Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north. Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Balathal. Rajasthan is home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota; the state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur.
Rajasthan means "Land of Kings" or "King's Abode". The oldest reference to Rajasthan is found in a stone inscription dated back to 625 A. D; the print mention of the name "Rajasthan" appears in the 1829 publication Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, while the earliest known record of "Rajputana" as a name for the region is in George Thomas's 1800 memoir Military Memories. John Keay, in his book India: A History, stated that "Rajputana" was coined by the British in 1829, John Briggs, translating Ferishta's history of early Islamic India, used the phrase "Rajpoot princes" rather than "Indian princes". Parts of what is now Rajasthan were part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.. Another archeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilization dating back to 3000 - 1500 BC. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state.
Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, said to have been named after its founder king Virata. Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana; the Western Kshatrapas, the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state. Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, the region was known as Gurjaratra. Up to the 10th century AD all of North India acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars, with their seat of power at Kannauj; the Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was acknowledged by the Arab writers, he further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
Traditionally the Rajputs, Jats, Bhils, Charans, Bishnois, Sermals, PhulMali and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Bhils once ruled Kota. Meenas were rulers of Bundi and the Dhundhar region. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501, he won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the "Hindu Raj" in North India, albeit for
Deeg is a town and a municipality in Bharatpur district in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is situated 98 kilometres north of Agra. In Hindu mythology, Deeg was situated along the parikrama path of Krishna, which started at Goverdhan, 14 kilometres from Deeg; some people identify it as the ancient town of "Dirgha" or "Dirghapur" mentioned in the epic Skanda Purana. Deeg was the first capital of the newly carved out Jat state of Bharatpur, when Badan Singh was proclaimed its ruler in 1722. In 1730, Maharaja Suraj Mal erected the strong fortress of Deeg. After Suraj Mal moved the capital to Bharatpur, Deeg became the second capital of the rulers of Bharatpur princely state, it is known for its number of forts, palaces and fountains. Deeg is located at 27.47°N 77.33°E / 27.47. It has an average elevation of 174 m, it is an ancient town. It finds mention in Skanda Purana as "Dirgha" or "Dirghapura". Deeg was the first capital of the newly carved out Jat state of Bharatpur, when Badan Singh was proclaimed its ruler in 1722.
In 1730, the Maharaja Suraj Mal erected the strong fortress of Deeg. After Suraj Mal moved the capital to Bharatpur, Deeg became the second capital of the rulers of Bharatpur princely state, it is known for its number of forts, palaces and fountains. Badan Singh after assuming the throne consolidated the headship of the tribe and thereby became the virtual founder of the Jat house at Bharatpur; the credit of commencing the urbanization of Deeg goes to him. It was he. After the Third Battle of Panipat between the Marathas and the pan-Islamic coalition led by Ahmad Shah Durrani for control over North India, Shamsher Bahadur died at Deeg around the 20 January, 1761, of wounds sustained at the Battle of Panipat. During 1804, both the Battle of Deeg and the Siege of Deeg brought the British East India Company into conflict with Bharatpur's Jat rulers and their Maratha allies for control of the area; the 1972 movie by Conrad Rooks, based on Herman Hesse's novel, was shot in Deeg. Additional scenes in the film were shot in Bharatpur.
Deeg is known for the three-day fair held in the month of September, when the forts of Deeg are brought to liveliness. The palace complex together with its water gardens was a summer retreat for the maharajas of Bharatpur; the layout comprises several palaces called bhawans, interwoven within series of charbaghs and water gardens. The major Bhawans are Gopal Bhawan, Divan I Khas or the Kishan Bhawan, Wrestling palace or Nand Bhawan, Keshav Bhawan, Hardev Bhawan, Suraj Bhawan and symmetrically arranged twin pavilions of Sawan & Bhadon; as of 2001 India census, Deeg had a population of 40,826. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Deeg has an average literacy rate of 61%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 71% and, female literacy is 49%. In Deeg, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Can be reached from Agra, Alwar or Bharatpur. Regular Buses are available from Jaipur, Alwar and New Delhi. Slow trains are available from Mathura. Deeg railway station lies on the Mathura-Alwar railway line that caters to freight trains and slow train service from Jaipur.
The nearest Airport can be reach in 3-4 hours. Deeg Palace with its 900 fountains, which operate twice a year during the Avamasaya festivals in February and September; the Deeg Palace museum is closed on Fridays. Fort of Deeg is known for its force. Lakshman Temple, situated as the prime location in Deeg. Temple is quite older and big enough, which represents a market area from Mahesh medicals to Sunil Medicals
Government of India
The Government of India abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in the capital of India. Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state, the union government is composed of the executive, the legislature, the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister and the supreme court; the President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, is responsible for running the union government. The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, the Rajya Sabha the upper house; the judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, the criminal procedure code.
Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law; the full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution, both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases; the terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are used and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi; the powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures.
The Lok Sabha is considered the House of the people. The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court. However, it does exercise some control over the executive; the members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office. The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha; the Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha can never be dissolved; the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term. The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy; the division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The executive power is vested in the President of India, as per Article 53 of the constitution.
The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53. The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India; the council of ministers remains in power during the'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha; the president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the president, as the head of state receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.
The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time in cases involving punishment of death; the decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister; the vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president; the vice president has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha. The
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle