Beach volleyball is a team sport played by two teams of two players on a sand court divided by a net. As in indoor volleyball, the objective of the game is to send the ball over the net and to ground it on the opponent's side of the court, to prevent the same effort by the opponent. A team is allowed up to three touches to return the ball across the net, individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively except after making a block touch; the ball is put in play with a serve—a hit by the server from behind the rear court boundary over the net to the opponents. The rally continues until the ball is grounded on the playing court, goes "out", or a fault is made in the attempt to return the ball; the team that wins the rally scores a point and serves to start the following rally. The four players serve in the same sequence throughout the match, changing server each time a rally is won by the receiving team. Beach volleyball most originated in 1915 on Waikiki Beach in Hawaii, while the modern two-player game originated in Santa Monica, California.
It has been an Olympic sport since the 1996 Summer Olympics. The Fédération Internationale de Volleyball is the international governing body for the sport, organizes the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Championships and the international professional beach volleyball circuit known as the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour. Beach volleyball is a variant of indoor volleyball, invented in 1895 by William G. Morgan. Beach volleyball most originated in 1915 on Waikiki Beach in Hawaii, at the Outrigger Canoe Club. According to a 1978 interview of an Outrigger Canoe Club member, George David "Dad" Center put a net up there, the first recorded game of beach volleyball took place. In 1920, new jetties in Santa Monica, California created a large sandy area for public enjoyment, planting the seed for beach volleyball development in that region; the first permanent nets began to appear, people soon began playing recreational games on public parts of the beach and in private beach clubs. Eleven such beach clubs appeared in the Santa Monica area, beginning in late 1922.
The first inter-club competitions were staged in 1924. Most of these early beach volleyball matches were played with teams of at least six players per side, much like indoor volleyball; the concept of the modern two-man beach volleyball game is credited to Paul "Pablo" Johnson of the Santa Monica Athletic Club. In the summer of 1930, while waiting for players to show up for a six-man game at the Santa Monica Athletic Club, Johnson decided to try playing with only the four people present, forming two two-man teams for the first recorded beach volleyball doubles game; the players realized that with fewer players on the court, a taller player's height advantage could be neutralized by a shorter player's speed and ball control. The popularity of the two-man game spread to other nearby beach clubs and to the public courts. Though recreational games continue to be played with more players, the most played version of the game, the only one contested at an elite level, has only two players per team.
Beach volleyball grew in popularity in the United States during the Great Depression in the 1930s as it was an inexpensive activity. The sport began to appear in Europe during this time. By the 1940s, doubles tournaments were being played on the beaches of Santa Monica for trophies. In 1948 the first tournament to offer a prize was held in California, it awarded the best teams with a case of Pepsi. In the 1960s, an attempt to start a professional volleyball league was made in Santa Monica, it failed. In the 1950s, the first Brazilian beach volleyball tournament was held, sponsored by a newspaper publishing company; the first Manhattan Beach Open was held in 1960, a tournament which grew in prestige to become, in the eyes of some, the "Wimbledon of Beach Volleyball". In the meantime, beach volleyball gained popularity: in the 1960s The Beatles tried playing in Los Angeles and US president John F. Kennedy was seen attending a match. In 1974, there was an indoor tournament: "The $1500.00 World Indoor Two-Man Volleyball Championship" played in front of 4,000 volleyball enthusiast at the San Diego Sports Arena.
Fred Zuelich teamed with Dennis Hare to defeat Ron Von Hagen and Matt Gage in the championship match, Winston Cigarettes was the sponsor. Dennis Hare went on to write the first book on the subject of beach volleyball: The Art of Beach Volleyball; the first professional beach volleyball tournament was the Olympia World Championship of Beach Volleyball, staged on Labor Day weekend, 1976, at Will Rogers State Beach in Pacific Palisades, California. The event was organized based in Santa Barbara; the winners, the first "world champions", were Jim Menges. They split US$2,500 out of a total prize purse of US$5,000. Volleyball magazine staged the event the next year at the same location, this time sponsored by Schlitz Light Beer. In 1978 Wilk formed a sports promotion company named Event Concepts with Craig Masuoka and moved the World Championship of Beach Volleyball to Redondo Beach, California. Jose Cuervo signed on as the prize purse; the event was successful and Cuervo funded an expansion the next year to three events.
The California Pro Beach Tour debuted with events in Laguna Beach, Santa Barbara and the World Championship in Redondo. In following years the tour was renamed the Pro Beach Volleyball Tour, it consisted of five events in California and tournaments in Florida and Chicago. By 1984, the Pro Beach consisted of 16 events around the country and had a total prize purse of US$300,000. At the end of the year, Event Concepts was for
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour
The FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour is the worldwide professional beach volleyball tour for both men and women organized by the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball. The World Tour was introduced for men in 1989 while the women first competed in 1992. Winning the World Tour is considered to be one of the highest honours in international beach volleyball, being surpassed only by the World Championships, the Beach Volleyball tournament at the Summer Olympic Games; the international professional tour was known as the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Series, began in 1989 for men and 1992 for women. It was rebranded as the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour in 1997; the World Tour was accompanied by FIVB Challenger and Satellite events, which served as a developmental circuit for up-and-coming players. The FIVB handed over the organizing of Challenger and Satellite events to the continental confederations in 2009. Tournaments in the World Tour were categorized as either Grand Slams, Majors or Opens.
This was replaced by the current star rating structure in 2017. The current tournament structure was introduced in 2017. World Tour tournaments are ranked from 1 to 5 stars, with 5-star tournaments offering the most prize money; the 2018 World Tour has 47 international tournaments with a total prize purse of over US$7 million. Competing in the World Tour as well as other FIVB-recognized tournaments such as the Summer Olympics allows players to earn FIVB Ranking Points, with higher-star events being worth more points; the World Tour concludes with the World Tour Finals at the end of each season. The Tour Finals are the season-ending championships of the FIVB World Tour and features the top 10 teams per gender during the regular season; the tournament was first held in 2015. Swatch Red Bull Sony Awards, Beach Volleyball Database 2007Women's Post-season Awards at FIVB.org 2007Men's Post-season Awards at FIVB.org Official site
Pepperdine University is a private research university affiliated with the Churches of Christ and located near Malibu, California. It is the location for Seaver College, the School of Law, the Graduate School of Education and Psychology, the Graziadio Business School, the School of Public Policy. Courses are taught at the main campus, six graduate campuses in southern California, a center in Washington, DC, at international campuses in Germany, Italy, China and Argentina; the Ed. D. program in Organizational leadership, has held international courses in China, Chile, Costa Rica, India. In February 1937, against the backdrop of the Great Depression, George Pepperdine founded the university as a Christian liberal arts college in the city of Los Angeles. On September 21, 1937, 167 new students from 22 different states and two other countries entered classes on a newly built campus on 34 acres at West 79th Street and South Vermont Avenue in the Vermont Knolls neighborhood of South Central Los Angeles, referred to as the Vermont Avenue campus.
By April 6, 1938, George Pepperdine College was accredited by the Northwest Association. Pepperdine had built a fortune founding and developing the Western Auto Supply Company, which he started with a $5 investment, but his prosperity led to his greater ambition to discover "how humanity can be helped most with the means entrusted to care. Considered it wrong to build up a great fortune and use it selfishly." Pepperdine voiced his twofold objective for the college that bore his name, "First, we want to provide first-class accredited academic training in the liberal arts... Secondly, we are dedicated to a greater goal—that of building in the student a Christ-like life, a love for the church, a passion for the souls of mankind." By the 1960s, the young college faced serious problems. The area around the Vermont Avenue campus developed issues with urban decay; the situation exploded in the 1965 Watts Riots. In 1969 activists in the Watts area threatened to burn down the campus. In addition, the Vermont Avenue campus was running out of room to expand.
In 1967, the school began planning to move the undergraduate campus and a committee was formed to look at alternative locations, including sites in Valencia, Orange County, Ventura County and Westlake Village. Pepperdine favored the Westlake Village location until the Adamson-Rindge family, who owned hundreds of acres near Malibu, offered 138 acres of land. Despite concerns over building costs on the mountainous site, the school decided to move forward based on its prime location and potential for raising donations. Construction began on April 13, 1971 and the new campus opened for student enrollment in September 1972; the campus and many of its buildings were planned by Los Angeles-based architect and urban planner William Pereira. The old campus was sold to Crenshaw Christian Center, whose minister, Frederick K. C. Price oversaw construction of the "FaithDome," the largest domed-church in the United States, seating over 10,000. Pepperdine gained university status in 1971 when the school of law was added and the business and education departments became separate schools.
In the 1980s, Pepperdine rose to prominence as one of the United States' leading centers of conservative politics, attracting many conservative-leaning professors from nearby UCLA and USC. Prominent conservatives on the Pepperdine faculty have included Bruce Herschensohn, Ben Stein, Kenneth Starr, Arthur Laffer, Douglas Kmiec, Daniel Pipes. In 1985, 1993, 1996, massive brushfires threatened the campus with destruction, but firefighters protected all structures. On October 21, 2007, fast-moving wildfires forced campus residents to relocate and shelter in the Firestone Field house and Cafeteria, plus evacuations of local homes and businesses. Another November 2007 fire in Corral Canyon, accidentally set off by a group of Los Angeles youths, caused an evacuation of the Drescher Campus. However, most students were off-campus for the Thanksgiving holiday; the campus was again threatened by the Woolsey Fire in November 2018. Batsell Baxter Hugh M. Tiner M. Norvel Young William S. Banowsky Howard A. White David Davenport Andrew K. Benton The main campus is located among several ridges that overlook the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, California.
It is considered one of the most beautiful college campuses in the world in terms of scenery and architecture, has been described as "a place that looks more like a beach resort than a private university." The main campus entrance road ascends a steep, well-groomed grassy slope past a huge stylized cross known as the Phillips Theme Tower, symbolizing the university's dedication to its original Christian mission. Most buildings were constructed in a reinterpretation of Mediterranean Revival Style architecture; the majority of the construction on the main campus was completed in 1973. There are views of the Pacific Ocean, Catalina Island, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Long Beach and the westside of Los Angeles from numerous points. Alumni Park is located on the campus, it is a 30-acre expanse of lawns, hills and coral trees overlooking Pacific Coast Highway and the Pacific Ocean. Landscape architects Armstrong and Scharfman were responsible for the campus green space plann
United States men's national volleyball team
The United States men's national volleyball team represents the country in international competitions and friendly matches. The team is governed by USA Volleyball. USA won 5 Olympic medals, including three golds. Birthplace of volleyball, the United States had the first association to regulate the sport, United States Volleyball Association in 1927, was a founding member of FIVB in 1947, they were part of the first Olympic tournament in 1964. USA have won the FIVB World Championship in 1986 in Paris, as well as four golds at the Pan American Games and eight at the NORCECA Championships, they won. Of the nine times that USA have competed at the World Cup, they have finished fourth five times, most in 2007, they won the event in 1985, last time out in 2011 they finished in sixth place, eight points away from the medal positions. Hat success was the first of two podium finishes for the United States in the World Championships and was followed by a bronze medal in 1994. Four years ago, in Italy, they finished sixth.
Of the 14 times the United States have qualified for this competition, they have finished in the top 10 on eight occasions. USA at the World Cup in 1985 and the World Championship in 1986, they reclaimed Olympic glory when they defeated Brazil 3-1 to take gold at Beijing 2008, but failed to defend their title in 2012, losing 3-0 to Italy in the quarterfinals for an equal-fifth finish. USA took the 2015 World Cup title. In September 2015 U. S. national team took part in 2015 World Cup. American players won 10 of 11 lost only with Poland. On September 23, 2015 they beat Argentina. Despite of the same amount of winning matches just like two other teams, USA won World Cup and qualified at 2016 Summer Olympic Games because of difference in points, it was their second victory in World Cup tournament. In the 2018 FIVB Volleyball Men's Nations League, the inaugural edition replacing the World League, the U. S. national team defeated the reigning Olympic champions and 9-time World League winners Brazil in straight sets for the bronze medal.
1986 — Silver medal Ctvrtlik, Kiraly, Miller, Powers, Saunders, Stork, Timmons. The following is the American roster in the 2018 World Championship. Head coach: John Speraw The table below shows the history of kit providers for the United States national volleyball team. Primary sponsors include: main sponsors like Liberty Mutual, Mizuno Corporation and Commerce Bancorp, other sponsors: Molten Corporation, Almond Breeze, National Car, CoSport, Oppiaperformance and Muscleaidtape. United States women's national volleyball team United States national beach volleyball team Official website FIVB profile
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowledge and skills necessary to perform their specific role within that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct, enshrining rigorous ethical and moral obligations. Professional standards of practice and ethics for a particular field are agreed upon and maintained through recognized professional associations, such as the IEEE; some definitions of "professional" limit this term to those professions that serve some important aspect of public interest and the general good of society. In some cultures, the term is used as shorthand to describe a particular social stratum of well-educated workers who enjoy considerable work autonomy and who are engaged in creative and intellectually challenging work. In narrow usage, not all expertise is considered a profession.
Although sometimes incorrectly referred to as professions, occupations such as skilled construction and maintenance work are more thought of as trades or crafts. The completion of an apprenticeship is associated with skilled labour, or trades such as carpenter, mason, painter and other similar occupations. A related distinction would be that a professional does mental work, as opposed to engaging in physical work. Although professional training appears to be ideologically neutral, it may be biased towards those with higher class backgrounds and a formal education. In his 2000 book, Disciplined Minds: A Critical Look at Salaried Professionals and the Soul-Battering System that Shapes Their Lives, Jeff Schmidt observes that qualified professionals are less creative and diverse in their opinions and habits than non-professionals, which he attributes to the subtle indoctrination and filtering which accompanies the process of professional training, his evidence is both qualitative and quantitative, including professional examinations, industry statistics and personal accounts of trainees and professionals.
A key theoretical dispute arises from the observation that established professions are subject to strict codes of conduct. Some have thus argued that these codes of conduct, agreed upon and maintained through recognized professional associations, are a key element of what constitutes any profession. Others have argued that strict codes of conduct and the professional associations that maintain them are a consequence of'successful' professionalization, rather than an intrinsic element of the definition of professional; the etymology and historical meaning of the term professional is from Middle English, from profes, having professed one's vows, from Anglo-French, from Late Latin professus, from Latin, past participle of profitēri to profess, from pro- before + fatēri to acknowledge. Thus, as people became more and more specialized in their trade, they began to'profess' their skill to others, and'vow' to perform their trade to the highest known standard. With a reputation to uphold, trusted workers of a society who have a specific trade are considered professionals.
The usage of the word'profess' declined from the late 1800s to the 1950s, just as the term'professional' was gaining popularity from 1900–2010. Notably, in American English the rise in popularity of the term'professional' started at the beginning of the 20th century whereas in British English it started in the 1930s and grew fastest in the 1960s and 70s. Centre for the Study of Professions Organizational culture Professional boundaries Professional sports Semi-professional Amateur
Nintendo Entertainment System
The Nintendo Entertainment System is an 8-bit home video game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It is a remodeled export version of the company's Family Computer platform in Japan known as the Famicom for short, which launched on July 15, 1983; the NES was launched through test markets in New York City and Los Angeles in 1985, before being given a wide release in the rest of North America and parts of Europe in 1986, followed by Australia and other European countries in 1987. Brazil saw only unlicensed clones until the official local release in 1993. In South Korea, it was packaged as the Hyundai Comboy and distributed by SK Hynix, known as Hyundai Electronics; the best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the North American video game crash of 1983. With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.
It was succeeded by the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. Following a series of arcade game successes in the early 1980s, Nintendo made plans to create a cartridge-based console called the Famicom, short for Family Computer. Masayuki Uemura designed the system. Original plans called for an advanced 16-bit system which would function as a full-fledged computer with a keyboard and floppy disk drive, but Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi rejected this and instead decided to go for a cheaper, more conventional cartridge-based game console as he believed that features such as keyboards and disks were intimidating to non-technophiles. A test model was constructed in October 1982 to verify the functionality of the hardware, after which work began on programming tools; because 65xx CPUs had not been manufactured or sold in Japan up to that time, no cross-development software was available and it had to be produced from scratch. Early Famicom games were written on a system that ran on an NEC PC-8001 computer and LEDs on a grid were used with a digitizer to design graphics as no software design tools for this purpose existed at that time.
The code name for the project was "GameCom", but Masayuki Uemura's wife proposed the name "Famicom", arguing that "In Japan,'pasokon' is used to mean a personal computer, but it is neither a home or personal computer. We could say it is a family computer." Meanwhile, Hiroshi Yamauchi decided that the console should use a red and white theme after seeing a billboard for DX Antenna which used those colors. During the creation of the Famicom, the ColecoVision, a video game console made by Coleco to compete against Atari's Atari 2600 Game system in The United States, was a huge influence. Takao Sawano, chief manager of the project, brought a ColecoVision home to his family, who were impressed by the system's capability to produce smooth graphics at the time, which contrasted with the flickering and slowdown seen on Atari 2600 games. Uemura, head of Famicom development, stated that the ColecoVision set the bar that influenced how he would approach the creation of the Famicom. Original plans called for the Famicom's cartridges to be the size of a cassette tape, but they ended up being twice as big.
Careful design attention was paid to the cartridge connectors since loose and faulty connections plagued arcade machines. As it necessitated taking 60 connection lines for the memory and expansion, Nintendo decided to produce their own connectors in-house rather than use ones from an outside supplier; the controllers were hard-wired to the console with no connectors for cost reasons. The game pad controllers were more-or-less copied directly from the Game & Watch machines, although the Famicom design team wanted to use arcade-style joysticks taking apart ones from American game consoles to see how they worked. There were concerns regarding the durability of the joystick design and that children might step on joysticks left on the floor. Katsuyah Nakawaka attached a Game & Watch D-pad to the Famicom prototype and found that it was easy to use and caused no discomfort. Though, they installed a 15-pin expansion port on the front of the console so that an optional arcade-style joystick could be used.
Uemura added an eject lever to the cartridge slot, not necessary, but he believed that children could be entertained by pressing it. He added a microphone to the second controller with the idea that it could be used to make players' voices sound through the TV speaker; the console was released on July 15, 1983 as the Family Computer for ¥14,800 alongside three ports of Nintendo's successful arcade games Donkey Kong, Donkey Kong Jr. and Popeye. The Famicom was slow to gather momentum. Following a product recall and a reissue with a new motherboard, the Famicom's popularity soared, becoming the best-selling game console in Japan by the end of 1984. Encouraged by this success, Nintendo turned its attention to the North American market, entering into negotiations with Atari to release the Famicom under Atari's name as the Nintendo Advanced Video Gaming System; the deal was set to be finalized and signed at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show in June 1983. However, Atari discovered at that show that its competitor Coleco was illegally demonstrating its Coleco Adam computer with Nintendo's Donkey Kong game.
This violation of Atari's exclusive license with Nintendo to publish the game for its own computer systems delayed the implementation of Nintendo's game console marketing contract with Atari. Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month, so the deal went nowhere, Nintendo decided to market its sys