Sioux City is a city in Woodbury and Plymouth counties in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Iowa. The population was 82,684 in the 2010 census; the bulk of the city is in Woodbury County, of which it is the county seat, though a small portion is in Plymouth County. Sioux City is located at the navigational head of the Missouri River; the city is home to several cultural points of interest including the Sioux City Public Museum, Sioux City Art Center and Sergeant Floyd Monument, a National Historic Landmark. The city is home to Chris Larsen Park referred to as "the Riverfront", which includes the Anderson Dance Pavilion, Sergeant Floyd Riverboat Museum and Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center. Sioux City is the primary city of the five-county Sioux City, IA–NE–SD Metropolitan Statistical Area, with a population of 168,825 in 2010 and a slight increase to an estimated 169,405 in 2018; the Sioux City–Vermillion, IA–NE–SD Combined Statistical Area had a population of 182,675 as of 2010 but has decreased to an estimated population of 178,448 as of 2018.
Sioux City is at the navigational head, or the most upstream point to which general cargo ships can travel, of the Missouri River, about 95 miles north of the Omaha–Council Bluffs metropolitan area. Sioux City and the surrounding areas of northwestern Iowa, northeastern Nebraska and southeastern South Dakota are sometimes referred to as Siouxland by local media and residents, it is a part of the Sioux Falls-Sioux City Designated Market Area, a larger media market region that covers parts of four states and has a population of 1,043,450. Iowa is in the tallgrass prairie of the North American Great Plains inhabited by speakers of Siouan languages; the area of Sioux City was inhabited by Yankton Sioux when it was first reached by Spanish and French furtrappers in the 18th century. The first documented US citizens to record their travels through this area were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark during the summer of 1804. Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, died here on August 20, 1804, the only death during the two and a half-year expedition.
Sioux City was laid out in the winter of 1854-55. It became a major Entrepôt to the western Plains, including Mormons heading to Salt Lake City and speculators heading to Wyoming gold fields. In 1891, the Sioux City Elevated Railway was opened and became the third steam powered elevated rapid transit system in the world, the first electric-powered elevated railway in the world after a conversion in 1892. However, the system closed within a decade; the city gained the nickname "Little Chicago" during the Prohibition era due to its reputation for being a purveyor of alcoholic beverages. On July 19, 1989, United Airlines Flight 232 crash landed at Sioux Gateway Airport, killing 111 people, but 184 survived the crash and ensuing fire due to outstandingly quick performances by fire and emergency local teams that earned them several National Congress Medals, given by President George H. W. Bush in 1990. Sioux City is located at 42°29′53″N 96°23′45″W. Sioux City is at an altitude of 1,135 feet above sea level.
Sioux City borders South Dakota to the West-Northwest and Nebraska to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 58.49 square miles, of which, 57.35 square miles is land and 1.14 square miles is water. Typical of Iowa, Sioux City has a humid continental climate, with warm, humid summers, dry winters, wide temperature extremes; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 20.4 °F in January to 74.3 °F in July. On average, there are 25 days that reach 90 °F or higher, 52 days that do not climb above freezing, 17 days with a low of 0 °F or below annually; the average window for freezing temperatures is October 1 thru April 26, allowing a growing season of 157 days. Extreme temperatures range from −35 °F on January 12, 1912 up to 111 °F on July 4 and 17, 1936 as well as July 11, 1939. Precipitation is greatest in May and June and averages 27.7 in annually, but has ranged from 14.33 in in 1976 to 41.10 in in 1903. Snowfall averages 34.8 in per season, has ranged from 6.9 in in 1895–96 to 65.9 in in 1961–62.
On May 14, 2013, the high temperature reached 106 °F, setting a new all-time May record high, along with a 77 °F rise from the morning of the 12th. As of the census of 2010, there were 82,684 people, 31,571 households, 20,144 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,441.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 33,425 housing units at an average density of 582.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.6% White, 2.9% African American, 2.6% Native American, 2.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.4% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.4% of the population. There were 31,571 households of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.2% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individual
Juan Beltrán Guevara y Figueroa was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, Archbishop of Badajoz, Archbishop of Salerno. Juan Beltrán Guevara y Figueroa was born in Valencia del Spain. On 4 December 1606, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Paul V as Archbishop of Salerno. On 8 December 1606, he was consecrated bishop by Ottaviano Paravicini, Cardinal-Priest of Sant'Alessio. On 28 November 1611, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Paul V as Archbishop of Badajoz. On 12 January 1615, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Paul V as Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, he served as Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela until his death on 22 May 1622. While bishop, he was the principal consecrator of Principal Consecrator of Jerónimo Ruiz Camargo, Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo, Francisco González Zárate, Bishop of Cartagena. Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Salerno-Campagna-Acerno". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Salerno–Campagna–Acerno".
GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Mérida–Badajoz". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Mérida–Badajoz". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela". GCatholic.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018
The Order of St. Anastasia the Holy Great Martyr'Alleviatrix of Captives' is a dynastic order of the former Russian Imperial House for women, it was established and its statutes approved on August 20, 2010 by Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna. The order is composed of only one class; the feast days of the Order are celebrated on Holy Great Martyr Anastasia the "Alleviatrix of Captives", 7/20 August, the day of commemoration for the Tsaritsa Anastasia Romanovna. The order was established in honor of St. Anastasia, the patron saint of the first Tsaritsa of the Romanov dynasty, Anastasia Romanovna; the creation of the order marked the 450th anniversary of the repose of Anastasia Romanovna, was in anticipation of the 400th anniversary of the end of the time of troubles and the establishment of the House of Romanov in 2013. The order is awarded by the head of the house to Russian women who have been distinguished by their acts in the fields of charity, education, science and other activities to benefit the Russian state or the Imperial House.
The Order of St. Anastasia has Dames; the insignia of the Order consists of a white enamel cross with indented ends, edged in blue and gold with heraldically right-facing Romanov griffins in the axillae, on a white ribbon edged with blue and gold. The medallion of the device depicts in enamel the icon of the Holy Great Martyr Anastasia; the Cross is surmounted by an Imperial crown. Dames of the Order of St. Anastasia The Great Martyr wear the Device of the Order on the left side of the breast suspended from a ribbon, tied into a bow, 45 mm. in width
Alfred Morrison Franklin was an American jurist and politician. He was the first chief justice of the Arizona Supreme Court and served as a member of Arizona's 1910 constitutional convention. Franklin was born in Kansas City, Missouri, on September 30, 1871, to Anne and Benjamin Joseph Franklin, his early education came in the Kansas City public schools. In 1885, Franklin's father was appointed United States consul to Hankow and the younger Franklin was educated by private tutors while the family lived in China. After being admitted to the bar in 1893, Franklin began practicing law in Phoenix, Arizona Territory, he served as Assistant United States Attorney from 1895 to 1897 and during his father's term as Governor of Arizona Territory acted as the senior Franklin's personal secretary. Franklin married Cora Brill in 1901; the marriage produced two children: Josephine. For Arizona's 1910 constitutional convention, Franklin was elected to represent Maricopa County, he was a member of the Committee on Style and Compilation, which determined the final wording of the constitution.
His political positions were those of a moderate progressive. During the convention he proposed including provisions supporting women's suffrage and prohibition in the document; the prohibition proposition was voted down 33 to 15. The women's suffrage proposal was defeated; as statehood approached, Franklin was elected to the Arizona Supreme Court and became the first chief justice. He served a total of three terms on the bench, the first and third as chief justice while Henry D. Ross was chief justice during Franklin's second term, he was defeated in the 1918 primary by Albert C. Baker with a vote of 14,419 to 12,275; the loss was attributed to voter discontent over the Arizona Supreme Court's ruling involving the disputed 1916 election results between Governor George W. P. Hunt and challenger Thomas E. Campbell. Franklin was named Collector of Internal Revenue for the Arizona-New Mexico District on October 24, 1918, resigned his position on the bench shortly thereafter, he held the position until February 7, 1922.
Franklin's wife died from the Spanish flu on July 4, 1919. Franklin began withdrawing from society after her death, he left his home and went to live alone in the desert. His last contact with his family occurred in 1938, but he is known to have lived for at least another decade; the date and place of Franklin's death are unknown
Electra Lake is a owned reservoir in La Plata County Colorado. Owned by Xcel Energy, Electra Lake provides water storage for the Tacoma Hydro Generating Station; the reservoir's maximum capacity is 29,800 acre⋅ft. Electra Lake Dam known as Terminal Dam or Cascade #2, is a rockfill structure with a height of 103 ft and a length of 1,275 ft at its crest, completed in 1902; the lake was named after Electra, a character in mythology. It has a normal surface area of 1.3 sq mi. No hydroelectric energy is produced at the dam; the Tacoma powerhouse stands in the Animas River Canyon and is accessible only by the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad. Owned and operated by Xcel Energy, the dam was rebuilt in 1980; the lake is open to the public for fee use during the summer months
A mechanical computer is built from mechanical components such as levers and gears, rather than electronic components. The most common examples are adding machines and mechanical counters, which use the turning of gears to increment output displays. More complex examples could carry out multiplication and division—Friden used a moving head which paused at each column—and differential analysis. One model sold in the 1960s calculated square roots. Mechanical computers can be either analog, using smooth mechanisms such as curved plates or slide rules for computations. Mechanical computers reached their zenith during World War II, when they formed the basis of complex bombsights including the Norden, as well as the similar devices for ship computations such as the US Torpedo Data Computer or British Admiralty Fire Control Table. Noteworthy are mechanical flight instruments for early spacecraft, which provided their computed output not in the form of digits, but through the displacements of indicator surfaces.
From Yuri Gagarin's first manned spaceflight until 2002, every manned Soviet and Russian spacecraft Vostok and Soyuz was equipped with a Globus instrument showing the apparent movement of the Earth under the spacecraft through the displacement of a miniature terrestrial globe, plus latitude and longitude indicators. Mechanical computers continued to be used into the 1960s, but were replaced by electronic calculators, which—with cathode-ray tube output—emerged in the mid-1960s; the evolution culminated in the 1970s with the introduction of inexpensive handheld electronic calculators. Use of mechanical computers was rare by the 1980s. In 2016, NASA announced that its Automaton Rover for Extreme Environments program would use a mechanical computer to operate in the harsh environmental conditions found on Venus. Antikythera mechanism, c. 100 BC – A mechanical astronomical clock. Castle clock, 1206 – Al-Jazari's castle clock, a hydropowered mechanical astronomical clock, was the earliest programmable analog computer.
Pascaline, 1642 – Blaise Pascal's arithmetic machine intended as an adding machine which could add and subtract two numbers directly, as well as multiply and divide by repetition. Stepped Reckoner, 1672 – Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's mechanical calculator that could add, subtract and divide. Difference Engine, 1822 – Charles Babbage's mechanical device to calculate polynomials. Analytical Engine, 1837 – A Charles Babbage device that could be said to encapsulate most of the elements of modern computers. Ball-and-disk integrator, 1886 – William Thomson used it in his Harmonic Analyser to measure tide heights by calculating coefficients of a Fourier series. Percy Ludgate's 1909 Analytical Machine – the 2nd of only two mechanical Analytical Engines designed. Marchant Calculator, 1918 – Most advanced of the mechanical calculators; the key design was by Carl Friden. Kerrison Predictor Z1, 1938 by Konrad Zuse Mark I Fire Control Computer, deployed by the United States Navy during World War II and up to 1969 or later.
Curta calculator, 1948 Moniac, 1949 – An analog computer used to model or simulate the UK economy. Voskhod Spacecraft "Globus" IMP navigation instrument, early 1960s Digi-Comp I, 1963, an educational 3-bit digital computer Digi-Comp II, mid 1960s, a rolling ball digital computer Automaton – Mechanical devices that, in some cases, can store data and perform calculations, perform other complicated tasks. Turing Tumble, 2017, an educational Turing-complete computer inspired by the Digi-Comp II Early electrically powered computers constructed from switches and relay logic rather than vacuum tubes or transistors are classified as electro-mechanical computers; these varied in design and capabilities, with some units capable of floating point arithmetic. Some relay-based computers remained in service after the development of vacuum-tube computers, where their slower speed was compensated for by good reliability; some models were built as duplicate processors to detect errors, or could detect errors and retry the instruction.
A few models were sold commercially with multiple units produced, but many designs were experimental one-off productions. Domino computer Billiard-ball computer Mechanical calculator History of computing hardware List of pioneers in computer science Turing completeness Analog computer Tide-Predicting Machine No. 2 Electro-mechanical Harwell computer in action 1958 FACOM 128B Japanese Relay Computer, still working! on YouTube