A sink — known by other names including sinker, hand basin and wash basin—is a bowl-shaped plumbing fixture used for washing hands and other purposes. Sinks have taps that supply hot and cold water and may include a spray feature to be used for faster rinsing, they include a drain to remove used water. Sinks may have an integrated soap dispenser. Many sinks in kitchens, are installed adjacent to or inside a counter; when a sink becomes clogged, a person will resort to use a chemical drain cleaner or a plunger, though most professional plumbers will remove the clog with a drain auger. The washstand was a bathroom sink made in the United States in the late 18th century; the washstands were small tables on which were placed a pitcher and a deep bowl, following the English tradition. Sometimes the table had a hole which led to the making of dry sinks. From about 1820 to 1900 the dry sink evolved by the addition of a wooden cabinet with a trough built on the top, lined with zinc or lead; this is where the buckets for water were kept.
Splashboards were sometimes added to the back wall, as well as shelves and drawers, the more elaborate designs placed in the kitchen. Sinks are made of many different materials; these include: Stainless steel is used in kitchens and commercial applications because it represents a good trade-off between cost, usability and ease of cleaning. Most stainless steel sinks are made by drawing a sheet of stainless steel over a die; some deep sinks are fabricated by welding. Stainless steel sinks will not resist damage from impacts. One disadvantage of stainless steel is that, being made of thin metal, they tend to be noisier than most other sink materials, although better sinks apply a heavy coating of vibration-damping material to the underside of the sink. Enamel over cast iron is a popular material for bathroom sinks. Heavy and durable, these sinks can be manufactured in a wide range of shapes and colors. Like stainless steel, they are resistant to hot or cold objects, but they can be damaged by sharp impacts and once the glass surface is breached, the underlying cast iron will corrode, spalling off more of the glass.
Aggressive cleaning will dull the surface. Enamel over steel is a similar-appearing less cost-effective alternative. Solid ceramic sinks have many of the same characteristics as enamel over cast iron, but without the risk of surface damage leading to corrosion. Plastic sinks come in several basic forms: Inexpensive sinks are made using injection-molded thermoplastics; these are deep, free-standing sinks used in laundry rooms. Subject to damage by hot or sharp objects, the principal virtue of these sinks is their low cost. High-end acrylic drop-in and undermount sinks are becoming more popular, although they tend to be damaged by hard objects - like scouring a cast iron frying pan in the sink. Plastic sinks may be made from the same materials used to form "solid surface" countertops; these sinks are durable and can be molded with an integrated countertop or joined to a separate countertop in a seamless fashion, leading to no sink-to-countertop joint or a smooth sink-to-countertop joint that can not trap dirt or germs.
These sinks are subject to damage by hot objects but damaged areas can sometimes be sanded down to expose undamaged material. Soapstone sinks were once common, but today tend to be used only in very-high-end applications or applications that must resist caustic chemicals that would damage more-conventional sinks. Wood sinks are from the early days of sinks and baths were made from natural teak with no additional finishing. Teak is chosen because of its natural waterproofing properties – it has been used for hundreds of years in the marine industry for this reason. Teak has natural antiseptic properties, a bonus for its use in baths and sinks. Glass sinks: A current trend in bathroom design is the handmade glass sink which has become fashionable for wealthy homeowners. Stone sinks have been used for ages; some of the more popular stones used are: marble, onyx and soap stone on high end sinks. Glass and terrazzo sinks are designed for their aesthetic appeal and can be obtained in a wide variety of unusual shapes and colors such as floral shapes.
Concrete and terrazzo are also used in very-heavy-duty applications such as janitorial sinks. Self-rimming sinks sit in appropriately shaped holes cut in the countertop using a jigsaw or other cutter appropriate to the material at hand and are suspended by their rim; the rim inherently forms a close seal with the top surface of the countertop when the sink is clamped into the hole from below. Bottom-mount or under-mount sinks are installed below the countertop surface; the edge of the countertop material is exposed at the hole created for the sink. The sink is clamped to the bottom of the material from below. For bottom-mount sinks, silicone-based sealants are used to assure a waterproof joint between the sink and the countertop material. Advantages of an undermount sink include a contemporary look. No matter how the cut out is made
Current sources and sinks
Current sources and sinks are analysis formalisms which distinguish points, areas, or volumes through which current enters or exits a system. While current sources or sinks are abstract elements used for analysis they have physical counterparts in real-world applications. In all cases, each of the opposing terms may refer to the same object, depending on the perspective of the observer and the sign convention being used. In some cases, the term current source refers to a boundary where charge flows from locations where it is not measured to locations where it is measured. In a similar fashion, a current sink may refer to the boundary where charge flows from locations where it is measured to locations where it is not measured. By analogy to the flow of water, a current source would be like a mountain spring - water flows from its source to the surface where it is observed. Using the same analogy, a current sink would be like water flowing down a drain - water travels from where it is observed to where it is not observed.
Shown at right is a general two-compartment model to help illustrate the definition of current sources or sinks. In this two-compartment model, the compartments are separated by a semi-conductive barrier. An observer, symbolized by the eye, can "see" only one compartment at a time. Red arrows indicate the direction of flow of positive charges, while black arrows indicate the direction of flow of negative charges; the pink and green backgrounds are meant to symbolize different configurations, configuration 1 when charges are flowing in one direction and configuration 2 when they are flowing in the opposite direction. The difference between the left and right panels is the location of the "eye". A source or a sink is defined by. A source is: A flow of positive charges from the "invisible" to the "visible" compartment, or… A flow of negative charges from the "visible" to the "invisible". A sink is: A flow of positive charges "away from the eye", or… A flow of negative charges "toward the eye". In biology, the schematic barrier in the figure could represent a cell membrane, as a result, the two compartments could represent the inside and the outside of the cell.
Speaking the point of observation would be outside the cell. Thus the cell would be termed a sink with respect to any flow of positive charges into it, the cell would act as a source for any positive charges flowing out of it. Note that when considering the flow of negative charges, the definitions are reversed. Current sources and sinks have proven to be valuable in the study of brain function. Both have particular relevance in electrophysiology. Two examples of the study of sources and sinks are Electroencephalography and Current Source Density Analysis, but have shown enhancements in spatio-temporal resolution of EEG. Current source density analysis is the practice of placing a microelectrode in proximity to a nerve or a nerve cell to detect current sourcing from, or sinking into, their plasma membranes; when positive charges, for example, flow across a plasma membrane to the inside of a cell this creates a transient cloud of negativity in the vicinity of the sink. This is because the flow of positive charges into the interior of the cell leaves behind uncompensated negative charges.
A nearby micro-electrode with substantial tip resistance can detect that negativity because a voltage difference will develop across the tip of the electrode. Put another way, the electrode internal solution will donate some of the positive charge needed to compensate the negativity caused by the current sink. Thus, the inside of the electrode will become negative relative to ground for as long as the extracellular negativity persists; the extracellular negativity will persist as long. Thus, by measuring a negativity relative to ground, the electrode indirectly reports the presence of a nearby current sink; the size of the recorded negativity will vary directly with the size of the current sink and inversely with the distance between the electrode and the sink. The relationship between the sum of the current sources and sinks and the voltage measured by the microelectrode probe may be calculated analytically if it is assumed that the quasi-static assumption holds, that the medium is spherically symmetric, homogeneous and infinite, if the current source or sink is modeled as a point source.
The relationship is given by: Φ = I 4 π r σ where Φ is the potential at radius r from the source or sink, which passes current I through a medium with conductivity σ. Current source Current mirror
Dog Days (Japanese TV series)
Dog Days is a 2011 Japanese fantasy anime television series created by Masaki Tsuzuki known for his work as creator of Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha and produced by Seven Arcs and Aniplex under the direction of Keizo Kusakawa. The story revolves around a boy named Shinku Izumi, summoned to an alternate world by Princess Millhiore in order to defend Millhiore's country, the Biscotti Republic, from the neighboring kingdom of Galette. Dog Days aired 13 episodes on Tokyo MX and other channels from April 2 to June 25, 2011. A second anime season aired 13 episodes from July 7 to September 29, 2012 on Tokyo MX and other channels. A third season started airing in January 2015. A light novel adaptation with four chapters was published by Kadokawa Shoten, serialized in the Newtype magazine between March and July 2011 issues. Kadokawa Shoten published a Dog Days manga illustrated by Takuya Fujima, which serialized in three different magazines from May to November 2011. Several drama CDs have been produced, as well as a comic anthology.
Shinku Izumi is a cheerful and athletic half-Japanese, half-Cornish boy who studies at Kinokawa International School in Japan, has a normal life everyday until he got summoned to the alternate world of Flonyard. The people there look no different except for one thing; the one who summoned him is Millhiore, the dog-like Princess of the Biscotti Republic, who requested his assistance against the forces of the feline-like Galette Lion Dominion. After responding to Millhiore's plea, he receives a sacred weapon, the Palladion, is appointed as a Hero to fight for Biscotti in a war that unlike the ones in Earth, is waged with special rules and no casualties, in a fashion similar to a sports competition with the purpose to raise funds for the Kingdoms involved, where the winner faction claims a larger sum than the losing side. After winning his first battle for Biscotti, Shinku learns that when a hero is summoned into Flonyard he becomes unable to return to his homeworld, a fact that Millhiore was unaware of.
While the scientists of Biscotti look for a way for him to return home, he decides to keep serving Millhiore as Biscotti's hero for 16 days. After returning home, Shinku is summoned back time and again, to visit Flonyard while embarking freeload adventures with them, accompanied by his cousin and rival athlete Nanami Takatsuki, chosen to become Galette's Hero, his close friend Rebecca Anderson, chosen by the squirrel-like Principality of Pastillage to become their hero as well; the anime series, produced by Aniplex and Seven Arcs, is directed by Keizo Kusakawa, series composition by Masaki Tsuzuki, character designs by Osamu Sakata, music by I've Sound, Maiko Iuchi, Susumu Natsume and Yui Isshiki, produced by the production company Project DD. The series aired 13 episodes from April 2 to June 25, 2011 on Tokyo MX, Tochigi TV, Gunma TV, Chiba TV, TVK, TV Saitama and MBS, with subsequent runs on Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting and BS11. Six DVD and Blu-ray Disc volumes were released by Aniplex between July 27 and December 21, 2011.
The series' opening theme is "Scarlet Knight" by Nana Mizuki and the ending theme song is "Presenter" by Yui Horie, both produced and composed by Elements Garden. The ending song for episode 13 is "Miracle Colors" by Yui Horie; the insert songs of the series are "Kitto Koi wo Shiteiru" in episode 5 and "Promised Love ~Daisuki x 100~" in episode 11. Both songs are sung by Yui Horie. A guidebook to the series, called Dog Days: Memory of Flonyard, was released by Kadokawa Shoten on January 26, 2012. A second anime season, titled Dog Days', aired 13 episodes from July 7 to September 29, 2012 on Tokyo MX, with subsequent runs on Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting, Chiba TV, TV Kanagawa, TV Saitama, Tochigi TV, Gunma TV, KBS Kyoto, Sun Television, BS11. Keizo Kusakawa did not return as director for the season, instead being replaced with Junji Nishimura. Crunchyroll provided a simulcast of the second season beginning on July 14, 2012, with the first season to be uploaded at a date. DVD and BD compilation volumes will be released by Aniplex, beginning on September 26, 2012.
The opening theme for the second season is "Fearless Hero" by Nana Mizuki and the ending theme song is "Natsu no Yakusoku" by Yui Horie. The insert songs are "Heart Relation" in episode 8 and Shiny Heart Shiny Smile in episode 12, both are sung by Horie Yui; the song "Miracle Colors" by Horie Yui, the ending song for season 1 episode 13, is the insert song for episode 11. On 25 November 2012, a third anime season was announced by Dog Days manga artist Takuya Fujima. On 24 June 2014, the animator Katsuya Kikuchi, via Twitter, requested his followers to wait a little longer as its third season is still in production, he stated that more information regarding the anime's third season will be revealed. On 15 August 2014, a fan being passed out at the Comiket revealed that the third season of Dog Days will premiere in January 2015 on Tokyo MX TV, will be titled as Dog Days". A light novel adaptation of Dog Days, written by Masaki Tsuzuki, illustrated by Kiro Habane, was serialized between the March and July 2011 issues of Kadokawa Shoten's Newtype magazine, published under their Kadokawa Sneaker Bunko imprint.
A manga adaptation illustrated by Takuya Fujima was serialized in multiple mag
A geographic sink is a depression within an endorheic basin where water collects with no visible outlet. Instead of discharging, the collected water is penetration. If the sink has karstic terrain, water will sink at a higher rate than the surface evaporation, conversely if the lakebed or sink bed has a layer of soil, impervious to water, evaporation will predominate. Since dry lakes in sinks with hardpan have little penetration, they require more severe aridity/heat to eliminate collected water at a comparable rate as for a similar sink with appreciable penetration. Depending on losses and inflow. Mediterranean Sink during the Messinian Event Red Sea when blocked off by the Perim volcano Africa: Afar Depression USA: Carson Sink USA: Humboldt Sink USA: Quinn River Sink USA: Salton Sink Endorheic basin – Closed drainage basin that allows no outflow Sinkhole – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
Lincoln Burrows, played by Dominic Purcell, is a fictional character and one of the two protagonists of the American television series Prison Break. The plot of Prison Break revolves around Lincoln being framed for the murder of the Vice President's brother and Lincoln’s brother, Michael Scofield’s plan to help him escape his death sentence. In flashbacks, teenage Lincoln is played by Max Kirsch, for one episode, Hunter Jablonski; as one of the principal characters, Lincoln plays a prominent role in the series and appeared in every episode. The brothers' relationship is explored in the series as their sacrifices for each other form a large part of the plot. In an interview, series creator Paul Scheuring commented that it was "extremely difficult" to cast the roles of Lincoln and Michael. Dominic Purcell was cast for the role just three days before the start of production of the series pilot. Lincoln's parents worked for the company but were both killed so Aldo took him in and raised him as his own.
Neither Lincoln nor Michael knew this until season 4. After their mother's falsified death, Lincoln became Michael's guardian. Lincoln dropped out of Morgan Park High School in Toledo, Ohio during his sophomore year and moved to Chicago to begin his life of crime. Prior to being convicted for the murder of the Vice President's brother, he had been convicted of theft, criminal damage to property, possession of drug paraphernalia, battery, he and Lisa Rix had a son together, Lincoln Burrows, Jr.. When Michael was 18, Lincoln borrowed $80,000 to pay for Michael's university education, telling him that it was his half of his mother's life insurance. There was no life insurance and this money was the start of the events which led to Lincoln being sentenced to death; this was revealed in the flashback episode, "Brother's Keeper." Lincoln's actions made Michael feel guilt and responsibility, which explains his reason for creating an elaborate plan to rescue his brother. Lincoln is accused of murdering Terrence Steadman.
Although he pleaded not guilty at the trial, he was convicted on all counts and sentenced to death due to an overwhelming amount of evidence. After exhausting all of his appeals, his execution date was set for May 11, 2006. At the start of the show, he has only one month left; the character of Lincoln Burrows is first seen on newspaper articles in Michael Scofield's apartment. He makes his first real appearance in the pilot episode when he is seen in the prison yard, it is established that Michael is his brother and a flashback sequence demonstrates the close bond of trust between them, as well as Michael's intention of breaking Lincoln out. After a surprise meeting with his brother inside the prison's chapel in the series pilot, Lincoln realizes that Michael is now an inmate. In the first two episodes, Lincoln's character and background is established, like his complicated and strained relationships with his teenage son L. J. and his ex-girlfriend Veronica Donovan. In the first few episodes, Lincoln warns Michael of the dangers in the prison and that he should be aware of his fellow inmates.
As Michael begins to reveal his escape plan, Lincoln takes a skeptical stance in the early episodes, trying to convince his brother of the futility in attempting escape and attempts to persuade Michael to abandon his plan, something he refuses to do. As the season progresses, Lincoln grows hopeful of Michael's plan to help him escape. In episode "English, Fitz or Percy", Lincoln admits that he had resigned himself to his fate, but that Michael has given him his hope back; the next episode "Riots and the Devil" further explores the tight bond between the protagonists. As the season progresses, Lincoln's relationships with his son, L. J. and Veronica Donovan grow stronger. L. J. reconnects with his estranged father over several visits, while Veronica becomes convinced of his innocence and attempts to find evidence to exonerate him. Aside from scenes in visitation, Lincoln appears in scenes with Michael in the chapel, with the rest of the escape team on PI or in his cell on death row, which coincidentally in real life, is the same cell that John Wayne Gacy was incarcerated in during his time at Joliet Prison.
From the eighth episode onwards and the rest of the escapees begin to dig a hole in the guard's break room. When L. J. is framed for murder by the conspiracy, Lincoln becomes worried and starts behaving irrationally, making him a liability to the escape plan. A secret message from L. J. in the episode "Tweener" manages to reassure him however. In "Odd Man Out", Lincoln is forced to distract a guard to keep him from discovering the escape tunnel. Out of options, Lincoln is sent to solitary. Despite this, Michael gets him transferred to the infirmary on the night on the escape for food poisoning. Lincoln is one of six inmates that are part of the failed escape attempt in "End of the Tunnel." When it fails, he resigns to his fate. The character plays a central role in "The Rat", in which Lincoln prepares himself for the upcoming execution; the viewers are shown that he goes through different emotions, ranging from anger to sadness to plain numbness, as he is strapped to the electric chair at the end of the episode.
His execution is delayed at the last minute with the help of a mysterious man that Lincoln identifies as his father Aldo Burrows, despite not having seen him for thirty years. But when Lincoln tries to explain in "By the Skin and the Teeth" that he saw his father in the viewing room on the night of the execution, he is met with skepticism. In the following episodes, Lincoln spends mos
Conduit and Sink OFCs
Conduit OFC and Sink OFC is an empirical quantitative method of classifying corporate tax havens, offshore financial centres and tax havens. Rather than analyzing taxation and legal structures, called base erosion and profit shifting tools, to identify and classify potential tax havens, this approach analyses the ownership chains of 98 million global companies, relative to the size of countries of their incorporation; the technique gives both a method of classification and a method of understanding the relative scale – but not absolute scale – of corporate tax havens/offshore financial centers. The results were formally published by the University of Amsterdam's CORPNET Group in July 2017, identify two major classifications: 24 global Sink OFCs: jurisdictions in which a disproportional amount of value disappears from the economic system. 5 global Conduit OFCs: jurisdictions through which a disproportional amount of value moves toward sink OFCs. Our findings debunk the myth of tax havens as exotic far–flung islands that are difficult, if not impossible, to regulate.
Many offshore financial centers are developed countries with strong regulatory environments. The CORPNET report has been praised, in March 2017, the EU has adopted its approach into some of their policy frameworks. Research by Gabriel Zucman published in June 2018, showed using Orbis database connections, underestimates Ireland, which the Zucman–Tørsløv–Wier 2018 list shows is the largest corporate Conduit OFC in the world. However, CORPNET's Conduits and Sinks, still reconcile with the world's top ten tax havens; the lack of an accepted definition for identifying corporate tax havens/offshore financial centres, results in different lists, including: Academic leaders in tax haven research, namely: James R. Hines Jr. Dhammika Dharmapala, Gabriel Zucman. There are common "classic" tax haven locations amongst these lists which some global regulators have either blacklisted, or have issued formal warnings/threat of sanctions against, unless transparency is increased. A key difference between the lists regards the major corporate tax havens, like Ireland the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
Major regulators like the EU and the OECD don't regard them as tax havens, point to their transparency and compliance with international regulations. Academics and other non–governmental organizations, point to their role in major corporate tax avoidance from base erosion and profit shifting schemes, like the double Irish, the single malt and the dutch sandwich, they regard them as major tax havens in their definitions of tax havens. This disconnect regarding corporate tax havens is discussed here. A report published in Nature in 2017 on the analysis of offshore financial centres "Uncovering Offshore Financial Centers: Conduits and Sinks in the Global Corporate Ownership Network" explains the disconnect between these two sets of contrasting views, provides a more scientific approach to classification; the report was the result of a multi–year investigation by political economists and computer scientists in the CORPNET research group at the University of Amsterdam. CORPNET is a European Research Council funded group at the University of Amsterdam investigating networks of corporate control.
The report used the Moody's Orbis corporate database to examine 98 million global companies and their 71 million ownership connections to identify 5 global Conduit OFCs. These are countries of high financial reputation, but who have "advanced" legal and tax structuring vehicles that help route funds to the 24 tax havens, without incurring tax in the Conduit OFC; the work builds on methods established in the "Offshore–Intensity Ratio", in particular the understanding activity relative to the scale of the domestic economy in a country. At its crudest level, the Offshore-Intensity Ratio explains why the countries at the top of global GDP per capita lists are tax haven types; the EU Parliament's Policy Department on Economic and Scientific Policies included the research in its findings for the EU Committee on Money laundering, tax avoidance and tax evasion, by tabulating against existing EU–IMF–FSI tax–haven lists, showed material gaps in EU understanding of conduits. CORPNET's top 5 Conduits and top 5 Sinks are 9 of the 10 largest tax havens identified in 2010 by one