Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Revolutionary Voices: A Multicultural Queer Youth Anthology, edited by Amy Sonnie, is an anthology created by and for radical queer youth, committed to youth of color, young women and bisexual youth, abled youth, poor/working class youth. The anthology gave rise to the founding of RESYST, a radical queer youth organization that had chapters across the country, it was published in 2000 by Alyson Publications and was a finalist in two categories for a Lambda Literary Award. Revolutionary Voices is an anthology created for radical queer youth, it was published in 2000 by Alyson Publications and was a finalist in two categories for a Lambda Literary Award. It is committed to youth of color, young women and bisexual youth, abled youth, poor/working class youth. Due to its content, the book has engendered several controversies, discussed below; the anthology gave rise to the founding of RESYST, a radical queer youth organization that had chapters across the country. The anthology introduced a host of radical young writers and artists, many of whom continue to publish and receive critical attention.
Many of the contributors to Revolutionary Voices were students of Jordan's Poetry for the People project, all could be said to share the sentiment of Margot Kelley Rodriguez, the author of the collection's foreword, when she writes, "Revolutionary Voices is a call to action.... Because this is truth and real and in your face, it may be harsh, but, what truth is, these artists have taken the leap to write it down.... We dedicate this book to all of us, wherever we are; the book has been called child pornography. A "former township committeewoman proud of her conservative beliefs", seeking to get the book removed from local libraries called it "pervasively vulgar and inappropriate" and said that it includes an illustration of Boy Scouts and men having sex. An article by Mission America claimed that PFLAG, for recommending the book, was attempting to "encourage children to be self-indulgent and self-centered in every aspect of life; the ACLU Foundation of Texas reports that the collection was "banned" by the Texas Youth Commission because the book is “not consistent with the educational goals of the State and TYC" and would cause “inappropriate behavior by the students.”In April 2010, the Burlington County Library System in Southern New Jersey removed this book.
In May 2010, the Rancocas Valley Regional High School Board of Education in Burlington County, NJ, voted to remove the book from its high school library shelves after protests from a local 9-12 Project group. In response to the book's removal in both the Burlington County Library System and the Rancocas Valley Regional High School library, a group of young theatre artists began a series of theatrical readings in several locations around New Jersey and New York; the theatrical reading project is entitled Revolutionary Readings and is under the direction of Brandon Monokian and dramaturged by Victoria Fear, both graduates of Montclair State University
Race (human categorization)
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories viewed as distinct by society. First used to refer to speakers of a common language and to denote national affiliations, by the 17th century the term race began to refer to physical traits. Modern scholarship regards race as a social construct, an identity, assigned based on rules made by society. While based on physical similarities within groups, race is not an inherent physical or biological quality. Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits. Scientists consider biological essentialism obsolete, discourage racial explanations for collective differentiation in both physical and behavioral traits. Though there is a broad scientific agreement that essentialist and typological conceptualizations of race are untenable, scientists around the world continue to conceptualize race in differing ways, some of which have essentialist implications.
While some researchers use the concept of race to make distinctions among fuzzy sets of traits or observable differences in behaviour, others in the scientific community suggest that the idea of race is used in a naive or simplistic way, argue that, among humans, race has no taxonomic significance by pointing out that all living humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the ideologies and theories of scientific racism has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic. Although still used in general contexts, race has been replaced by less ambiguous and loaded terms: populations, ethnic groups, or communities, depending on context. Modern scholarship views racial categories as constructed, that is, race is not intrinsic to human beings but rather an identity created by dominant groups, to establish meaning in a social context; this involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as "white".
Such racial identities reflect the cultural attitudes of imperial powers dominant during the age of European colonial expansion. This view rejects the notion. Although commonalities in physical traits such as facial features, skin color, hair texture comprise part of the race concept, the latter is a social distinction rather than an inherently biological one. Other dimensions of racial groupings include shared history and language. For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americans in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, people self-identify as members of a race for political reasons; when people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is achieved. In this sense, races are said to be social constructs; these constructs develop within various legal and sociopolitical contexts, may be the effect, rather than the cause, of major social situations.
While race is understood to be a social construct by many, most scholars agree that race has real material effects in the lives of people through institutionalized practices of preference and discrimination. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups. Racial discrimination coincides with racist mindsets, whereby the individuals and ideologies of one group come to perceive the members of an outgroup as both racially defined and morally inferior; as a result, racial groups possessing little power find themselves excluded or oppressed, while hegemonic individuals and institutions are charged with holding racist attitudes. Racism has led to many instances including slavery and genocide. In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile suspects; this use of racial categories is criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, promoting stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond with patterns of social stratification, for social scientists studying social inequality, race can be a significant variable.
As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identities, social institutions. Scholars continue to debate the degrees to which racial categories are biologically warranted and constructed. For example, in 2008, John Hartigan, Jr. argued for a view of race that focused on culture, but which does not ignore the potential relevance of biology or genetics. Accordingly, the racial paradigms employed in different disciplines vary in their emphasis on biological reduction as contrasted with societal construction. In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life. A large body of scholarship has traced the relationships between the historical, social production of race in legal and criminal language, their effects on the policing and disproportionate incarceration of certain groups.
Groups of humans have always identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups, but such differences have not always been understood to be natural and global. These features a
Lehman College is a senior college of the City University of New York in New York, United States. Founded in 1931 as the Bronx campus of Hunter College, the school became an independent college within CUNY in September 1967; the college is named after Herbert H. Lehman, a former New York governor, United States senator and the son of Lehman Brothers co-founder Mayer Lehman, it is a public, coeducational liberal arts college with more than 90 undergraduate and graduate degree programs and specializations. Hunter College in the Bronx was built during the 1930s. During the Second World War, Hunter leased the Bronx Campus buildings to the United States Navy who used the facilities to train 95,000 women volunteers for military service as WAVES and SPARS. One of the first of its graduates, Sgt. Miriam Cohen, died in 2009. On Feb. 13, 1943, Miriam graduated in the first class of WWII women Marines. At 35, she was one of the oldest women to join the Marines; when the Navy vacated the campus, the site was occupied by the nascent United Nations, which held its first Security Council sessions at the Bronx Campus in 1946, giving the school an international profile.
Lehman College's founding president was Leonard Lief and he was succeeded by Ricardo R. Fernández in 1991. In 2016, José Luis Cruz, a former Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs at California State University, was appointed as the third president of the College. Located near the Jerome Park Reservoir at 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West. Lehman has a 37-acre campus with a combination of modern architecture; the school's architects were Kerr Rainsford, John A. Thompson, Gerald A. Holmes; the campus was the main national training ground for women in the military during World War II. For a decade before the entry of the United States in the Second World War, only women students attended, taking their first two years of study at the Bronx campus and transferring to Hunter’s Manhattan campus to complete their undergraduate work, it was the interim headquarters for the newly formed United Nations for six months in 1946. From March to August 1946, the first American meetings of the Security Council were held in the Gymnasium Building where intercollegiate basketball, archery and other sports have been played.
During festivities marking the 40th anniversary of the United Nations in 1986, the Southern New York State Division of the United Nations Association presented the College with a commemorative plaque, now displayed outside the Gymnasium Building. The College participated in the United Nations’ 50th anniversary activities in 1995–96. Lehman College houses a state-of-the-art multimedia center in Carman Hall, comprising an acoustically designed recording studio and video production control rooms, editing suites, student newsroom, media conversion room, graphics room, "technology-enhanced" classrooms. BronxNet public access channel is headquartered in Carman Hall, where many programs are produced including Bronx Talk and Open. In 2012, Lehman dedicated its new $70 million Science Hall, a four-story building equipped with high-tech classrooms and laboratories, as well as a rooftop teaching and research greenhouse. In 2013, Science Hall was awarded a LEED platinum rating from the U. S. Green Building Council, the first CUNY building to earn the top green building rating.
The structural engineers for this project was Leslie E. Robertson Associates; the Lehman College Center for the Performing Arts is a professional theater which seats 2,310. The campus is home to the Lehman College Art Gallery; the Apex, Lehman College's post-modern style athletic and fitness facility, opened in 1994. Designed by the internationally acclaimed architect Rafael Viñoly, the Apex stands in contrast to the original Gothic revival buildings that define the campus. Students at Lehman College are from multiple ethnic and racial identities, multiple language backgrounds, various social classes, diverse sexual orientations with many international students. Enrollment Lehman College: Undergraduates: 9,663 Graduate Students: 2,289 Total: 11,952 students Lehman College offers a variety of selective and distinguished undergraduate and graduate programs in the Schools of Arts & Humanities, School of Education, School of Natural and Social Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Human Services, Nursing, School of Continuing Education.
The selective Macaulay Honors College at Lehman provides a full tuition scholarship, Apple laptop computer, opportunities fund of $7,500 that can be used for various activities such as study abroad, reimbursements for internships or research, service learning. Students in the honors college are required to take 4 seminars relating to New York City, maintain a 3.5 grade point average, graduate within four years. They must take four Lehman Scholars Program Seminars, or "LSP"s; the Lehman Scholars Program is designed for capable and motivated students who have the desire and ability to pursue a somewhat more independent liberal arts course of study. The program offers the advantages of a small, intimate college, including special courses and individual counseling; the Lehman Scholars Program offers several special features, first being that students are exempt from all Degree Requirements. They must, pass the CUNY Skills Assessment Tests to be admitted to the program and meet all course prerequisites and requirements for their major field.
The Lehman Scholars Program has its own requirements, which students must fulfill: a one-semester honors course in English composition and stylistics.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is a federal agency that administers and enforces civil rights laws against workplace discrimination; the EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual's race, national origin, sex, disability, sexual orientation, gender identity, genetic information, retaliation for reporting, participating in, and/or opposing a discriminatory practice. On March 6, 1961, President John F. Kennedy signed Executive Order 10925, which required government contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, color, or national origin." It established the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity of which Vice President Lyndon Johnson was appointed to head. This was the forerunner of the EEOC; the EEOC was established on July 2, 1965. The EEOC's first complainants were female flight attendants. However, the EEOC at first ignored sex discrimination complaints, the prohibition against sex discrimination in employment went unenforced for the next few years.
One EEOC director called the prohibition "a fluke... conceived out of wedlock."All Commission seats and the post of general counsel to the commission are filled by the US President, subject to confirmation by the Senate. Stuart J. Ishimaru, a Commissioner, confirmed in 2003 and 2006, served as Acting Chair of the Commission from January 20, 2009 until December 22, 2010, when the Senate confirmed Jacqueline Berrien to be the chairwoman, she had been nominated as chairwoman by President Barack Obama in July 2009. In September 2009, Obama chose Chai Feldblum to fill another vacant seat. On March 27, 2010, President Obama made recess appointments of three Commission posts: Berrien and Victoria Lipnic. With the appointments, the Commission had its full five Commissioners: Ishimaru, Feldblum and Constance Barker, confirmed by the Senate in 2008 to be a Commissioner. President Obama made a recess appointment of P. David Lopez to be the EEOC's General Counsel. On December 22, 2010, the Senate gave full confirmation to Berrien, Feldblum and Lopez.
In 2014, President Obama renominated. In 2011, the Commission included "sex-stereotyping" of lesbian and bisexual individuals, as a form of sex discrimination illegal under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 2012, the Commission expanded protection provided by Title VII to transgender status and gender identity. After the departure of Ishimaru, the commission returned to its full five commissioners on April 25, 2013, with the Senate confirmation of Jenny Yang. In 2015, it concluded that for Title VII, sex discrimination includes discrimation based on sexual orientation. However, the rulings, while persuasive, are not binding on courts and would need to be addressed by the Supreme Court for a final decision; the Commission mediates and settles thousands of discrimination complaints each year prior to their investigation. The EEOC is empowered to file civil discrimination suits against employers on behalf of alleged victims and to adjudicate claims of discrimination brought against federal agencies.
In 1975, when the backlog reached more than 100,000 charges to be investigated, President Gerald Ford's full requested budget of $62 million was approved. A "Backlog Unit" was created in Philadelphia in 1978 to resolve the thousands of federal equal employment complaints inherited from the Civil Service Commission. In 1980, Eleanor Holmes Norton began re-characterizing the backlog cases as "workload" in her reports to Congress, thus fulfilling her promise to eliminate the backlog. In June 2006, civil rights and labor union advocates publicly complained that the effectiveness of the EEOC was being undermined by budget and staff cuts and the outsourcing of complaint screening to a private contractor whose workers were poorly trained. In 2006, a partial budget freeze prevented the agency from filling vacant jobs, its staff had shrunk by nearly 20 percent from 2001. A Bush administration official stated that the cuts had been made because it was necessary to direct more money to defense and homeland security.
By 2008, the EEOC had lost 25 percent of its staff over the previous eight years, including investigators and lawyers who handle the cases. The number of complaints to investigate grew to 95,400 in fiscal 2008, up 26 percent from 2006. Although full-time staffing of the EEOC was cut between 2002 and 2006, Congress increased the commission's budget during that period, as it has every year since 1980; the budget was $303 million in fiscal year 2001 to $327 million in fiscal year 2006. The outsourcing to Pearson Government Solutions in Kansas cost the agency $4.9 million and was called a "huge waste of money" by the president of the EEOC employees' union in 2006. The EEOC uses monetary fines as the primary form of deterrence and, as the fines have not adjusted for inflation, the backlog of EEOC cases illustrates a decline in its effectiveness; the EEOC requires employers to report various information about their employees, in particular their racial/ethnic categories, to prevent discrimination based on race/ethnicity.
The definitions used in the report have been different at different times. In 1997, the Office of Management and Budget gave a Federal Register Notice, the "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity," which defined new racial and ethnic definitions. As
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper and lower classes. "Class" is a subject of analysis for sociologists, political scientists and social historians. However, there is not a consensus on a definition of "class" and the term has a wide range of sometimes conflicting meanings. In common parlance, the term "social class" is synonymous with "socio-economic class", defined as "people having the same social, cultural, political or educational status", e.g. "the working class". However, academics distinguish social class and socioeconomic status, with the former referring to one's stable sociocultural background and the latter referring to one's current social and economic situation and being more changeable over time; the precise measurements of what determines social class in society has varied over time.
Karl Marx thought. His simple understanding of classes in modern capitalist society are the proletariat, those who work but do not own the means of production; this contrasts with the view of the sociologist Max Weber, who argued "class" is determined by economic position, in contrast to "social status" or "Stand", determined by social prestige rather than just relations of production. The term "class" is etymologically derived from the Latin classis, used by census takers to categorize citizens by wealth in order to determine military service obligations. In the late 18th century, the term "class" began to replace classifications such as estates and orders as the primary means of organizing society into hierarchical divisions; this corresponded to a general decrease in significance ascribed to hereditary characteristics and increase in the significance of wealth and income as indicators of position in the social hierarchy. Social class and behavior were sometimes laid down in law. For example, permitted mode of dress in sometimes and places was regulated, with sumptuous dressing only for the high ranks of society and aristocracy, whereas sumptuary laws stipulated the dress and jewelry appropriate for a person's social rank and station.
Definitions of social classes reflect a number of sociological perspectives, informed by anthropology, economics and sociology. The major perspectives have been Marxism and structural functionalism; the common stratum model of class divides society into a simple hierarchy of working class, middle class and upper class. Within academia, two broad schools of definitions emerge: those aligned with 20th-century sociological stratum models of class society and those aligned with the 19th-century historical materialist economic models of the Marxists and anarchists. Another distinction can be drawn between analytical concepts of social class, such as the Marxist and Weberian traditions, as well as the more empirical traditions such as socio-economic status approach, which notes the correlation of income and wealth with social outcomes without implying a particular theory of social structure. For Marx, class is a combination of subjective factors. Objectively, a class shares a common relationship to the means of production.
Subjectively, the members will have some perception of their similarity and common interest. Class consciousness is not an awareness of one's own class interest but is a set of shared views regarding how society should be organized culturally and politically; these class relations are reproduced through time. In Marxist theory, the class structure of the capitalist mode of production is characterized by the conflict between two main classes: the bourgeoisie, the capitalists who own the means of production and the much larger proletariat who must sell their own labour power; this is the fundamental economic structure of work and property, a state of inequality, normalized and reproduced through cultural ideology. Marxists explain the history of "civilized" societies in terms of a war of classes between those who control production and those who produce the goods or services in society. In the Marxist view of capitalism, this is a conflict between wage-workers. For Marxists, class antagonism is rooted in the situation that control over social production entails control over the class which produces goods—in capitalism this is the exploitation of workers by the bourgeoisie.
Furthermore, "in countries where modern civilisation has become developed, a new class of petty bourgeois has been formed". "An industrial army of workmen, under the command of a capitalist, like a real army and sergeants who, while the work is being done, command in the name of the capitalist". Marx makes the argument that, as the bourgeoisie reach a point of wealth accumulation, they hold enough power as the dominant class to shape political institutions and society according to their own interests. Marx goes on to claim that the non-elite class, owing to their large numbers, have the power to overthrow the elite and create an equal society. In The Communist Manifesto, Marx himself argued that it was the goal of the proletariat itself to displace the capitalist system with socialism, changing the so
University of California, Hastings College of the Law
The University of California, Hastings College of the Law is a public law school located in the Civic Center area of San Francisco. Although affiliated with the University of California, Hastings is not directly governed by the Regents of the University of California; the one other UC campus that provides only postgraduate education is the University of California, San Francisco. Founded in 1878 by Serranus Clinton Hastings, the first Chief Justice of California, it was the first law school of the University of California and was one of the first law schools established in the Western United States, it is one of the few university-affiliated law schools in the United States that does not share a campus with the university's undergraduates or other postgraduate programs. Hastings had a unique relationship with the University of California. In 1878, when Supreme Court of California Justice Serranus Clinton Hastings gave $100,000 to the University of California to start the law school bearing his name, he imposed two conditions: the school must remain in San Francisco near the courts.
Thus the school's leader must obtain funds directly from the California State Legislature, unlike other UC institutions, which receive money from the Regents. In a commencement address, Hastings called his school "a temple of law and intellect, which shall never perish, until, in the lapse of time, civilization shall cease, this fair portion of our country shall be destroyed or become a desert." In 1900, it became one of 27 charter members of the Association of American Law Schools. Hastings College of the Law was for many years considered the primary law school of the University of California with the purpose of preparing lawyers for the practice of law in the state, whereas the Department of Legal Jurisprudence on the Berkeley campus, which became Boalt Hall School of Law, was intended for the study of law as an academic discipline. In the 1960s, Hastings began the "65 Club," the practice of hiring faculty, forced into mandatory retirement at age 65 from Ivy League and other élite institutions.
After the passage of age discrimination laws, the "65 Club" phased out, Hastings hired its last "65 Club" professor in 1998. In the mid-1950s, Newsweek published a story where Harvard Law School dean and jurist Roscoe Pound declared, referring to UC Hastings: "Indeed, on the whole, I am inclined to think you have the strongest law faculty in the nation." UC Hastings campus spreads among three main buildings located near San Francisco's Civic Center: 200 McAllister Street houses academic space and administrative offices, 198 McAllister contains classrooms and faculty offices, 100 McAllister, known casually as "The Tower", contains university office and student housing, as well as the Art Deco "Sky Room" on the 24th floor. The campus is within walking distance of the Muni Metro and Bay Area Rapid Transit Civic Center/UN Plaza station. UC Hastings is but affectionately derided by students and alums as being located in the ugliest corner of the most beautiful city in the world. Indeed, the school has been referred to in jest as "UC Tenderloin."
Located within a two-block radius of the campus is the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, the California Supreme Court, the California Court of Appeal for the First District, San Francisco Superior Court, San Francisco City Hall, United Nations Plaza, the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, the Main Library of the San Francisco Public Library system. The heavy concentration of public buildings within the Civic Center, as well as the high crime rate, result in heavy police presence, high security, around UC Hastings. UC Hastings is managed by a nine-member Board of Directors; the UC Hastings Board of Directors exists independently of, is not controlled by, the Regents of the University of California. Pursuant to California law, eight of the directors are appointed by the Governor of California. Pursuant to the UC Hastings constitutive documents, the ninth director must be a direct lineal descendant of UC Hastings founder Clinton Serranus Hastings.
The Hastings family member now serving on the board is Claes H. Lewenhaupt. UC Hastings' detachment from the UC Regents gives it a broad degree of independence in shaping educational and fiscal policies. Despite the apparent competition among the UC law schools, Hastings was able to maintain its traditionally high standards without having to decrease class size or raise tuition to higher levels than fellow UC law schools, until the California budget crisis in June 2009, first raised the possibility of slashing $10 million in state funding. A few days however, lawmakers rejected the harsh budget cut, agreeing to cut only $1 million and preventing dramatic tuition hikes. Under California law, if the government cuts funding to Hastings to below the 19th-century figure of $7,000 a year, the state must return the $100,000, plus interest, to the Hastings family. State Sen. Mark Leno has argued that the rejected $10 million budget cut, in abandoning state financial support for the school, would have allowed the Hastings family to launch an expensive court fight to reclaim the $100,000 plus hefty interest.
Hastings offers a three-year Juris Doctor program with concentrated studies available in seven areas: civil litigation, criminal law, international law, public interest l