A fishing sinker or knoch is a weight used in conjunction with a fishing lure or hook to increase its rate of sink, anchoring ability, and/or casting distance. Fishing sinkers may be as small as 1 gram for applications in shallow water, smaller for fly fishing applications, or as large as several pounds or more for deep sea fishing, they are formed into nearly innumerable shapes for diverse fishing applications. Environmental concerns surround the usage of other materials in fishing sinkers. A large variety of sinkers exist which are used depending on the fish being pursued, the environment, the current and personal preference. Pyramid sinkers are shaped like a pyramid and are used when it is desirable to anchor on the bottom of water bodies, they are attached to the terminal end of fishing line by loops of brass. Barrel or egg sinkers are rounded and bead-like with a narrow hole through which fishing line is threaded; these sinkers are desirable on debris covered substrates. Split-shot sinkers round with a split cutting halfway through the sinker.
The split can be placed on a piece of fishing line and crimped closed. This feature makes removing the weights easy and quick. Bullet sinkers are bullet-shaped and used on largemouth bass fishing for rigging plastic worms "Texas-style". Dipsey sinkers are ovate or egg-shaped and are attached to the fishing line with a loop of brass wire embedded in the sinker. Bank sinkers are long and ovate and have a small hole at the top for the fishing line to thread through. A claw sinker consists of a sinker weight, of round shape, a number of metal wire spikes grouped around the sinker weight acting as barbs. Claw sinkers are used in surf fishing on sandy bottoms with strong currents to prevent the sinker from getting carried off with the current. Upon casting a claw sinker, the line is tugged so that the claws will dig themselves into the sand, allowing the rig to stay in place. A Deep Drop Weight is used to reach the bottom in deeper offshore fishing applications; these fishing weights are cylindrical in shape with a brass eyelet at the top for attaching to a rig.
Weights for this style of sinker range from one pound to as much as fourteen pounds. Target species include Tilefish and Swordfish, among others. An ideal material for a fishing sinker is environmentally acceptable and dense. Density is desirable as weights must be as small as possible, in order to minimize visual cues which could drive fish away from a fishing operation. In ancient times as well as sometimes today, fishing sinkers consisted of materials found ordinarily in the natural environment, such as stones, rocks, or bone. Lead became the material of choice for sinkers due to its low cost, ease of production and casting, chemical inertness, density. However, lead is known to cause lead poisoning and enter the environment as a result of the inevitable occasional loss of fishing sinkers during routine fishing. Thus, most lead-based fishing sinkers have been outlawed in the United Kingdom and some states in the United States. Lead based fishing sinkers are banned in all of Canadian National Parks.
These bans have motivated the use of various other materials in sinkers. Steel and bismuth sinkers have been marketed, but anglers have not adopted them due to their lower density and higher cost compared to lead. Sandsinkers have been developed, using sand as weight. However, sand makes a poor replacement. Tungsten is now in use among largemouth bass anglers. Although several times costlier than lead, tungsten is just under twice as dense as lead and thus found desirable; the environmental effects of tungsten, are unknown. More terminal tackle manufacturers are experimenting with high density composite resins; these materials present a non-toxic alternative to lead sinkers at a lower monetary cost than alternative metallic sinkers. Do lead fishing sinkers threaten the environment? Toxic Tackle Let’s Get the Lead Out Stone plummets discovered in Canada
In baseball, a sinker or sinking fastball is a type of fastball pitch which has significant downward and horizontal movement and is known for inducing ground balls. Pitchers who use the sinker tend to rely on it and do not need to change pitch speeds as much as other pitchers do because the sinking action induces weak bat contact. Other pitchers change pitch speeds to achieve this effect; the sinker is much more used by right-handed than left-handed pitchers. Before the 1950s, pitchers did not know what caused their pitches to sink or "hop." They regarded either ability as a "gift from heaven." Bill James cites Curt Simmons as the first pitcher to be able to throw both sinkers and rising fastballs indicating that it was not known how to make a pitch sink and how to make one hop. Zach Britton, Marcus Stroman, Charlie Morton, Dallas Keuchel, Jake Arrieta, Jim Johnson, Rick Porcello, Kendall Graveman, Sonny Gray, Jeurys Familia, Tanner Roark, Sam Dyson, Mike Leake are current major league players who rely on the sinker.
One method of throwing the sinker is to grip the baseball along the two seams and throw it similar to a fastball. Some pitchers use a downward motion on their wrist; the pitcher's palm turns to the right at release for a right handed pitcher. This causes a sharper sink, but has a greater risk of a wild pitch; this wrist movement is called pronation. Many sinker ball pitchers today turn the inside of the ball over just before releasing the ball, combined with increasing the pressure on the ball with the index finger which creates a tilted sidespin motion that causes horizontal movement; the sinker drops 6 to 9 inches more than a typical four seam fastball which causes batters to hit ground balls more than other fastballs due to the tilted sidespin on the ball. Horizontal movement occurs when sinkers are thrown. Sinkerball pitchers can get called strikes and swinging strikes on the pitch. Two-seam fastball
A taproot is a large and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally. A taproot is somewhat straight and thick, is tapering in shape, grows directly downward. In some plants, such as the carrot, the taproot is a storage organ so well developed that it has been cultivated as a vegetable; the taproot system contrasts with the adventitious or fibrous root system of plants with many branched roots, but many plants that grow a taproot during germination go on to develop branching root structures, although some that rely on the main root for storage may retain the dominant taproot for centuries, for example Welwitschia'. Dicots, one of the two divisions of angiosperms, start with a taproot, one main root forming from the enlarging radicle of the seed; the tap root can be persistent throughout the life of the plant but is most replaced in the plant's development by a fibrous root system. A persistent taproot system forms when the radicle keeps growing and smaller lateral roots form along the taproot.
The shape of taproots can vary but the typical shapes include: Conical root: this type of root tuber is conical in shape, i.e. widest at the top and tapering towards the bottom: e.g. carrot. Fusiform root: this root is widest in the middle and tapers towards the top and the bottom: e.g. radish. Napiform root: the root has a top-like appearance, it is broad at the top and tapers like a tail at the bottom: e.g. turnip. Many taproots are modified into storage organs; some plants with taproots: Beetroot Burdock Carrot Sugar beet Dandelion Parsley Parsnip Poppy mallow Radish Sagebrush Turnip Common milkweed trees such as oaks, elms and firs Taproots develop from the radicle of a seed, forming the primary root. It branches off to secondary roots; these may further branch to form rootlets. For most plants species the radicle dies some time after seed germination, causing the development of a fibrous root system, which lacks a main downward-growing root. Most trees begin life with a taproot, but after one to a few years the main root system changes to a wide-spreading fibrous root system with horizontal-growing surface roots and only a few vertical, deep-anchoring roots.
A typical mature tree 30–50 m tall has a root system that extends horizontally in all directions as far as the tree is tall or more, but as much as 100% of the roots are in the top 50 cm of soil. Soil characteristics influence the architecture of taproots. Many plants with taproots are difficult to transplant, or to grow in containers, because the root tends to grow deep and in many species comparatively slight obstacles or damage to the taproot will stunt or kill the plant. Among weeds with taproots dandelions are typical. 2006-01-13, Sciencedaily: Deep-rooted Plants Have Much Greater Impact On Climate Than Experts Thought Citation: "... The tap roots transfer rainwater from the surface to reservoirs deep underground and redistribute water... increases photosynthesis and the evaporation of water... by 40 percent in the dry season... During the wet season, these plants can store as much as 10 percent of the annual precipitation as deep as 13 meters underground, to be tapped during the dry months... tree roots acting like pipes to allow water to shift around much faster than it could otherwise percolate through the soil."
Fullerton Arboretum on taproots
A doughnut or donut is a type of fried dough confection or dessert food. The doughnut is popular in many countries and prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, food stalls, franchised specialty vendors. Doughnuts are deep fried from a flour dough, either ring-shaped or a number of shapes without a hole, filled, but can be ball-shaped. Other types of batters can be used, various toppings and flavorings are used for different types, such as sugar, chocolate, or maple glazing. Doughnuts may include water, eggs, sugar, oil and natural or artificial flavors; the two most common types are the ring doughnut and the filled doughnut, injected with fruit preserves, custard, or other sweet fillings. Alternatively, small pieces of dough are sometimes cooked as doughnut holes. Once fried, doughnuts may be glazed with a sugar icing, spread with icing or chocolate on top, or topped with powdered sugar or sprinkles or fruit. Other shapes include rings, flattened spheres and other forms.
Doughnut varieties are divided into cake and yeast-risen type doughnuts. Doughnuts are accompanied by coffee purchased at doughnut shops or fast food restaurants, but can be paired with milk. Ring doughnuts are formed by one of two methods: by joining the ends of a long, skinny piece of dough into a ring, or by using a doughnut cutter, which cuts the outside and inside shape, leaving a doughnut-shaped piece of dough and a doughnut hole; this smaller piece of dough can be cooked and served as a "doughnut hole" or added back to the batch to make more doughnuts. A disk-shaped doughnut can be stretched and pinched into a torus until the center breaks to form a hole. Alternatively, a doughnut depositor can be used to place a circle of liquid dough directly into the fryer. There are two types of ring doughnuts, those made from a yeast-based dough for raised doughnuts, or those made from a special type of cake batter. Yeast-raised doughnuts contain about 25% oil by weight, whereas cake doughnuts' oil content is around 20%, but they have extra fat included in the batter before frying.
Cake doughnuts are fried for about 90 seconds at 190 to 198 °C, turning once. Yeast-raised doughnuts absorb more oil because they take longer to fry, about 150 seconds, at 182 to 190 °C. Cake doughnuts weigh between 24 and 28 g, whereas yeast-raised doughnuts average 38 g and are larger, taller when finished. After frying, ring doughnuts are topped. Raised doughnuts are covered with a glaze. Cake doughnuts can be glazed, or powdered with confectioner's sugar, or covered with cinnamon and granulated sugar, they are often topped with cake frosting and sometimes sprinkled with coconut, chopped peanuts, or sprinkles. Doughnut holes are small, bite-sized doughnuts that were traditionally made from the dough taken from the center of ring doughnuts. Before long, doughnut sellers saw the opportunity to market "holes" as a novelty and many chains offer their own variety, some with their own brand names such as "Munchkins" from Dunkin' Donuts and "Timbits" from Tim Hortons. Traditionally, doughnut holes are made by frying the dough removed from the center portion of the doughnut.
They are smaller than a standard doughnut and tend to be spherical. Similar to standard doughnuts, doughnut holes may be topped with confections, such as glaze or powdered sugar. Most varieties of doughnut holes were derivatives of their ring doughnut counterparts. However, doughnut holes can be made by dropping a small ball of dough into hot oil from a specially shaped nozzle or cutter; this production method has allowed doughnut sellers to produce bite-sized versions of non-ring doughnuts, such as filled doughnuts and Dutchies. Filled doughnuts are flattened spheres injected with fruit preserves, custard, or other sweet fillings, dipped into powdered sugar or topped off with frosting. Common varieties include the Boston cream, key lime, jelly. Others include the fritter and the Dutchie, which are glazed; these have been available on Tim Hortons' doughnut menu since the chain's inception in 1964, a 1991 Toronto Star report found these two were the chain's most popular type of fried dough in Canada.
There are many other specialized doughnut shapes such as old-fashioned, bars or Long Johns, or with the dough twisted around itself before cooking. In the northeast United States and twists are referred to as crullers. Another is the beignet, a square-shaped doughnut covered with powdered sugar associated with New Orleans; the earliest origins to the modern doughnuts are traced back to the olykoek Dutch settlers brought with them to early New York. These doughnuts resembled ones but did not yet have their current ring shape. One of the earliest mentions of "doughnut" was in Washington Irving's 1809 book A History of New York, from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty: Sometimes the table was graced with immense apple-pies, or saucers full of preserved peaches and pears.