Sanctuary of Peninha
The Sanctuary of Peninha is situated in the Sintra Mountains in the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, in the Lisbon District of Portugal. It stands at an altitude of 448 metres on top of a rocky outcrop, which provides views over the coastline and inland areas. In addition to a baroque chapel, completed in 1710, the location contains the Palace of Peninha, which dates from 1918, as well as remains of a hermitage; the interiors of neither the chapel nor the palace can presently be visited. The Peninha hills had been the location for a small hermitage since the foundation of Christianity in Portugal. Evidence of the physical foundations of a medieval hermitage can still be seen and archaeological excavations carried out by the Sintra–Cascais Natural Park uncovered a necropolis made up of graves excavated in the rock, with burials dating from the end of the 12th century, together with a cistern dug into the rock; the Hermitage of San Saturnino was built on the site in the mid-sixteenth century, added to in the seventeenth century and used by monks until the dissolution of the monasteries in Portugal in 1834.
It was still occupied by farmers until the 1960s. The site became popular during the rule of King John III of Portugal as one where the Virgin Mary appeared to a young shepherdess. Following earlier attempts to build a chapel after the vision, the present Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Penha was constructed by the monks around a century after the apparition, with financial assistance from King Dom Pedro II and was completed in 1711. Inscriptions inside the chapel on the 1726 grave of the hermit, Pedro da Conceição, elsewhere, acknowledge his role in building the chapel; the interior of the chapel, considered an excellent example of baroque architecture in Portugal, is covered by tiled panels representing scenes of the life of the Virgin Mary, together with representations of the Pentecost and the childhood of Jesus. There are marble inlays. Given its altitude of 448 metres and difficulty of access, visiting the sanctuary became a form of penance, as well as a popular pilgrimage site for sailors’ families, who would both pray for the safe return of the sailors and try to see returning ships from the summit, which gives visibility out to sea of up to 50 kilometres.
In 1892 Peninha was purchased by the first Count of Almedina. The final construction at Peninha was a mansion built by the Portuguese entomologist and businessman António Augusto Carvalho Monteiro, who built the Quinta da Regaleira in nearby Sintra; the uncompleted house followed the Romanticism style. It was never lived in, his original plan had been to build a smaller version of the Pena Palace in Sintra. In Portuguese “pena” means “rock outcrop”, while “peninha” refers to a smaller outcrop. On his death the property was sold to Dr. José Maria Ferreira Rangel de Sampaio who requested an architect to prepare designs to finalize the work of the palace. However, work was not carried out and on the death of Dr. Sampaio he left the palace to the University of Coimbra; the entire complex of 62 hectares was purchased by the Government in 1991 and was placed under the management of the Portuguese Institute for Nature Conservation and Forests. In June 2017 it was announced that agreement had been reached for the Sintra Parks to carry out rehabilitation of the Sanctuary of Peninha.
The agreement foresees the elaboration of a Management Plan to promote nature conservation and education, together with improved security and maintenance of the complex. It is planned to better link other nearby places of interest in the Sintra mountains with the sanctuary, such as Anta de Adrenunes, the Convent of the Capuchos, Cabo da Roca. "Serra de Sintra": Website that has photographs of the interiors of the chapel and palace
Convent of the Capuchos (Sintra)
The Convent of the Friars Minor Capuchin, popularly known as the Convent of the Capuchos, but the Convento de Santa Cruz da Serra da Sintra, is a historical convent consisting of small quarters and public spaces located in the civil parish of São Pedro de Penaferrim, in the municipality of Sintra. Its creation was associated with the Portuguese Viceroy of India, D. João de Castro, his family, but became a pious community of reclusive clergy that continued to occupy cramp humble spaces in the complex, until the religious orders were abolished in Portugal; the convent was founded in 1560, consisting of eight monks that arrived from the Convent of Arrábida under the authority of D. Álvaro de Castro, counsellor of state and administrator for King Sebastian of Portugal. This sanctuary was established to the invocation of Santa Cruz, was the inspiration of Álvaro de Castro's father, the former fourth Viceroy of India, D. João de Castro. According to a legend, João de Castro was hunting in the mountains of Sintra, chasing a deer, he found himself lost.
Tired from his search, he fell asleep against a rock, in a dream, he received a divine revelation to erect a Christian temple on the site. In 1564, from an inscription found on site, indulgences were granted by Pope Pius IV, who offered requested that prayers be said for the Christian princes, the Church and the soul of deceased João de Castro. Between 1578 and 1580, the Chapel of Santo António was constructed, along with the erection of a wall around the convent, under the orders of Cardinal Henry; the following year the convent was visited by King Phillip II of Spain, newly installed King of Portugal and Spain. The primitive community of the convent was composed of eight friars, being the most famous of them Friar Honório, according to the book Mirror of Penitents, composed by one of the friars, lived to be 100 years old, despite having spent the last three decades of his life in penance, living inside a small hole inside the convent, which still exists today. In 1596, friar Honório, who lived in a grotto alongside the convent for 30 years, died.
The story of Honório impressed English Romantic poets, like Robert Southey and Lord Byron In the 17th century, a painting/panel of São Pascoal Bailão, by Vicente Carducho, was completed, while in 1610 several mural paintings on the exterior of the Chapel of Senhor Morto. In 1650 a marker was erected to identify the road to the convent. In October 1654, King John IV of Portugal visited the convent, ordering the sheriff of Cascais should send the friars six dozen fish and dried meat, as well as all the fish necessary to support the festival of São Francisco. At the same time, D. Luísa de Gusmão provides the order a moio of wheat, an arroba of cereals from annual harvests. By the second half of the 17th century, King Peter II of Portugal doubled the gift of D. Luísa de Gusmão. By 1684, the widow of Álvaro de Castro, the lady Maria de Noronha was buried at the door of the convent. Similar royal patronage was conceded by King John V of Portugal in the 18th century, who offered a pipa of olive oil to the convent per year, as well as an azulejo tiles.
By 1728, the convent was described by friar António da Piedade as secluded "between dense fields, high boulders, while trees, that in this refuge produces the mountains that are so many...". The convent was still inhabited by members of the religious community in 1787. Between 1830 and 1837, William Burnett completed a carving on the steps leading to the Chapel of Santo António, flanked by a low wall; as a result of the extinction of the religious orders in Portugal, in 1834, the convent was acquired by the second Count of Penamacor, D. António de Saldanha Albuquerque e Castro Ribafria, descendent of João de Castro, it remained in the possession of this generation until 1873, when it was acquired by Sir Francis Cook, first Viscount of Monserrate. In 1889, the convent was described as "situated in the centre of a sad solitude, encircled by a dryness and whipped by gales...this small monastery, open to the rocks and containing a dozen cells, in which can move the disgraceful inhabitants". In the first half of the 20th century, the site was acquired by the State, although little was done until the middle of that century.
It was bought by the Portuguese State in 1949. The DGEMN Direcção Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais began a series of public projects to preserve the site starting in the 1950s: in 1952, the construction of the roofing in the chapel and latrines; these projects continued with the Institute Florestal and the Direcção-Geral das Florestas which were responsible for conservation and maintenance of the buildings and grounds in 1971, 1983-1985 and 1994. During the 1920s, an image of Santa Maria Madalena still existed in a niche near the gate, but collected by the state and stored in the Pena National Palace. Much images of Santo António and São Francisco, located in the retable in the church, two candelabras were stolen from the site. For this reason, security and a degradation of the site, the property was closed to the public in 1998. Yet, in August
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
The Seteais Palace is a neoclassical palace located in Sintra, on the Portuguese Riviera, operating as a luxury hotel known as the Tivoli Palácio de Seteais Hotel. The palace is a national landmark and is included in the UNESCO Cultural Landscape of Sintra World Heritage Site listing. Jose Alfredo mentions in “Seteais fields” that this field is old and has always been an integral part of the precinct behind the palace; some people believe that its name comes from the tradition of shouting “ai” on the road where its echo is repeated 7 times. On the other hand, a old manuscript by an anonymous author kept in Sintra library mentions that the origin of the word of Seteais derives from the land named Centeais where rye was being cultivated; the Seteais Palace was built between 1783 and 1787 for the Dutch consul Daniel Gildemeester, on lands granted by the Marquis of Pombal. Although Daniel Gildemeester had a land in the neighborhood of Quinta da Alegria property, there was not any house to live in.
So Gildemeester had lived in the Palace of Marquis of Pombal as a tenant during summer. He started to build his own mansion close to the property of his friend British consul Gerard de Visme in order to leave the Palace of Marquis of Pombal; the consul chose to build his house on the border of an elevation, from which the vast landscape around the Sintra hills could be admired. The palace was surrounded with a large garden with fruit trees. In 1797, some years after the consul's death, his widow sold the palace to Diogo José Vito de Menezes Noronha Coutinho, 5th Marquis of Marialva; the palace was enlarged between 1801 and 1802 by neoclassical architect José da Costa e Silva, author of the São Carlos Theatre in Lisbon. The palace was turned into a symmetrical U-shaped building, with the consul's house becoming one of its wings; the cornice of the buildings that compose the main façade was decorated with typical neoclassical motifs like vases and reliefs of garlands. The gardens of the palace were remodelled following romantic trends.
The old and the new wings were connected in 1802 by a neoclassical arch, built in honour of Prince regent John VI and Princess Carlota Joaquina, who visited the palace in that year. The monumental arch, decorated with the bronze effigies of the royal pair and a commemorative Latin inscription, is attributed to architect Francisco Leal Garcia; the walls of several inner rooms of the palace were decorated with frescos attributed to French painter Jean Pillement and his followers. Painted motifs include exotic vegetation and mythological characters, typical of the neoclassical taste. After changing hands several times, the palace was acquired by the Portuguese government in 1946; the Seteais Palace has been used as a luxury hotel since 1954 but its original characteristics have been preserved. Palace of Sintra Pena Palace Palace of Queluz Palace of Mafra Monserrate Palace Tivoli Palácio de Seteais Hotel official site Seteais Palace in the IPPAR website Seteais Palace in the Sintra Municipality website
The Pena Palace is a Romanticist castle in São Pedro de Penaferrim, in the municipality of Sintra, on the Portuguese Riviera. The castle stands on the top of a hill in the Sintra Mountains above the town of Sintra, on a clear day it can be seen from Lisbon and much of its metropolitan area, it is a national monument and constitutes one of the major expressions of 19th-century Romanticism in the world. The palace is one of the Seven Wonders of Portugal, it is used for state occasions by the President of the Portuguese Republic and other government officials. The castle's history started in the Middle Ages when a chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Pena was built on the top of the hill above Sintra. According to tradition, construction occurred after an apparition of the Virgin Mary. In 1493, King John II, accompanied by his wife Queen Leonor, made a pilgrimage to the site to fulfill a vow, his successor, King Manuel I, was very fond of this sanctuary, ordered the construction of a monastery on this site, donated to the Order of Saint Jerome.
For centuries Pena was a quiet place for meditation, housing a maximum of eighteen monks. In the 18th century the monastery was damaged by lightning. However, it was the Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755, occurring shortly afterwards, that took the heaviest toll on the monastery, reducing it to ruins. Nonetheless, the chapel escaped without significant damage. For many decades the ruins remained untouched. In 1838, as King consort Ferdinand II, he decided to acquire the old monastery, all of the surrounding lands, the nearby Castle of the Moors and a few other estates in the area. King Ferdinand set out to transform the remains of the monastery into a palace that would serve as a summer residence for the Portuguese royal family; the commission for the Romantic style rebuilding was given to Lieutenant-General and mining engineer Wilhelm Ludwig von Eschwege. Eschwege, a German amateur architect, was much traveled and had knowledge of several castles along the Rhine river; the construction took place between 1842 and 1854, although it was completed in 1847: King Ferdinand and Queen Maria II intervened decisively on matters of decoration and symbolism.
Among others, the King suggested vault arches and Islamic elements be included, he designed an ornate window for the main façade. After the death of Ferdinand the palace passed into the possession of his second wife Elisa Hensler, Countess of Edla; the latter sold the palace to King Luís, who wanted to retrieve it for the royal family, thereafter the palace was used by the family. In 1889 it was purchased by the Portuguese State, after the Republican Revolution of 1910 it was classified as a national monument and transformed into a museum; the last queen of Portugal, Queen Amélia, spent her last night at the palace before leaving the country in exile. The palace drew visitors and became one of Portugal's most visited monuments. Over time the colors of the red and yellow façades faded, for many years the palace was visually identified as being gray. By the end of the 20th century the palace was repainted and the original colors restored. In 1995, the palace and the rest of the Cultural Landscape of Sintra were classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The Pena Palace has a profusion of styles much in accordance with the exotic taste of the Romanticism. The intentional mixture of eclectic styles includes the Neo-Gothic, Neo-Manueline, Neo-Islamic and Neo-Renaissance. References to other prominent Portuguese buildings, such as the Belém Tower, are present; the entire palace stands on rock in the Sintra Mountains. Structurally, it can be divided in four sections: the foundations and its enveloping walls, with two gateways the restored structure of the old convent, the clock tower the Arches Yard in front of the chapel, with its wall of Moorish arches the palatial zone and its cylindric bastion, with interiors decorated in the cathédrale style; as many elements as possible were preserved of the remains of the Hieronymite convent including the cloister, the dining room, the sacristy, the Manueline-Renaissance chapel. All were embedded in a new section that featured a clock tower; the Queen's Terrace is the best spot for obtaining an overall picture of the architecture of the palace.
The terrace features a sundial cannon. The clock tower was completed in 1843; the interiors of the Pena Palace were adapted to serve as the Summer residence of the royal family. It has amazing stuccos, painted walls in trompe-l'oeil and various revetments in tile from the 19th century, forming part of the numerous royal collections; the Pena Park is a vast forested area surrounding the Pena Palace, spreading for over 200 hectares of uneven terrain. The park was created at the same time as the palace by King Ferdinand II, assisted in the task by the Baron von Eschwege and the Baron von Kessler; the exotic taste of the Romanticism was applied to the park. The king ordered trees from distant lands to be planted there; those included North American sequoia, Lawson's cypress and Western redcedar, Chinese ginkgo, Japanese Cryptomeria, a wide variety of ferns and tree ferns from Australia and New Zealand, concentrated in the Queen's Fern Garden. The park has a labyrinthic system of paths and narrow roads, connecting the palace to the m
Sintra National Palace
The Palace of Sintra called Town Palace is located in the town of Sintra, in the Lisbon District of Portugal. It is a present-day historic house museum, it is the best-preserved medieval royal residence in Portugal, being inhabited more or less continuously from at least the early 15th century to the late 19th century. It is a significant tourist attraction, is part of the cultural landscape of Sintra, a designated UNESCO World Heritage site; the history of the castle begins in the Moorish Al-Andalus era, after the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the 8th century, when Sintra had two castles. One was located atop of a hill overlooking Sintra, it is known as the Castelo dos Mouros, is now a romantic ruin. The second castle was located downhill from the Castelo dos Mouros, was the residence of the Islamic Moorish Taifa of Lisbon rulers of the region, its first historical reference dates from the 10th century by Arab geographer Al-Bacr. In the 12th century the village was conquered by King Afonso Henriques, who took the'Sintra Palace' castle for his use.
The blend of Gothic, Manueline and Mudéjar styles in the present palace is, however the result of building campaigns in the 15th and early 16th centuries. Nothing built during Moorish rule or during the reign of the first Portuguese kings survives; the earliest surviving part of the palace is the Royal Chapel built during the reign of King Dinis I in the early 14th century. Much of the palace dates from the times of King John I, who sponsored a major building campaign starting around 1415. Most buildings around the central courtyard - called the Ala Joanina - date from this campaign, including the main building of the façade with the entrance arches and the mullioned windows in Manueline and Moorish styles, the conical chimneys of the kitchen that dominate the skyline of the city, many rooms including: The Swan Room in Manueline style, named so because of the swans painted on the ceiling; the number of painted swans, the symbol of the house of the groom, Philip the Good of Burgundy, equals to the bride's, Infanta Isabel, age – 30.
Magpie Room. This relates to the story that the king John I was caught in the act of kissing a lady-in-waiting by his queen Philippa of Lancaster. To put a stop to all the gossip, he had the room decorated with as many magpies as there were women at the court. Arab Room John I's son, King Duarte I, was fond of the Palace and stayed long periods here, he left a written description of the Palace, valuable in understanding the development and use of the building, confirms that much of the palace built by his father has not changed much since its construction. Another sign of the preference for this Palace is that Duarte's successor King Afonso V was born and died in the Palace. Afonso V's successor, King John II, was acclaimed King of Portugal here; the other major building campaign that defined the structure and decoration of the palace was sponsored by King Manuel I between 1497 and 1530, using the wealth engendered by the exploratory expeditions in this Age of Discoveries. The reign of this King saw the development of a transitional Gothic-Renaissance art style, named Manueline, as well as a kind of revival of Islamic artistic influence reflected in the choice of polychromed ceramic tiles as a preferred decorative art form.
King Manuel ordered the construction of the so-called Ala Manuelina, to the right of the main façade, decorated with typical manueline windows. He built the Coats-of-Arms Room, with a magnificent wooden coffered domed ceiling decorated with 72 coats-of-arms of the King and the main Portuguese noble families; the coat-of-arms of the Távora family was however removed after their conspiracy against king Joseph I. King Manuel redecorated most rooms with polychromed tiles specially made for him in Seville; these multicoloured tile panels bear Islamic motifs and lend an Arab feeling to many of the rooms inside. In the following centuries the palace continued to be inhabited by Kings from time to time, gaining new decoration in the form of paintings, tile panels and furniture. A sad story associated with the palace is that of the mentally unstable King Afonso VI, deposed by his brother Pedro II and forced to live without leaving the residence from 1676 until his death in 1683; the ensemble suffered damage after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake but was restored in the "old fashion", according to contemporary accounts.
The biggest loss to the great earthquake was the tower over the Arab Room. At the end of the 18th century, Queen Maria I redecorated and redivided the rooms of the Ala Manuelina. During the 19th century, Sintra became again a favourite spot for the Kings and the Palace of Sintra was inhabited. Queen Amélia, in particular, was fond of the palace and made several drawings of it. With the foundation of the Republic, in 1910, it became a national monument. In the 1940s, it was restored by architect Raul Lino, who tried to return it to its former splendour by adding old furniture from other palaces and restoring the tile panels, it has been an important historical tourist attraction since. Palaces in Portugal Azulejo José Custodio Vieira da Silva. O Palácio Nacional de Sintra. IPPAR-Scala Publishers, 2002. Turner, J. Grove Dictionary of Art. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 1996. Casa E