Sipapu is a Hopi word for a small hole or indentation in the floor of a kiva or pithouse. Kivas continue to be used by modern-day Puebloans; the sipapu symbolizes the portal through which their ancient ancestors first emerged to enter the present world. Hopi mythology states; as they stepped outside of the sipapu, they changed from lizard-like beings into homo sapiens, or human form. It is from this point that the "First Peoples" of the Earth began to divide and separate, creating differing tribes along the first journeys of the first humans; the original sipapu is said to be located in the Grand Canyon. Waters, F.. "Book of the Hopis". New York: Penguin Group. Courlander, H.. "The Fourth World of the Hopis." Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press. Sando, Joe S; the Pueblo Indians. San Francisco: Indian Historian Press
Landscape Arch is the longest of the many natural rock arches located in Arches National Park, United States. The arch is among many in the Devils Garden area in the north of the park. Landscape Arch was named by Frank Beckwith who explored the area in the winter of 1933–1934 as the leader of an Arches National Monument scientific expedition; the arch can be accessed by a 0.8 mi graded gravel trail. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society considers Landscape Arch the fifth longest natural arch in the world, after four arches in China; the span of Landscape Arch was measured at 290.1 feet, ±0.8 feet, in 2004. NABS measured the span of the shorter Kolob Arch in Zion National Park at 287 feet in 2006; the most recent recorded rockfall events occurred in the 1990s when one large slab fell in 1991 and two additional large rockfalls occurred in 1995. Since the rockfalls, the trail beneath the arch has been closed. List of longest natural arches Delicate Arch Durdle Door Wall Arch Xianren Bridge Natural Arch and Bridge Society article
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
The Navajo Nation is a Native American territory covering about 17,544,500 acres, occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, northwestern New Mexico in the United States. This is the largest land area retained by a Native American tribe, with a population of 350,000 as of 2016. By area, the Navajo Nation is larger than West Virginia, Hawaii, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware; the original territory has been expanded several times since the 1800s. In 2016, under the Tribal Nations Buy-Back Program, some 149,524 acres of land were returned by the Department of Interior to the Navajo Nation for tribal communal use; the program is intended to help restore the land bases of reservations. The Navajo Nation has an elected government that includes an executive office, a legislative house, a judicial system, but the United States federal government continues to assert plenary power over all decisions; the executive system manages a large law enforcement and social services apparatus, health services, Diné College, other local educational trusts.
The population continues to disproportionately struggle with health problems and the effects of past uranium mining incidents. In English, the official name for the area was "Navajo Indian Reservation", as outlined in Article II of the 1868 Treaty of Bosque Redondo. On April 15, 1969, the tribe changed its official name to the Navajo Nation, displayed on the seal; this was assertion of sovereignty. In 1994, the Tribal Council rejected a proposal to change the official designation from "Navajo" to "Diné." It was remarked that the name Diné represented the time of suffering before the Long Walk, that Navajo is the appropriate designation for the future. In Navajo, the geographic entity with its defined borders is known as "Naabeehó Bináhásdzo"; this contrasts with "Diné Bikéyah" and "Naabeehó Bikéyah" for the general idea of "Navajoland". Neither of these terms should be confused with "Dinétah," the term used for the traditional homeland of the Navajo, it is situated in the area among the four sacred Navajo mountains of Dookʼoʼoosłííd, Dibé Ntsaa, Sisnaajiní, Tsoodził.
The Navajo people's tradition of governance is rooted in oral history. The clan system of the Diné is integral to their society, as the rules of behavior found within the system extend to the manner of refined culture that the Navajo people call "to walk in Beauty"; the philosophy and clan system from before the Spanish colonial occupation of Dinetah, through to the July 25, 1868, Congressional ratification of the Navajo Treaty with President Andrew Johnson, signed by Barboncito and other chiefs and headmen present at Bosque Redondo. The Navajo people have continued to transform their conceptual understandings of government since it joined the United States by the Treaty of 1868. Social and political academics continue to debate the nature of the modern Navajo governance and how it has evolved to include the systems and economies of the "western world". In the mid-19th century, most Navajo were forced from their lands by the US Army, were marched on the Long Walk to imprisonment in Bosque Redondo.
The Treaty of 1868 established the "Navajo Indian Reservation" and the Navajos left Bosque Redondo. The borders were defined as the 37th parallel in the north; as drafted in 1868, the boundaries were defined as: the following district of country, to wit: bounded on the north by the 37th degree of north latitude, south by an east and west line passing through the site of old Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, east by the parallel of longitude which, if prolonged south, would pass through old Fort Lyon, or the Ojo-de-oso, Bear Spring, west by a parallel of longitude about 109' 30" west of Greenwich, provided it embraces the outlet of the Canon-de-Chilly, which canyon is to be all included in this reservation, shall be, the same hereby, set apart for the use and occupation of the Navajo tribe of Indians, for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit among them. Though the treaty had provided for one hundred miles by one hundred miles in the New Mexico Territory, the size of the territory was 3,328,302 acres —slightly more than half.
This initial piece of land is represented in the design of the Navajo Nation's flag by a dark-brown rectangle. As no physical boundaries or signposts were set in place, many Navajo ignored these formal boundaries and returned to where they had been living prior to captivity. A significant number of Navajo had never lived in the Hwéeldi near, they remained or moved to near the Little Colorado and Colorado rivers, on Naatsisʼáán and some with Apache bands. The first expansion of the territory occurred on October 28, 1878, when President Rutherford Hayes signed an executive order pushing the reservation boundary 20 miles to the west. Further additions followed throu
Natural Bridges National Monument
Natural Bridges National Monument is a U. S. National Monument located about 50 miles northwest of the Four Corners boundary of southeast Utah, in the western United States, at the junction of White Canyon and Armstrong Canyon, part of the Colorado River drainage, it features the thirteenth largest natural bridge in the world, carved from the white Permian sandstone of the Cedar Mesa Formation that gives White Canyon its name. The three bridges in the park are named Kachina and Sipapu, which are all Hopi names. A natural bridge is formed through erosion by water flowing in the stream bed of the canyon. During periods of flash floods the stream undercuts the walls of rock that separate the meanders of the stream, until the rock wall within the meander is undercut and the meander is cut off; as erosion and gravity enlarge the bridge's opening, the bridge collapses under its own weight. There is evidence of at least two collapsed natural bridges within the Monument. In 1904, the National Geographic Magazine publicized the bridges and the area was designated a National Monument April 16, 1908 by President Theodore Roosevelt.
It is Utah's first National Monument. The Monument was nearly inaccessible for many decades, as reflected by the visitor log kept by the Monument's superintendents; the park received little visitation until after the uranium boom of the 1950s, which resulted in the creation of new roads in the area, including modern day Utah State Route 95, paved in 1976. The bridges and other features present on the Colorado Plateau today were molded by the processes of erosion; the destructive forces of wind and rain, running water, freezing temperatures attacked the uplifts as soon as all the tectonic havoc started in the Late Cretaceous. The Colorado Plateau has been uplifted about 12,000 feet since the end of the Cretaceous about 66 million years ago; some of this uplift occurred geologically rapidly. As the rate of uplift increased, so did the rate of erosion; the Colorado River, for example, carved its present course within the last 6 million years. With uplift, streams throughout the Colorado Plateau began to dissect the topography into the landscape we see today with unprecedented vigor, carving the rocks and carrying away the dismantled strata into the landscape we see today.
The Monument's elevation ranges up to 6,500 feet. The Monument's vegetation is predominantly pinyon-juniper forest, with grass and shrubs typical of high-elevation Utah desert. In the canyons, where there is more water and seasonal streams, riparian desert plants, such as willow and cottonwood trees, thrive; because the Monument has been closed to grazing for nearly a century, off-road motorized travel is restricted, Natural Bridges contains extensive areas of undisturbed, mature cryptobiotic soils. Potential bridge collapse is possible at Natural Bridges National Monument along the span of Owachomo Bridge in Armstrong Canyon, only 9 feet thick at the crest of its span. Earthquake potential is high along the Moab Fault in nearby Arches National Park, Southeast Utah Group. While this and other faults in the Paradox Basin are associated with salt structures, the Colorado Plateau interior does possess a low level of seismic hazard. Ground shaking from earthquakes may impact the bridges at Natural Bridges National Monument causing catastrophic failure of one or more of the bridges.
The main attractions are the natural bridges, accessible from the Bridge View Drive, which winds along the park and goes by all three bridges, by hiking trails leading down to the bases of the bridges. There is a campground and picnic areas within the park. Electricity in the park comes from a large solar array near the visitors center. In 2007, the International Dark-Sky Association named Natural Bridges the first International Dark-Sky Park, a designation that recognizes not only that the park has some of the darkest and clearest skies in all of the United States, but that the park has made every effort to conserve the natural dark as a resource worthy of protection. To date, Natural Bridges has the only night sky monitored by the NPS Night Sky Team that rates a Class 2 on the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale, giving it the darkest sky assessed. Horsecollar Ruin is an Ancestral Puebloan ruin visible from an overlook a short hike from Bridge View Drive; the site was abandoned more than 700 years ago but is in a remarkable state of preservation, including an undisturbed rectangular kiva with the original roof and interior, two granaries with unusual oval shaped doors whose shape resembles horse collars.
Animals species found in the National Monument include birds such as the pinyon jay, canyon wren, turkeys and mammals like rabbits, pack rats, coyotes, mule deer, mountain lion. The Monument's pygmy rattlesnakes have been the subject of occasional study. In May 2006, KSL Newsradio reported a case of plague found in dead field mice and chipmunks at Natural Bridges. Native plant species include willow, Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, pinyon pine, grasses and perennials such as asters, penstamons and Indian paintbrush, various shrubs such as dwarf oaks, manzanita, rabbitbrush, brittlebrush, Apache's plume, sage and Mormon tea. Invasive species include tumbleweeds, certain thistles and tamarisk. Much o
San Juan County, Utah
San Juan County is a county in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Utah. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 14,746, its county seat is Monticello. The county was named by the Utah State Legislature for the San Juan River, itself named by Spanish explorers. San Juan County borders Arizona and New Mexico at the Four Corners; the Utah Territory authorized creation of San Juan County on February 17, 1880, with territories annexed from Iron and Piute counties. There has been no change in its boundaries since its creation. Monticello was founded in 1887, by 1895 it was large enough to be designated the seat of San Juan County. San Juan County lies at the SE corner of the state of Utah, its borders abut the borders of the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona. Its terrain slopes to the west and the south, with its highest point at 12,726' ASL; the county has a total area of 7,933 square miles, of which 7,820 square miles is land and 113 square miles is water. It is the largest county by area in Utah.
The county's western and southern boundaries lie deep within gorges carved by the Colorado and San Juan Rivers. Tributary canyons, cutting through rock layers of the surrounding deserts, have carved the land up with chasms and plateaus. In the center of the county are Cedar Mesa, Comb Wash, Natural Bridges and Hovenweep National Monuments. Canyonlands National Park is within the county borders; the Eastern side of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area / Lake Powell in in San Juan County. Rising above all, the Blue Mountains and the La Sal Mountains surpass 12,000 feet elevations. Both ranges are covered with lush forests vividly contrasting with the scenery below; the elevation change within the county is from near 13,000 feet in the La Sal Mountains to 3,000 feet at Lake Powell, an elevation change of 10,000 feet. The county is cut by deep and spectacular canyons, red rock and mountain meadows and evergreen forest; the towns run on a north/south axis along U. S. Route 191 and U. S. Route 163 from La Sal in the north to Monument Valley in the south.
The only operating Uranium Processing plant in the United States operates in the town of Blanding, population 3500. San Juan County is home to numerous oil and gas fields that produce from the Desert Creek and Ismay Formations. San Juan County is bordered by more counties than any other county in the United States, at 14; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 14,746 people and 4,505 households in San Juan County. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 50.4% Native American, 45.8% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% African American and 2.3% reporting two or more races. 4.4% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 14,413 people, 4,089 households and 3,234 families in the county; the population density was 1.84/sqmi. There were 5,449 housing units at an average density of 0.70/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 40.77% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 55.69% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.70% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races.
3.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In the 4,089 households, 47.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.90% were non-families. 18.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.46 and the average family size was 4.02. The county population contained 39.30% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 17.10% from 45 to 64, 8.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,137, the median income for a family was $31,673. Males had a median income of $31,497 versus $19,617 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,229. About 26.90% of families and 31.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.70% of those under age 18 and 35.10% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2017, San Juan County was the poorest county in the state. San Juan County has not supported a Democrat for president since Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936; however the county is more competitive at the state level due to its high Native American population, who lean Democratic, the comparatively small Mormon population which leans Republican, as well its economic distress. Notably, San Juan voted for the Democratic candidates in the 1988 and 2000 gubernatorial elections, both of which Republicans won; the area votes less Republican than the rest of Utah in national elections. In 2004, for example, George W. Bush won 60.02% in San Juan County versus 71.54% in the state as a whole. Federally mandated commissioner districts put many Navajo voters in one district; the San Juan County Board of Commissioners has been majority white for many years. In 2016, a Federal District Court decision found voting districts violated the 1965 Voting Rights Act and the U. S. Constitution; the County was afraid to redraw district boundaries because they were put in place by a Federal Judge.
Before this the County used an at-large voting system to elect commissioners In 2018 the first majority-Navajo commission was seated. Two of the new members, Willie Grayeyes and Kenneth Maryboy, are board members of Utah Diné Bikeyah, which s
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id