Sinusitis known as rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the mucous membranes that line the sinuses resulting in symptoms. Common symptoms include thick nasal mucus, a plugged nose, facial pain. Other signs and symptoms may include fever, headaches, a poor sense of smell, sore throat, a cough; the cough is worse at night. Serious complications are rare, it is defined as acute sinusitis if it lasts fewer than 4 weeks, as chronic sinusitis if it lasts for more than 12 weeks. Sinusitis can be caused by infection, air pollution, or structural problems in the nose. Most cases are caused by a viral infection. A bacterial infection may be present if symptoms last more than 10 days or if a person worsens after starting to improve. Recurrent episodes are more in persons with asthma, cystic fibrosis, poor immune function. X-rays are not needed unless complications are suspected. In chronic cases, confirmatory testing is recommended by either direct visualization or computed tomography; some cases may be prevented by hand washing, avoiding smoking, immunization.
Pain killers such as naproxen, nasal steroids, nasal irrigation may be used to help with symptoms. Recommended initial treatment for acute sinusitis is watchful waiting. If symptoms do not improve in 7–10 days or get worse an antibiotic may be used or changed. In those in whom antibiotics are used, either amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate is recommended first line. Surgery may be used in people with chronic disease. Sinusitis is a common condition, it affects between 30 percent of people each year in the United States and Europe. Women are more affected than men. Chronic sinusitis affects about 12.5% of people. Treatment of sinusitis in the United States results in more than US$11 billion in costs; the unnecessary and ineffective treatment of viral sinusitis with antibiotics is common. Headache or facial pain or pressure of a dull, constant, or aching sort over the affected sinuses is common with both acute and chronic stages of sinusitis; this pain is localized to the involved sinus and may worsen when the affected person bends over or when lying down.
Pain starts on one side of the head and progresses to both sides. Acute sinusitis may be accompanied by thick nasal discharge, green in color and may contain pus or blood. A localized headache or toothache is present, these symptoms distinguish a sinus-related headache from other types of headaches, such as tension and migraine headaches. Another way to distinguish between toothache and sinusitis is that the pain in sinusitis is worsened by tilting the head forward and with the Valsalva maneuver. Infection of the eye socket is possible, which may result in the loss of sight and is accompanied by fever and severe illness. Another possible complication is the infection of the bones of the forehead and other facial bones – Pott's puffy tumor. Sinus infections can cause middle-ear problems due to the congestion of the nasal passages; this can be demonstrated by dizziness, "a pressurized or heavy head", or vibrating sensations in the head. Postnasal drip is a symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis. Halitosis is stated to be a symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis.
Theoretically, several possible mechanisms of both objective and subjective halitosis may be involved. A 2004 study suggested that up to 90% of "sinus headaches" are migraines; the confusion occurs in part because migraine involves activation of the trigeminal nerves, which innervate both the sinus region and the meninges surrounding the brain. As a result determining the site from which the pain originates is difficult. People with migraines do not have the thick nasal discharge, a common symptom of a sinus infection. Symptoms may include any combination of: nasal congestion, facial pain, night-time coughing, an increase in minor or controlled asthma symptoms, general malaise, thick green or yellow discharge, feeling of facial fullness or tightness that may worsen when bending over, aching teeth, and/or bad breath. Chronic sinusitis can lead to anosmia, the inability to smell objects. In a small number of cases, acute or chronic maxillary sinusitis is associated with a dental infection. Vertigo and blurred vision are not typical in chronic sinusitis and other causes should be investigated.
The four paired paranasal sinuses are the frontal, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses. The ethmoidal sinuses are further subdivided into anterior and posterior ethmoid sinuses, the division of, defined as the basal lamella of the middle nasal concha. In addition to the severity of disease, discussed below, sinusitis can be classified by the sinus cavity it affects: Maxillary – can cause pain or pressure in the maxillary area Frontal – can cause pain or pressure in the frontal sinus cavity, headache in the forehead Ethmoidal – can cause pain or pressure pain between/behind the eyes, the sides of the upper part of the nose, headaches Sphenoidal – can cause pain or pressure behind the eyes, but is felt in the top of the head, over the mastoid processes, or the back of the head; the proximity of the brain to the sinuses makes the most dangerous complication of sinusitis involving the frontal and sphenoid sinuses, infection of the brain by the invasion of anaerobic bacteria through the bones or blood vessels.
Abscesses and other life-threatening conditions may result. In extreme cases, the patient may experience mild p
Alice of Schaerbeek, O. Cist. was a Cistercian laysister, venerated as the patron saint of the blind and paralyzed. Her feast day is 15 June. Alice was born at Schaerbeek, near Brussels in the Duchy of Brabant. A frail child, at the age of seven, she was sent to be boarded and educated at the Cistercian La Cambre Abbey, where she remained for the rest of her life; the name of the abbey is derived from the Latin: Camera Sanctae Mariae and is recalled in the park southeast of Brussels called "Ter Kamerenbos / Bois de la Cambre". Alice was a pretty girl and lovable child, soon showed a high intelligence and a great love for God, she became a laysister at the abbey. However, at some 20 years of age, she had to be isolated in a small hut; the disease caused her intense suffering, which she offered for the salvation of sinners and the souls in purgatory. She became paralyzed and afflicted with blindness, her greatest consolation came from reception of the Holy Eucharist, although she was not allowed to drink from the chalice because of the presumed danger of contamination.
However, it is said that the Lord appeared to her with assurance that He was in both the consecrated bread and the wine. She died at the age of c. 30. The little we know about Alice's life comes from a Latin biography, composed c. 1260-1275. Authorship of the work is unknown. Scholars have believed that the author was an anonymous chaplain at La Cambre Abbey. However, Martinus Cawley suggests that Arnulf II of Ghistelles, abbot of Villers Abbey 1270-1276, is its author. Alice's biography was translated into Middle Dutch, as witnessed by one extant manuscript. By decree of 1 July 1702, Pope Clement XI granted to the monks of the Congregation of St. Bernard Fuliensi the faculty to celebrate the cultus of Alice. Devotion to Alice as a saint was approved in 1907 by Pope Pius X. Alice's biography has been upheld as a model of Cistercian spirituality. Writing in 1954, Trappist monk Thomas Merton, for example, called the text "a practical and concise treatise of Cistercian asceticism." Alice of Schaerbeek was not well known.
Chyrsogone Waddell, reflecting on his entry into the Cistercian life in the 1950s, remarked on her obscurity, with Alice being unknown in devout Cistercian communities of the time. In recent years, Alice has become more well known in medieval scholarship as a member of the so-called "Holy Women of Liège" corpus of thirteenth-century Latin biographies; this situates Alice, her spirituality, in terms of the beguine movement, an innovation in medieval women's piety that saw women taking up an active religious life outside of monastic enclosure. Margot H. King and Ludo Jongen detail 5 extant manuscripts of Alice's biography These are: Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale 4459–70, ff. 48–57: “Vita sanctimonialis Aleidis de Scarenbeke.”. Contains biography of Christina the Astonishing. Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale 8609–20, ff. 139–146: "Vita sanctimonialis Aleidis de Scharenbeka".. Includes biographies of Christina the Astonishing and Ida of Nivelles. Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale IV. 778, 11 ff.: Vita sanctae Aleydis..
Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek 12706–12707, ff. 248–252v: "Vita sanctimonialis Aleidis de Scarenbeke".. Includes biographies of Marie of Oignies, Ida of Louvain, Ida of Nivelles, Ida of Léau, Lutgard of Aywières; this manuscript is available to view online. ` s-Gravenhage, Koninklijke Bibliotheek 71 H ff. 1–8v: "Sinte Aleijdes van Scarembeke leuen".. Latin Critical edition: "De B. Aleyde Scharembekana, Sanctimoniali Ordinis Cisterciensis, Camerae Iuxta Bruxellam", in Acta Sanctorum, edited by Godfrey Henschen, 477–83. Paris: Société des Bollandistes, 1688. 1969. Modern English translation: Life of St Alice of Schaerbeek. Translated by Martinus Cawley, O. C. S. O. Lafayette, OR: Our Lady of Gaudalupe Abbey, 2000. Excerpts of the translation are available to read online. Campion, Eleanor, O. C. S. O. "Bernard and Alice the Leper: An Odor of Life for Some." Cistercian Studies Quarterly 39, no. 2: 127-39. Cawley, Martinus. "Introduction." In Life of St Alice of Schaerbeek, edited by Martinus Cawley, v-xxx.
Lafayette, OR: Our Lady of Gaudalupe Abbey, 2000. Krahmer, Shawn Madison. "Redemptive Suffering: The Life of Alice of Schaerbeek in a Contemporary Context." In Maistresse of My Wit: Medieval Women, Modern Scholars, edited by Juanita Ruys and Louise d’Arcen, 267-93. Turnhout: Brepols, 2004. Madison, Shawn. "Suffering and Stability: "The Life of Aleydis of Schaerbeek" in a Contemporary Context ". Magistra 8, no. 2: 25-44. Mikkers, Edmund. O. C. S. O. "Meditations on the "Life" of Alice of Schaerbeek ". In Hidden Springs: Cistercian Monastic Women, edited by John A. Nichols and Lillian Thomas. O. C. S. O. Shank. Medieval Religious Women, 395-413. Kentucky: Cistercian Publications, 1995. Scholl, Edith, O. C. S. O. "The Golden Cross: Aleydis of Schaerbeek." In Hidden Springs: Cistercian Monastic Women, edited by John A. Nichols and Lillian Thomas. O. C. S. O. Shank. Medieval Religious Women, 377-93. Kentucky: Cistercian Publications, 1995. Spencer-Hall, Alicia. "Christ’s Suppurating Wounds: Leprosy in the Vita of Alice of Schaerbeek."
The Optimists Cricket Club, known as the Optimists or abbreviated to OCC, is a cricket club based in Walferdange, in central Luxembourg. The Optimists, being the largest club in Luxembourg and the only one with its own ground, works in close cooperation with the Luxembourg Cricket Federation to help organise cricket in the Grand Duchy; the Optimists are the oldest cricket club in Luxembourg, having been founded in 1976 by British expatriates, whose ranks had been swollen by Luxembourg City's growth as a financial centre and by the UK's entry into the European Economic Community. The Optimists participate in both the Belgian Cricket League and the Luxembourg Cricket League but its main competitive focus is in the Belgian cricket league, which it won on three occasions in the early 1990s; the Optimists have won the 2nd division of this competition for the past three seasons but are prohibited from promotion to the top division due to the Belgian Sports Ministry's policy on clubs situated outside Belgian territory.
The club plays in Walferdange. The ground is named after a former Prime Minister of Luxembourg. Werner had fallen in love with cricket when living in London in 1930, went on to become the Honorary President of the OCC, established when he was Prime Minister. Werner opened the OCC's new ground when it was opened in 1992. Viewed as the best cricket grounds in mainland Europe, the ground lies in the picturesque setting just ten minutes from Luxembourg City center, it boasts a large outfield, four practice bays, a clubhouse with catering facilities), a cricket/tennis pavilion and various other amenities. The club is captained by Richard Neale and William Heath is the chairman of the club's committee; the club's sponsors have included New Delhi Restaurant, Brasserie Nationale, Dresdner Bank, Schroders, as well as support from the commune of Walferdange. Cricket in Luxembourg Optimists Cricket Club official website
Crotaphatrema tchabalmbaboensis is a species of caecilian in the family Scolecomorphidae, the tropical or African caecilians. It was discovered in 1997 on Mount Tchabal Mbabo in the Adamawa Plateau, western Cameroon, described as a new species to science in 2000. Three specimens were collected at the type locality, no individuals have been observed since; this caecilian, the third species in the genus Crotaphatrema, is differentiated from the others by size, body shape, color pattern, the lack of grooves on its collars. The type series consists of two adult females measuring 298 and 338 mm in total length, a subadult female measuring 278 mm; the body width is 8–10 mm. The eyes are not visible externally; the dorsum is blue- black and the venter is cream. The border between the dorsal and ventral coloration has a serrated pattern; the species is known only from the northern face of one mountain, where it was collected from forests on steep, sloping terrain at 1,950–2,000 m above sea level. It is not known if it can survive in the surrounding grazed pastureland.
Mount Tchabal Mbabo has been proposed as a national park, which provide protection for the species' forest habitat
The Ambassador of the United States to Barbados, the Eastern Caribbean, the OECS is the official title of the U. S. Ambassador to several island nations of the Caribbean; the ambassador concurrently represents the United States to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines; the ambassador is resident at the U. S. Embassy in Bridgetown, Barbados and is accredited to the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. Larry Leon Palmer, a former ambassador to Honduras, was appointed to the post in 2012. For the individual posts, see: United States Ambassador to Antigua and Barbuda United States Ambassador to Barbados United States Ambassador to Dominica United States Ambassador to Grenada United States Ambassador to Saint Kitts and Nevis United States Ambassador to Saint Lucia United States Ambassador to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines United States Consulate General Curaçao
Sabaya is a province in the central parts of the Bolivian Oruro Department. Its seat is Sabaya. Sabaya Province is one of sixteen provinces in the Oruro Department, it is located between 67 ° 31' and 68 ° 39' West. It borders Sajama Province in the north, the Republic of Chile and Puerto de Mejillones Province in the west, the Potosí Department in the southwest, the Ladislao Cabrera Province in the southeast, the Litoral Province in the northeast; the province extends over 160 km from northwest to southeast, 50 km from northeast to southwest. One of the highest peaks of the province is Pukintika on the border to Chile. Other mountains are listed below: The main language in the province is Spanish, spoken by 92%, 67% of the population speak Aymara and 9% speak Quechua; the population increased from 3,567 inhabitants to 7,114, an increase of 100%. 40.7% of the population is younger than 15 years old. 66.4% of the population are employed in agriculture, 1.6% in mining, 4.9% in industry, 27.1% in general services.