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Sinhala Braille

Sinhala Braille is one of the many Bharati braille alphabets. While it conforms to the letter values of other Bharati alphabets, it diverges in the values of the letters assigned toward the end of those alphabets. Sinhala braille just as any other braille code is used in education and a vast range of literature whether it be for information, pleasure or commercial purposes; the blind community of Sri Lanka is alienating from the use of braille due to a number of reasons. A recent survey reveals. Today, braille usage is limited to examination purposes in educational institutions, it is worth inquiring as to what could be the possible reasons leading to this alienation from braille. However, the key factor is issues related to the Sinhala braille code. Current Sinhala braille code has its own shortcomings, the main drawback being the lack of an efficient set of standard contractions, it is important that contractions are created for Sinhala braille as braille books are large and come in multiple volumes and, in general, lack the convenience of portability that we find in a sighted print paperback book.

Users who have been exposed to grade 2 English braille realise the importance of establishing a set of standard contractions for Sinhala Braille as well. Care must be taken to create contractions which are appropriate for the present day learners of braille and not complicated and difficult to use. Education for the blind started in 1912 when Mary F. Chapman, a missionary lady founded a special school for the deaf and blind at Ratmalana; the use of Sinhala braille too runs as far as the beginning of the 20th century. At the beginning, English characters were used to represent Sinhala letters; the Sinhala alphabet comprises 60 letters whereas English has only 26. Moreover, Sinhala has a syllable based alphabet and two English characters had to be used to represent one Sinhala consonant, thus distorting the semblance to sighted print. Therefore, this method was not practical although many users continued to use it as there was no alternative at the time. In 1947, the first non-foreign principal of the school for the blind at Ratmalana, Kingsley C.

Dassanaike, introduced a more practical code, influenced by the principles and practices of the English braille code. Since Sinhala braille has played a significant role in education and communication. A grade 2 or braille contraction code had not yet been adapted for Sinhala braille, causing lot of inconvenience in using and storing braille material. Several attempts were made in 1968 and 1997 to introduce Sinhala braille contractions. But, none of these attempts can be observed today; the contractions introduced in 1959, were mere shortening of long words. Sufficient consideration was not given to the structure of the Sinhala language. Although, the structure of the language was taken into consideration in contractions introduced in 1968, users were reluctant to accept it as there were morphological issues. A large amount of words were contracted in 1997, but it too received the same fate because, some of the contractions were illogical. In addition to these attempts, most braille users use their own personal methods of contractions.

But, these personal ways of contractions has been confined only to them and have not being standardised. To remedy this, a standard braille contraction system should be adapted for Sinhala braille soon; this will result in increasing the productivity of the blind and thus it will make Sinhala braille more popular. Although Sinhala Braille was adopted from Bharati Braille, several letters toward the end of the Bharati alphabet have been reassigned in Sinhala: ⠟ is used for Sinhala ඥ gn, ⠱ for Sinhala ඵ ph, ⠷ for Sinhala ඇ æ, ⠻ for Sinhala ඈ ǣ, ⠵ for Sinhala ණ ṇ. In addition, the pairs of letters e/ē and ś/ṣ have interchanged braille values from what one would expect from other Bharati alphabets, the syllable codas are innovative. Punctuation and the digits, are as in the rest of Bharati braille; as in other Bharati alphabets, letters rather than diacritics are used for vowels, they occur after consonants in their spoken order. * In print Sinhala, this is indicated by an additional set of letters: ඟ n̆ga ⠆⠛, ඬ n̆ḍa ⠆⠫, ඳ n̆da ⠆⠙, ඹ m̆ba ⠆⠃ See Bharati Braille#Punctuation

Co-operative Bank Rwanda

Co-operative Bank Rwanda or Rwanda Co-operative Bank is a proposed commercial bank in Rwanda. It is expected to broaden "financial inclusion" in the country, working through the Umurenge Saccos and increasing financial services in rural areas. In July 2014 2,500 members of the Rwanda Cooperative Agency met Paul Kagame, the President of Rwanda during an event called “Meet The President”. At that event, held in Kigali, the country's capital city, the president instructed the minister of trade and industry to establish a cooperative bank, in the shortest time possible. Under guidelines by the National Bank of Rwanda, the minimum capital required is Rwf5 billion. There are 8,000 cooperatives in Rwanda, according to the RCA; the cooperatives are prepared to provide 60% of the needed start up capital. There are an estimated 480 Saving and Credit Cooperatives, in the country; these Saccos are being courted to provide the remaining 40% of the required start-up capital. The Saccos need to be linked to a common computer system, in order to serve as branches of the proposed bank.

When the bank becomes operational in 2018, as expected, its lending rates are planned to be lower that the commercial banks. While the ownership details are being worked out, the owners will include Unmurenge Saccos other Rwanda cooperatives other Rwanda entities; the Rwanda government requires. It is expected that some of the offices of the 480 Saccos in the country will become branches of the proposed bank, after the completion of computerization and linking of their operations. National Bank of Rwanda List of banks in Rwanda Establishing a Cooperative Bank in Rwanda

Belgium–India relations

Belgium–India relations refers to the bilateral ties between the Republic of India and the Kingdom of Belgium. India's Embassy in Brussels was opened in 1948. Belgium's embassy in New Delhi was opened in 1947, its current complex, built in 1984, is an architectural marvel designed by Satish Gujral. Belgium being India's eight largest trading partner as of 2009, accounting for trade of nearly ₹ 41,552 crore. India and Belgium share the common value of "democracy and rule of law" and Belgium has supported the G4 nations; the former deputy Prime Minister of Belgium Steven Vanackere had said that "slowly but surely" India was getting its "rightful place in global governance". He reiterated that Belgium "unequivocally" reconfirmed its support for India's bid for a permanent seat in the enlarged United Nations Security Council. India and Belgium have strong trading links, with India being the second largest importer of and fifth largest exporter to Belgian products. In 2008, The Government of India spoke about how Belgium and India were "partners in a globalised world".

In November 2017, King Phillipe and Queen Mathilde of Belgium visited India for seven days. There are many Indian diamond merchants from Rajasthan in Antwerp. Apart from the Embassy of Belgium, New Delhi, The Belgian Government has further opened two Consulates-General and two Honorary Consulates: in Mumbai, Chennai and Ahmedabad; the Mumbai Consulate General is located at Bandra-Kurla Complex, the Chennai Consulate General at Khader Nawaz Khan Road - Nungambakkam, the Kolkata Honorary Consulate at Camac Street, while the latest one, opened on April 26, 2017, is at GIFT City, Ahmedabad. Opening the Honorary Consulate made Belgium the first country to do so at India's first International Financial Services Centre; the Embassy of India, Brussels is located at Chaussee de Vleurgat 1050 Brussels, Belgium. India has its honorary consulates in Antwerp and Capellen

Pennsylvania House of Representatives, District 97

The 97th Pennsylvania House of Representatives District is located in Lancaster County. Steven Mentzer has represented the 97th district in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives since 2013. District 97 includes the following areas: Lititz Manheim Township Warwick TownshipWarwick Township has two bridges named to the National Register of Historic Places: The Buck Hill Farm Covered Bridge, Zook's Mill Covered Bridge; the 97th District is home to the town of Lititz. U. S. Open Champion Jim Furyk won a Pennsylvania State Golf Championship while attending Maheim Township High School. Cox, Harold. "Legislatures - 1776-2004". Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University. Https://www2.census.gov/geo/maps/dc10map/SLD_RefMap/lower/st42_pa/sldl42097/DC10SLDL42097_001.pdf http://www.redistricting.state.pa.us/CensusDisplay.cfm? Plan=2011-Revised-Final&District=97&DistBody=H

Elsa Spear Byron

Elsa Spear Byron was an American photographer. As a young child, she learned to help her mother make photographic prints from a plate camera purchased in 1900, her photographs were sold all over the country and enlarged prints were used by the railroads to advertise train trips to Wyoming. She lived in Sheridan, Wyoming, in the same house for nearly 70 years until her death in 1992. Byron was a first-generation Wyomingite, born in 1896, her ancestors all New Englanders and Mayflower descendants, her mother's parents left Boston in 1849 and headed west to Illinois and Nebraska, arriving in Laramie, Wyoming, in 1881. Elsa's maternal grandfather, G. W. Benton, was a medical missionary, "trained as a Baptist minister and dentist", her father, Willis Spear, arrived in Wyoming with his family in 1874 from Connecticut and settled next to Elsa's grandfather. Willis married his neighbor Virginia Bell Benton, they settled on 260 acres near Sheridan in northern Wyoming. Elsa and her two brothers and sister grew up on a ranch that expanded to include millions of acres of land, most of it leased from the government.

When Elsa was two, her father and his family formed the Spear Brothers Cattle Company, which leased over a million acres of Crow Indian Reservation land in Montana along with a number of ranches along the Powder River and Clearmont. "They ran 57,000 head of cattle although the company only owned 36,000 head," she said. The rest were leased. Elsa and her siblings grew up in the saddle; the Spear sisters went along on cattle roundups. When the severe drought of the early 1920s nearly destroyed the northern Wyoming cattle business, her father built a "dude camp", she said; the Spear-O-Wigwam is still operating in the Big Horn National Forest. The Spear family made regular trips to Washington, D. C. so that Willis Spear could renew his land leases. They would stay in the capitol for six months, where they attended matinees after school and met famous actors, including John Drew and his niece, Mary Bordon. Elsa returned to Washington following her graduation from high school in 1914, where she attended the National School for Domestic Arts and Sciences, accompanied by her mother.

There she studied the theory and practice of cooking "and all kinds of fancy work in sewing and millinery." But her main interest was photography. Two years she married Harold Edwards of Colorado, an office manager for the Sheridan County Electric Company, they built a house in Elsa took pictures of her children as they were growing up. She had been interested in photography since her mother bought a plate camera in 1900. Elsa remembered helping her mother develop the photographs in wooden frames which were placed in the sun. "You would lay back half of it to see if it was dark enough and close it up again", she said. "And we used blueprint paper so all you had to do was wash it with water."The pack trips to her father's Spear-O-Wigwam provided the petite photographer with endless picture taking opportunities. She made sixteen annual pack trips of two weeks' duration while her daughters were growing up, "and that's how I got my pictures from all over the mountains," she said. During one of the pack trips, "some dudes" named one of the Big Horn Mountain lakes for her, still recorded on Wyoming maps.

When she returned home, she enlarged her pictures in her kitchen where she had cut a trapdoor in the ceiling to raise the head of the enlarger high enough to make huge prints by projecting them on the floor. Some of her photos include the Cheyenne Indian survivors of the Custer Battlefield, whom she photographed in 1926 on the battle's 50th anniversary. Among the Indians who posed for her at the battle site were Red Cloud, grandson of the famous warrior, Plenty Coups, a Crow chief, she photographed many Crow Fairs from 1911 to the 1950s. One of her pictures was enlarged to eight feet in length in Denver and used as background for an Indian camp display in the Cheyenne museum. Before the advent of color photographs, Byron tinted black and white pictures with oils and sold many of them to a number of outlets, including the Northern Pacific and Burlington Railroads. "My biggest thrill", she said, "was walking up the street in Chicago and seeing four of my big pictures framed in the window of the Northern Pacific office on Jackson Boulevard during the 1930s.

"They did a lot of advertising and used a lot of my 20 x 30 inch pictures to try to get the dudes to come out here." The Big Horn Mountains' Lake Elsa got its name from Elsa Spear Byron

Alexander Macdonald (artist)

Alexander Macdonald, sometimes erroneously written MacDonald, was a British artist and art educator. Macdonald trained at the South Kensington Schools where, in the end, he became an assistant in the studio of the Painting Master Robert Collinson. At the same time, he took on teaching tasks all over London and was from c. 1863-65 in "sole charge of a large mechanic's class in the east of London."From its inaugural year 1865 until 1871, Macdonald was Master of the Oxford School of Art housed in the future Ashmolean Museum. When John Ruskin became Slade Professor at the University of Oxford, he reformed the school and, in 1871, transformed it into the Ruskin School of Drawing, retaining not only the existing students but its master. Ruskin, not being able to take all classes, entrusted these to Macdonald, as the first to hold the position of Ruskin Master, a position he held until his death in 1921. Ruskin had, through pressure from the backers of his new school, reluctantly accepted Macdonald, who as Master of the Oxford School of Art taught to the South Kensington system which Ruskin despised, when as Ruskin Master didn't adhere to Ruskin-ian principles of copying from "stone and flowers" rather than directly from the life model or En plein air.

Ruskin, on retirement as Slade Professor, attempted to have Macdonald removed as Ruskin Master, but this failed because of the support Macdonald received from the governing body of Oxford School of Art from Henry Acland and Henry Liddell. While at the Ruskin School of Drawing Macdonald taught part-time at Radley College and took in private students, this to supplement his salary which was, for twenty years, provided by Ruskin. Between 1890 and 1908 he was Keeper of the Oxford University Galleries. "The Oxford School of Art.