A non-directional beacon is a radio transmitter at a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid. As the name implies, the signal transmitted does not include inherent directional information, in contrast to other navigational aids such as low frequency radio range, VHF omnidirectional range and TACAN. NDB signals follow the curvature of the Earth, so they can be received at much greater distances at lower altitudes, a major advantage over VOR. However, NDB signals are affected more by atmospheric conditions, mountainous terrain, coastal refraction and electrical storms at long range. NDBs used for aviation are standardised by ICAO Annex 10 which specifies that NDBs be operated on a frequency between 190 kHz and 1750 kHz, although all NDBs in North America operate between 190 kHz and 535 kHz; each NDB is identified by two, or three-letter Morse code callsign. In Canada owned NDB identifiers consist of one letter and one number. North American NDBs are categorized by power output, with low power rated at less than 50 watts, medium from 50 W to 2,000 W and high being over 2,000 W.
There are four types of non-directional beacons in the aeronautical navigation service: En route NDBs, used to mark airways Approach NDBs Localizer beacons Locator beaconsThe last two types are used in conjunction with an Instrument Landing System. NDB navigation consists of two parts — the automatic direction finder equipment on the aircraft that detects an NDB's signal, the NDB transmitter; the ADF can locate transmitters in the standard AM medium wave broadcast band. ADF equipment determines the direction or bearing to the NDB station relative to the aircraft by using a combination of directional and non-directional antennae to sense the direction in which the combined signal is strongest; this bearing may be displayed on a relative bearing indicator. This display looks like a compass card with a needle superimposed, except that the card is fixed with the 0 degree position corresponding to the centreline of the aircraft. In order to track toward an NDB, the aircraft is flown so that the needle points to the 0 degree position.
The aircraft will fly directly to the NDB. The aircraft will track directly away from the NDB if the needle is maintained on the 180 degree mark. With a crosswind, the needle must be maintained to the left or right of the 0 or 180 position by an amount corresponding to the drift due to the crosswind.. The formula to determine the compass heading to an NDB station is to take the relative bearing between the aircraft and the station, add the magnetic heading of the aircraft; this gives the magnetic bearing that must be flown: mod 360 = MB. When tracking to or from an NDB, it is usual that the aircraft track on a specific bearing. To do this it is necessary to correlate the RBI reading with the compass heading. Having determined the drift, the aircraft must be flown so that the compass heading is the required bearing adjusted for drift at the same time as the RBI reading is 0 or 180 adjusted for drift. An NDB may be used to locate a position along the aircraft's current track; when the needle reaches an RBI reading corresponding to the required bearing the aircraft is at the position.
However, using a separate RBI and compass, this requires considerable mental calculation to determine the appropriate relative bearing. To simplify this task, a compass card driven by the aircraft's magnetic compass is added to the RBI to form a "Radio Magnetic Indicator"; the ADF needle is referenced to the aircraft's magnetic heading, which reduces the necessity for mental calculation. Many RMIs used for aviation allow the device to display information from a second radio tuned to a VOR station; this display, along with the "Omni Bearing Indicator" for VOR/ILS information, was one of the primary radionavigation instruments prior to the introduction of the Horizontal Situation Indicator and subsequent digital displays used in glass cockpits. The principles of ADFs are not limited to NDB usage. A bearing is a line passing through the station that points in a specific direction, such as 270 degrees. NDB bearings provide a consistent method for defining paths aircraft can fly. In this fashion, NDBs can, like VORs, define "airways" in the sky.
Aircraft follow these pre-defined routes to complete a flight plan. Airways are standardized on charts. Colored airways are used for low to medium frequency stations like the NDB and are charted in brown on sectional charts. Green and red airways are plotted east and west, while amber and blue airways are plotted north and south. There is only one colored airway left in the continental United States, located off the coast of North Carolina and is called G13 or Green 13. Alaska is the only other state in the United States to make use of the colored airway systems. Pilots follow these routes by tracking radials across various navigation stations, turning at some. While most airways in the United States are based on VORs, NDB airways are c
Caye Caulker Airport
Caye Caulker Airport is an airport that serves Caye Caulker, an island 20 kilometres off the coast of Belize. The runway spans the width of the island. Approach and departure are over the water; the Belize VOR-DME is located 36.8 nautical miles northeast of the runway. After Maya Island Air and Tropic Air suspended service to Caye Caulker in 2017 due to the dangerous condition of the runway, the airport underwent a BZ$3.6 million renovation that included asphalt pavement and runway lighting. Belize portal Aviation portal Transport in Belize List of airports in Belize OpenStreetMap - Caye Caulker OurAirports - Caye Caulker Airport Accident history for CUK at Aviation Safety Network Aerodromes in Belize - pdf
Placencia is a small village located in the Stann Creek District of Belize. In the 17th century, Placencia was settled by the English Puritans from Nova Scotia and latterly from the island of Providencia; this settlement died out during the Central American wars of independence in the 1820s. The Placencia Peninsula was resettled in the late 1800s by several families. Placencia soon became a village, earning its livelihood from the sea; the Spaniards that traveled the southern coast of Belize gave Placencia its name. At that time Placencia was called Placentia, with the point being called Punta Placentia, or Pleasant Point. In the late 20th century it became a significant tourism destination, is now referred to as Placencia Village, or Placencia. On October 8, 2001, Hurricane Iris hit southern Belize with 145 mph winds causing major damage to nearly 95% of buildings in Placencia. Many developers took advantage of plummeted real estate value and an increased development of the peninsula and Placencia proper is on the rise, as well as property value.
The eastern side of the Peninsula is a long expanse of white sand beach and heavy mangrove in some areas. Significant settlements on the 18 mile peninsula from North to South include Riversdale Village, Maya Beach Village, the Garifuna village of Seine Bight and Placencia Village. Placencia, the southern-most village on the peninsula, is served by Placencia Airport; the village is home to 1,512 permanent residents according to the 2010 census, while the Placencia Peninsula is home to 3,458 permanent residents, which includes citizens and ex-pats alike. 2016 recommended itinerary: http://www.caribbeanbeachcabanas.com/recommended-activities/ Placencia, it used to be a fishing village but now offers some tourist amusement such as bars and entertainment like kayaking, diving, saltwater fly fishing, whale shark watching during the full moons between April and July of each year, light tackle saltwater fishing, as well as numerous restaurants and local art gallery. Placencia Village, hosts the Placencia Lobster Fest, the Placencia Peninsula Arts Festival, Easter Week.
Placencia Lagoon, with manatees, rays, mangrove forests, birding by canoe or kayak, fishing and sea grass beds. Mayan ruins of Nim Li Punit and Lubantuum are in the Toledo District, a day trip from the Placencia Peninsula. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, a day trip from Placencia. Maya Centre Village with 12 self-guided trails, 100,000 acres forest jaguar preserve, nearly 300 bird species. Mayflower Archaeological Reserve, 3 post-classic Maya ruins: Mayflower, T'au Witz and Maintzunun) and waterfalls. Bladen River Reserve Maya Beach Village is a tiny community on the Placencia Peninsula, midway between Placencia Village to the south and Riversdale Village to the north; the closest village is a historic Garifuna settlement. 1.5 miles long, the Maya Beach area is made up of homes, small resorts and a few retail establishments including two small grocery stores, a half-dozen bars & restaurants, an art gallery. Ranguana Caye is a 2-acre private island 18 miles off the coast of Placencia and a major day-trip and overnight for those staying in the village and peninsula.
Village activitiesPlacencia Village Guide Comprehensive FAQ list for those looking to visit: http://www.caribbeanbeachcabanas.com/faqs/ Best Placencia Blog: http://pureplacencia.blogspot.com/ Placencia travel guide from Wikivoyage Placencia Travel Information - Belize Travel Magazine Getting to Placencia-Belize - Tourism Industry Association Monkey River Dangriga Placentia
Government House, Belize
The finest colonial structure in Belize City, Government House is said to have been built to plans by the illustrious British architect Sir Christopher Wren with a combination of Caribbean Vernacular and English Urban architecture. Erected in 1812, it was first the residence of the governor of British Honduras and the residence of the Governor General, the Queen's representative in Belize. After the rest of the government moved to Belmopan in the wake of Hurricane Hattie, the house became a venue for social functions and a guest house for visiting VIPs; the house was converted into a historical museum. The museum features exhibits of colonial glassware and furniture, it houses a collection of archival records. Belize House in Belmopan became the official residence of the Governor General in 1984. Built in 1981, it was the former British High Commission. Government Houses of the British Empire Governors General of Belize Government House, Museum of Belize & Houses of Culture
Placencia Airport is an airport that serves Placencia, Belize. It crosses the peninsula from East to West; as of December 2012, the runway is paved in good condition. There are short obstacles at either end of the runway, however brush does extend 10 ft high off center of either end. Brush on either side of the runway was trimmed as of a December 2012 flight. Although the airport is served by high-wing singles, a Cessna 310 was able to take off and land comfortably with clearance to side brush. Due to the nature of brush growth, it is wise to inquire as to current state of brush prior to flight in any low-wing aircraft ones with minimal ground clearance. Due to the typical sea breeze and landings are done east-bound. Private flights are allowed. Parking should be coordinated with Maya Island Air; the airport has no security. Common traffic advisory frequency is 122.8 MHz. On 17 November 2017 - A Cessna 208B Grand Caravan of Tropic Air struck a vehicle shortly after take-off for Punta Gorda Airport and subsequently ditched in the sea.
All seven people on board, including the Acting Prime Minister of Belize Patrick Faber and Agriculture Minister Godwin Hulse, survived. Belize portal Aviation portal Transport in Belize List of airports in Belize OpenStreetMap - Placencia OurAirports - Placencia FallingRain - Placencia Airport Accident history for PLJ at Aviation Safety Network
San Ignacio, Belize
San Ignacio and Santa Elena are towns in western Belize. San Ignacio serves as the cultural-economic hub of Cayo District, it got its start from mahogany and chicle production during British colonialism. Over time it attracted people from the surrounding areas, which led to the diverse population of the town today. San Ignacio is the largest settlement in Cayo District and the second largest in the country, after Belize City; the town was named El Cayo by the Spanish. On 19 October 1904, El Cayo was declared a town by the government of British Honduras. In the past a creek ran between the Macal and the Mopan rivers one mile outside of San Ignacio going toward Benque Viejo; this creek fulfilled the definition of an area of land surrounded by water and thus the name Cayo, "island". There was a large wooden bridge across this creek in the late 1940s, but since the creek dried up, the area was filled with limestone gravel and today there remains no evidence of its existence; the demise of the creek, took away the distinction for the classification of a'cayo' from the venerable western town of'El Cayo' and returned it to a regular land mass.
San Ignacio is situated on the banks of the Macal River, about 63 miles west of Belize City and 22 miles west of the country's capital: Belmopan. The town has an area of 2.5 square miles. The population is Mestizo and Kriol, with some Lebanese and Mopan. San Ignacio boasts a large Chinese population, most of whom emigrated from Guangzhou in waves in the mid-20th century; the Mennonite community of Spanish Lookout is situated a few miles outside San Ignacio. The 2010 census counted 17,878 inhabitants in San Ignacio and Santa Elena, of whom 8,751 are males and 9,127 are females; the total number of households is 4,351 and the average household size is 4.1. In recent years San Ignacio has absorbed the separate village of Santa Elena. San Ignacio and its sister-town Santa Elena make up Belize's second largest urban area; the two towns are connected by Belize's only suspension bridge, the one-lane Hawkesworth Bridge across the Macal river, built in 1949. The two are collectively referred to as the "Twin Towns" although San Ignacio has a larger population.
As of 2010, Santa Elena has a population of 7,389 compared with San Ignacio's population of 10,489. San Ignacio is governed by a town council affiliated with the United Democratic Party; the mayor is Earl Trapp of the UDP. Town council elections are held every three years to elect the mayor and council. Both UDP and People's United Party candidates participate in town elections; the next municipal elections are scheduled for March 2018. At the national level, the San Ignacio/Santa Elena area is represented by three constituencies in the Belize House of Representatives, Cayo Central, Cayo North and Cayo North East. San Ignacio has three main colleges. Sacred Heart College of Catholic denomination is the largest institution, with both a high school and a junior college division, is one of the largest high schools in Belize. Eden Seventh Day Adventist High School and Saint Ignatius High School are found here. Galen University was founded in 2003 and is located at Central Farm, a couple of minutes east of San Ignacio.
The University of Belize has an agricultural campus next to Galen. The city is served by the San Ignacio Hospital and the Loma Luz Adventist hospital in Santa Elena, it has various clinics and pharmacies scattered around town. The area around San Ignacio is one of the most popular parts of the country for tourism. Nearby attractions include the ancient Maya ruins of Caracol, Cahal Pech, El Pilar, the Actun Tunichil Muknal cave, Chaa Creek Nature Reserve, the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve. Barton Creek Cave is another attraction, popular among tourists interested in cave tubing. Visitors can tour the Mayan ruins independently by foot or by car, or by signing up for a tour with one of the many tour guide companies that serve the area. Chaa Creek Clean Green Cayo Mopan River Maps of San Ignacio, Belize San Ignacio Travel information - Belize Travel Magazine
Dangriga Airport called Pelican Beach Airstrip is a public use airport located 1 kilometre north of Dangriga, a coastal town in the Stann Creek District of Belize. The runway is 300 metres inland from the Caribbean Sea. East approach and departure are over the water; the Belize VOR-DME is located 33.6 nautical miles north of the runway. Belize portal Aviation portal Transport in Belize List of airports in Belize OpenStreetMap - Dangriga Airport OurAirports - Dangriga Airport Aerodromes in Belize - pdf Accident history for DGA at Aviation Safety Network Media related to Dangriga Airport at Wikimedia Commons