb known as Florida. However, upon the development of the Dawesville Channel, the suburb was split in half; the southern section was placed in Dawesville while the northern section was regazetted as Wannanup in 1996. The 21st Century as seen the landscape of Wannanup transformed, with the development of Port Bouvard transforming the community from that of a sleepy fishing settlement to a commuter suburb and holiday destination; the Northport estate to the suburb's west lies close to Avalon and Village beaches and consists of modern townhouses based around a small shopping centre surrounded by a network of canals and modern mansions.
Meanwhile, the Eastport estate is home to the Port Bouvard Marina, a popular area for activities such as boating and fishing. At the 2011 census, Wannanup had a population of 2,769 - up from 1,958 people in the 2006 census —and tripling in size since the 2001 census. Wannanup is located within the federal seat of Canning held by Liberal Party member, within the state seat of Dawesville held by ]; the suburb does not have a polling place of its own, but at the nearby polling place at Dawesville, the two-party preferred vote favours the Liberal Party over the Labor Party. At federal level, the Liberals achieved 64.41% in 2004, 59.46% in 2007 and 58.33% in 2010. At the 2008 state election, the Liberals received 63.02% of the two-party preferred vote at Dawesville from a primary vote of 58.05%. At local level, Wannanup is located within the Coastal Ward of the City of Mandurah, is represented by three councillors: Bruce Blay, Don Pember and Rhys Williams. Wannanup is bisected by Old Coast Road in a similar manner to neighbouring suburbs Falcon and Dawesville.
Transperth routes 592 and 594 service the suburb. 592 runs six days a week through the Northport portion of Wannanup while 594 goes straight through the suburb via Old Coast Road and Merrivale Street, but runs 7 days a week. Services run every twenty minutes during peak hour with 592 and 594 alternating every ten minutes in terms of departing Mandurah Station with some school specials deviating from this normal pattern. Dawesville Channel
Safety Bay, Western Australia
Safety Bay is an outer southern suburb of Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, located on the coast within the City of Rockingham. Safety Bay was a small cove on the north shore of Warnbro Sound, now encompassed by Safety Bay Road, Berry Street and Janet Road, it had been noted by surveyor-general John Septimus Roe in 1837 as "a safe, well protected boat anchorage" and he gave it the appropriate name of Safety Bay. In the mid-1830s, Thomas Peel became interested in Safety Bay as a potential harbour to establish a base for whaling operations as well as a point from which inland stands of jarrah could be exported. After initial approval by Governor Stirling and Surveyor-General J. S. Roe for the founding of ‘Liverpool’—as Peel’s port-town was to be known—in 1842 a town site was marked out and planned by surveyor Thomas Watson. Peel’s venture did not go ahead at this time, however. Roe recorded depths of 7 fathoms in what was named "Peel Harbour". In 1846, Roe undertook a more detailed investigation of the potential of Safety Bay as the site for a port.
The Harbour, had silted up to such an extent that it was no longer suitable for shipping and it began to become known as "Peel Basin" instead. The harbour disappeared over time, was last recorded on maps of the area in 1890, it has been suggested that the harbour is reforming, as evidenced by reconnection of Tern Island to the Safety Bay shore in 2001 and enclosure of the waters to the east. In the late 1920s the Safety Bay Townsite Estate was subdivided by A. J. H. Watts, the suburb grew over the 1930s. Safety Bay Road, which links Safety Bay to Rockingham, was bitumenised and extended to Mandurah Road during World War II, through Baldivis to join the Kwinana Freeway in 2002, the Forrest Highway in 2009; because of its mild, child-safe, sheltered beach, Safety Bay became a popular family holiday venue early in the 20th century. Today, in addition, its boat-launching facilities are utilised by recreational anglers. An adjoining beach at Shoalwater is used by kitesurfers; the bay lies wholly within the Shoalwater Islands Marine Park, a pristine habitat for a rich variety of birds and marine life centred on Penguin Island.
Local boat cruise operators offer opportunities to see wildlife including dolphins, sea lions and penguins. The district is well served by shops and restaurants and is close to numerous technical product and service outlets in the comprehensive light-industrial estates on and around Rockingham's Dixon Road. Safety Bay is served by an excellent road network including the nearby Kwinana Freeway by which Perth can be reached in about 45 minutes by car; the port city of Fremantle is a 30-minute drive to the north and the resort city of Mandurah is 20 minutes to the south. Those destinations are served by bus routes which connect with the Perth-Rockingham-Mandurah rail service; the rail journey to Perth from Rockingham takes 33 minutes, with trains at 10-minute intervals in peak time. Perth Bicycle Network route SW38 links Waikiki Beach in Safety Bay with Rockingham Beach in Rockingham. Shoalwater Islands Marine Park Down load leaflet from Western Australia's Department of Environment and Conservation REIWA house values
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful