University of the Sunshine Coast
The University of the Sunshine Coast is a public university based on the Sunshine Coast, Australia. After opening with 524 students in 1996 as the Sunshine Coast University College, it was renamed the University of the Sunshine Coast in 1999; the university has a flagship campus at Sippy Downs on the Sunshine Coast, with more campuses at Hervey Bay on the Fraser Coast, Gympie and South Bank in Brisbane. USC has study hubs in Noosa and North Lakes. In 2020, USC will open a full-service campus at Petrie in Moreton Bay. Undergraduate and postgraduate programs are offered in both faculties, with study areas divided into seven disciplines: business, IT and tourism; the university is listed on the Commonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for Overseas Students. The first discussions about a university for the Sunshine Coast region began in 1973. In 1989, the Australian Federal Government approved its establishment. On 1 July 1994 the Queensland Parliament passed the Sunshine Coast University College Act 1994.
The university was established in 1994. The University of the Sunshine Coast Act 1998 was passed in Queensland Parliament on 19 November of that year, legislating the independent status of the university; the university changed to its current name of the University of the Sunshine Coast in 1999. It was created by the Australian Government to serve the growing population of the Sunshine Coast region, north of Brisbane, in Queensland; the University of the Sunshine Coast is the first greenfield university established in Australia since 1971. The inaugural vice-chancellor was Professor Paul Thomas, who took office with effect from 1 January 1996, having spent an earlier period as planning president. Justice Gerald “Tony” Fitzgerald was the university’s inaugural chancellor, followed by pastoralist Ian Kennedy, AO, USC’s second chancellor. Air Chief Marshal Sir Angus Houston AK, AFC became the university’s fourth chancellor when he was appointed to the role in 2017 after John Dobson OAM retired from the position.
Sir Angus remains the University's current chancellor. The student body has grown since the university opened in 1996 with an intake of 524 students. In 2017, USC had a 13.6 percent increase on the previous year. The university introduced paid parking at its Sippy Downs campus from February 2013, a move that garnered a negative response from some students and staff. Of the university's 2,400 parking spaces 450 remain as free parking. Since 2010, USC has been the only public institution in Queensland to receive five stars for teaching quality in the independently ranked Hobson's Good Universities Guide. In the 2010 edition of the guide, the university earned five stars for staff qualifications and graduates' satisfaction with the generic skills they learned while studying. In the 2011 edition, the university earned five stars for graduate satisfaction with the generic skills learned while studying, four stars for access by equity groups, Indigenous enrolments, gender balance, for graduates' satisfaction with their overall university experience.
However, the university only received one star for research grants, research intensity, toughness to get in, cultural diversity of the student body, success in getting a job, graduate starting salary and positive graduate outcomes. The 2012 edition of the guide, released in August 2011 awarded the university five stars for its graduates' satisfaction with the generic skills they gained while at university, for Indigenous participation; the university scored four stars for access by equity groups, gender balance, for graduates' satisfaction with their overall university experience. Its ratings for graduates' satisfaction remained the highest awarded to any public university in Queensland. In 2007 the Australian Universities Quality Agency audited USC as part of their assessment of all Australian universities. AUQA is a national agency that operates independently of governments and the higher education sector; the report commended USC for "its significant achievements since inception" and awarded USC commendations for the quality of the university's learning and teaching, student support services, workplace integrated learning program and degree approval process.
The Headstart Program – a program allowing Year 11 and 12 school students to study one or more courses at the University, while still completing secondary school – and Global Opportunities Program – the University's study abroad were acknowledged in the assessment. Graduates have given the university top marks for educational experience, with a 92 percent satisfaction rating in the 2007 Course Experience Questionnaire; the university's Global Opportunities Program received an award from the Queensland government at the Celebrating International Education and Training Industry Showcase in August 2007 for promoting internationalisation. In March 2008 the university was one of 99 organisations nationally and one of 10 in Queensland to earn an Employer of Choice for Women citation; the citations are awarded annually by the federal government's Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency. It has received the citation for six consecutive years to 2010. Since 2006, the university has been awarded 17 citations from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council, recognising outstanding contribu
Beerburrum is a small town and locality in the Sunshine Coast Region, Australia. Beerburrum is located close to the Glass House Mountains 60 kilometres north of the state capital, Brisbane; the Bruce Highway passes from south to north through the locality. The name is derived from that of Mount Beerburrum. In the language of the Indigenous Kabi nation, bir means green burru mountain. In 1916, Beerburrum was chosen to be a soldier settlement with over 550 farms allocated. Beerburrum Soldier Settlement was the largest soldier settlement in Queensland; the expectation was that hilly land would be suitable for other fruits. However, by 1929, it was acknowledged that the scheme had failed, due to the farms being too small to be economically viable; this was compounded by shortages of skills and markets. Beerburrum Post Office opened by 1917 and Beerburrum State School opened on 22 April 1918. St George's Anglican Church was dedicated on 20 August 1922, by Canon D. J. Garland, it closed in August 1931, was moved to Maleny, where it was dedicated to St George on 6 September 193, by Archbishop Sharp.
The village was bypassed by the Bruce Highway in the early 1970s, that road was itself superseded by the current alignment in 1985. At the 2006 census, Beerburrum had a population of 287. At the 2011 census, Beerburrum had a population of 600; the Beerburrum railway station is on the North Coast railway line, a coastal route connecting from Brisbane through to Cairns. The Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates a mobile library service which visits the school on Beerburrum Road. Beerburrum has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Anzac Avenue: Anzac Avenue Memorial Trees "Beerburrum". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland. Beerburrum cemetery Town map of Beerburrum, 1973
County of Canning
The County of Canning is a county in Queensland, Australia. The county consists of all of the former Shires of Caboolture and Kilcoy and the former City of Caloundra, its main urbanised areas are centred on the areas surrounding Caboolture. Canning was first created by an Order in Council by the Governor of New South Wales on 30 December 1848, it was named in honour of Sir George Canning, who had served as British Foreign Secretary and as Prime Minister. The county was described in the following terms: County of Canning, containing about 1330 square miles. Bounded on the east by the sea-coast from the 27th parallel of south latitude to the river Maroochydore, including part of Bribie Island and other islands within these limits. On 7 March 1901, the Governor of Queensland proclaimed new boundaries under the Land Act 1897; the south boundary was altered from the 27th parallel to the Caboolture River while the north boundary was extended to the Shire of Noosa boundary. Bounded on the south by the county of Stanley.
Canning is divided into parishes, as listed below
The Brahman or Brahma is a breed of zebu cattle, first bred in the United States from cattle breeds imported from India. Brahma cattle were produced by cross-breeding the Kankrej, Ongole and Krishna Valley breeds of cattle; the Brahman is one of the most popular breeds of cattle intended for meat processing and is used in Argentina, Mexico, United States, Panama and Australia among many other places. The Indian-origin Brahman cattle breed is named after the Brahmins, who themselves are named after the Hindu deity Brahma. Hindu Brahmins consider cows holy and bulls sacred, eating neither; the American Brahman was first bred in the early 1900s as a cross of four different Indian cattle breeds: Gujarat, Gir, Krishna Valley. The original American Brahman cattle originated from a nucleus of 266 bulls and 22 females of several Bos indicus varieties imported into the United States between 1854 and 1926; the Brahman is used for the meat industry. It has been crossbred extensively, it has been used to develop numerous other U.
S. beef breeds including Brangus, Beefmaster and Santa Gertrudis. The breed is used as a riding steer, it is favoured for its docileness and intelligence. Brahman cattle are widespread in tropical regions, they are resistant to insects due to their thick skin. Brahman cattle live longer than many other breeds producing calves at ages 15 and older. In Oman and Fujairah, Brahman bulls are used in the traditional sport of bull-butting, it involves two of these bulls engaging in a ferocious round of headbutts. The first one to collapse or concede its ground is deemed the loser. Brahman bulls being readied for this sport are kept on a special diet of milk and honey for gaining superior strength; the American Brahman Breeders Association was formed in 1924 as the official herd registry to track and verify cattle bloodlines. This organization is now headquartered in Houston; the name "Brahman" was created by the American Brahman Breeder's Association first secretary, Mr. J. W. Sartwelle; the Brahman Breed has made a major impact on the Australian beef cattle market in the northern parts of Australia.
Since the introduction of the breed to Australia, over 50% of Australia's cattle population are either Brahman or Brahman cross cattle. The breed does well not only in hot temperatures but in the colder climate. There are breeders of the Brahman breed in Victoria right through to North Queensland, it is a common misconception. In Australia, the Brahman Breeders Association of Australia is the body in which members register their cattle and can become members if they wish to have registered cattle. However, there are a number of people which breed "commercial" cattle in which they are not registered breeders, these breeders supply cattle for the beef market use stud bulls to improve the quality of their stock. Brahman Cattle Information in Oklahoma State Livestock Breeds Directory American Brahman Breeders Association Australian Brahman Breeders Association Brahman Cattle - Cattle.com Brahman Cattle Video - A Video on the American Brahman "Weird Cow Breeds: The American Brahman - The cow with the big long ears".
August 27, 2017
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Siena Catholic College
Siena Catholic College, Australia is a co-educational Catholic day college situated at Sippy Downs on Queensland's Sunshine Coast. Opened in 1997, it caters for students in Years 7-12 and has an enrolment of 1000 students; the college shares its campus with a Prep - Year 6 school. The College is an Archdiocesan College administered by Brisbane Catholic Education and has close links with the Stella Maris Parish, having S. Catherine's Catholic Church situated on campus. Bryan Baker was the foundation principal of the College, he held the position from 1996 until three weeks before his death in 2004. One thousand people attended a speech in honour of his service; the Brisbane Courier-Mail described the college as one of the "most acclaimed institutions in the region and a jewel in the crown of Catholic colleges throughout the Archdiocese of Brisbane". On 7 December 2003 a 13-year-old student at the school, Daniel Morcombe, was abducted as he waited for a bus; that year and for years afterwards, the school organised various memorial events to allow students to pray together for Morcombe and to express their concern.
Australian news organisations covered the case extensively "in a massive media appeal that lasted three years" until at least November 2006. Daniel's remains were found in bushland in August 2011. "Daniel's chair", a special timber bench at the school, was dedicated to him. There are 5 houses at Siena Catholic College, all named after saints or people of that nature: In the 2004–05 school year, a group of teachers led by Paul Baker devised a 90-minute learning project for students in ancient and modern history classes. In the project students used Web sites to read about Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin and other dictators, examining their childhoods for similarities that might help explain their characters; the school was one of 12 that won grants from the Queensland state government for history projects in that school year. The state Department of Education and the Arts featured a description of the project as a "good practice" section of the department's Web site. In the 2007 Queensland "Tournament of the Minds" problem-solving competition, the Siena Catholic College team took both first place and second place honours for the Maths/Engineering section and first place in the Language/Literature section.
In 2012 Siena came second with honours in the Queensland State Titles. Siena has always had a strong sporting reputation. Most sport teams are nicknamed the wolves, or in the case of the rugby 1st XV, "The Wolfpack", it has been waterpolo, dancing, netball and rugby teams that have celebrated the most success. Arguably, the most successful team in the college's history was the u/15 rugby union team of 2014, where they won 3 back to back premierships in 2013 and 2014, went on to win the prestigious Ballymore Cup. However, the team was not able to stay together for open division rugby, as many players would go on to accept sporting scholarships from various schools in Brisbane. Siena has a proud reputation on the Sunshine Coast for playing sport in a firm, but fair nature. Siena Catholic College Official Website Siena Catholic College Alumni Website
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. Located 100 km north of the state capital Brisbane in South East Queensland on the Pacific Ocean coastline, its urban area spans 60 km of coastline and hinterland from Pelican Waters to Tewantin; the estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, making it the 9th most populous in the country. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing until tourism became an important industry; the area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters and Noosa Heads. Nambour and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to; the Sunshine Coast, as a term recognised by most Australians, is the district defined in 1967 as "the area contained in the Shires of Landsborough and Noosa, but excluding Bribie Island".
Its use is colloquial however. Since 2014, the Sunshine Coast district has been split into two local government areas, the Sunshine Coast Region and the Shire of Noosa, which administer the southern and northern parts of the Sunshine Coast respectively. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white person to sight the Glass House Mountains, located south-west of Caloundra. In the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants: three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district became home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony to the south. In 1842, Governor George Gipps had the entire Sunshine Coast and hinterland from Mt Beerwah north to Eumundi declared a "Bunya Bunya Reserve" for the protection of the bunya tree after Andrew Petrie advised him of the importance of bunya groves in Aboriginal culture. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve and its vicinity became the scene of some of the most bitter skirmishes of Australia's "Black War".
The Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement. By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area. Many of the Sunshine Coast's towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest; the region's roads began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the region's creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to and from the gold fields of Gympie. After construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades. Sugar cane and pineapples proved important produce for the district.
Many small hamlets and towns now emerged. Produce was taken by horse to Landsborough to Eudlo in 1891. After World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and surfing destination; this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1970s. Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being the Big Pineapple in Woombye. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles; these newcomers developed a range of craft industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres in the hinterlands. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth; as of 2016 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes residential, most of the district's distinctive small farms – tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared, as have most of its theme parks; the Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the district's 120 cane growers, harvesting cane in the region.
Instead, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance. In 2008, The Shire of Noosa, Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra merged to form the Sunshine Coast Region; the 2007 referendum conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission and leading to the merger remained controversial in Noosa Shire, where 95% of voters had rejected amalgamation. In March 2013, a second referendum resulted in 81% of residents voted to leave the amalgamated Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 November 2013 an election resulted in Noel Playford being elected to take office as mayor on 1 January 2014 with the new council; the Shire of Noosa was re-established on 1 January 2014. This resulted in two geopolitical areas occupying the area recognised as'The Sunshine Coast'; the Sunshine Coast Region, governed by the Sunshine Coast Council and the Shire of Noosa, governed by Noosa Shire Council. Major rivers of the Sunshine Coast include Noosa River, Maroochy River, Mooloolah River and the Stanley River.
The region includes several lakes such as Lake Weyba. Ewen Maddock Dam, Wappa Dam and Baroon Pocket Dam have been built for water storage. Several stretches of the Sunshine Coast are lined with unbroken beaches – from Sunshine Beach near Noosa to Coolum Beach.