Robert Boyle Prize for Analytical Science
Robert Boyle Prize for Analytical Science called Boyle Medal, is a prize of the Royal Society of Chemistry for Analytical Chemistry. Not to be confused with the Irish Times Boyle Medal awarded in chemistry, or Boyle Higgins Gold Medal of the Institute of Chemistry of Ireland, it is awarded every two years and is worth £5,000. The prize is named after Robert Boyle and awarded since 1982. Source: Royal Society of Chemistry 2016: Richard Peter Evershed 2014: Eric Bakker 2012: Norman Dovichi 2010: Gary M. Hieftje 2008: R. Graham Cooks 2006: not awarded 2004: Miguel Valcárcel 2002: Michael Thompson 2000: William Horwitz 1998: William H. Pirkle 1996: James D. Winefordner 1994: Taitiro Fujinaga 1992: Fred W. McLafferty 1990: Hanns Malissa, Ivan Alimarin 1988: Egon Stahl 1986: Ernö Pungor 1984: Izaak Kolthoff 1982: Alan Walsh Official Website Award Winners Event data as RDF
Sir Alec John Jeffreys, is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration disputes. He is a professor of genetics at the University of Leicester, he became an honorary freeman of the City of Leicester on 26 November 1992. In 1994, he was knighted for services to genetics. Jeffreys was born into a middle-class family in Oxford, where he spent the first six years of his life until 1956, when the family moved to Luton, Bedfordshire, he attributes his curiosity and inventiveness to having been gained from his father, as well as his paternal grandfather, who held a number of patents. When he was eight, his father gave him a chemistry set, which he enhanced over the next few years with extra chemicals including a small bottle of sulphuric acid, he says he liked making small explosions, but an accidental splash of the sulphuric acid caused a burn, which left a permanent scar on his chin.
His father bought him a Victorian-era brass microscope, which he used to examine biological specimens. At about 12, he made a small dissecting kit which he used to dissect a bumblebee, but he got into trouble with his parents when he progressed to dissecting a larger specimen. One Sunday morning he found a dead cat on the road while doing his paper round and took it home in his bag, he relates that he started to dissect it on the dining room table before Sunday lunch, causing a foul smell throughout the house after he ruptured its intestines. Jeffreys was a pupil at Luton Grammar School and Luton Sixth Form College, he won a scholarship to study at Merton College, Oxford on a four-year course, where he graduated in 1972 with first-class honours in biochemistry. Jeffreys completed his Doctor of Philosophy degree on the mitochondria of cultured mammalian cells, as a postgraduate student at the Genetics Laboratory at the University of Oxford. After finishing his doctorate, he moved to the University of Amsterdam, where he worked on mammalian genes as a research fellow, to the University of Leicester in 1977, where in 1984 he discovered a method of showing variations between individuals' DNA, inventing and developing genetic fingerprinting.
Jeffreys says he had a "eureka moment" in his lab in Leicester after looking at the X-ray film image of a DNA experiment on 10 September 1984, which unexpectedly showed both similarities and differences between the DNA of different members of his technician's family. Within about half an hour, he continued, he realized the possible scope of DNA fingerprinting, which uses variations in the genetic code to identify individuals; the method has become important in forensic science to assist police detective work, it has proved useful in resolving paternity and immigration disputes. The method can be applied to non-human species, for example in wildlife population genetics studies. Before his methods were commercialised in 1987, his laboratory was the only centre in the world that carried out DNA fingerprinting, was very busy, receiving inquiries from all over the globe. Jeffreys's DNA method was first put to use in 1985 when he was asked to help in a disputed immigration case to confirm the identity of a British boy whose family was from Ghana.
The case was resolved when the DNA results proved that the boy was related to the other members of the family, Jeffreys saw the relief in the mother's face when she heard the results. DNA fingerprinting was first used in a police forensic test to identify the killer of two teenagers, Lynda Mann and Dawn Ashworth, raped and murdered in Narborough, Leicestershire, in 1983 and 1986 respectively. Colin Pitchfork was identified and convicted of their murders after samples taken from him matched semen samples taken from the two dead girls; this turned out to be a important identification. Not only did Jeffreys's work in this case prove who the real killer was, but it exonerated Richard Buckland a prime suspect, who would have spent his life in prison otherwise; the story behind the investigations is told in Joseph Wambaugh's 1989 best selling book The Blooding: The True Story of the Narborough Village Murders and the murders and subsequent solving of the crimes was featured in Episode 1 of the first season of the 1996 American TV series Medical Detectives in which Jeffreys himself appears.
In 1992, Jeffreys's methods were used to confirm the identity for German prosecutors of the Nazi Dr. Josef Mengele, who had died in 1979, by comparing DNA obtained from a femur bone of his exhumed skeleton, with DNA from his mother and son, in a similar way to paternity testing. DNA profiling, based on typing individual variable minisatellites in the human genome, was developed by Alec Jeffreys and his team in 1985, with the term being retained for the initial test that types many minisatellites simultaneously. By focusing on just a few of these variable minisatellites, DNA profiling made the system more sensitive, more reproducible and amenable to computer databases, it soon became the standard forensic DNA system used in criminal case work and paternity testing worldwide. The development of DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction opened up new approaches to forensic DNA testing, allowing automation increased sensitivity and a move to alternative marker systems; the most used markers are now variable microsatellites known as short tandem repeats, which Jeffreys first exploited in 1990 in the
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competences as the producers of the work. It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g. medical peer review. Professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is used to inform in decisions related to faculty tenure. Henry Oldenburg was a British philosopher, seen as the'father' of modern scientific peer review. WA prototype is a professional peer-review process recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī.
He stated that a visiting physician had to make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would decide whether the treatment had met the required standards of medical care. Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, where it is called clinical peer review. Further, since peer review activity is segmented by clinical discipline, there is physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process: accounting, engineering and forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives as a tool to reach higher order processes in the affective and cognitive domains as defined by Bloom's taxonomy; this may take a variety of forms, including mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine.
Scholarly peer review is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal, conference proceedings or as a book. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected. Peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Impartial review of work in less narrowly defined or inter-disciplinary fields, may be difficult to accomplish, the significance of an idea may never be appreciated among its contemporaries. Peer review is considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scholarly journals, but it by no means prevents publication of invalid research. Traditionally, peer reviewers have been anonymous, but there is a significant amount of open peer review, where the comments are visible to readers with the identities of the peer reviewers disclosed as well.
The European Union has been using peer review in the "Open Method of Co-ordination" of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999. In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion; each program sponsors about eight peer review meetings in each year, in which a "host country" lays a given policy or initiative open to examination by half a dozen other countries and the relevant European-level NGOs. These meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation; the meeting is preceded by the compilation of an expert report on which participating "peer countries" submit comments. The results are published on the web; the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, through UNECE Environmental Performance Reviews, uses peer review, referred to as "peer learning", to evaluate progress made by its member countries in improving their environmental policies. The State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review.
In 1997, the Governor of California signed into law Senate Bill 1320, Chapter 295, statutes of 1997, which mandates that, before any CalEPA Board, Department, or Office adopts a final version of a rule-making, the scientific findings and assumptions on which the proposed rule are based must be submitted for independent external scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004. Medical peer review may be distinguished in 4 classifications: 1) clinical peer review. Additionally, "medical peer review" has been used by the American Medical Association to refer not only to the process of improving quality and safety in health care organizations, but to the process of rating clinical behavior or compliance with professional society membership standards. Thus, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity as a database search term. To an outsider, the anonymous, pre-publication peer review process is opaque. Certain journals are accused of not carrying out stringent peer review in order to more expand their customer base in journals where authors pay a fee before public
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds published online by the Royal Society of Chemistry. The first edition of the Merck's Index was published in 1889 by the German chemical company Emanuel Merck and was used as a sales catalog for Merck's growing list of chemicals it sold; the American subsidiary was established two years and continued to publish it. During World War I the US government seized Merck's US operations and made it a separate American "Merck" company that continued to publish the Merck Index. In 2012 the Merck Index was licensed to the Royal Society of Chemistry. An online version of The Merck Index, including historic records and new updates not in the print edition, is available through research libraries, it includes an appendix with monographs on organic named reactions. The current edition is the 15th, published in April 2013. Monographs in The Merck Index contain: a CAS registry number synonyms of the substance, such as trivial names and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry nomenclature a chemical formula molecular weight percent composition a structural formula a description of the substance's appearance melting point and boiling point solubility in solvents used in the laboratory citations to other literature regarding the compound's chemical synthesis a therapeutic category, if applicable caution and hazard information 1st - first edition released by E.
Merck 2nd - second edition released by Merck's American subsidiary and added medicines from the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th - first named editor is Merck chemist Paul G. Stecher. 8th - editor Paul G. Stecher 9th - editor Martha Windholz, a Merck chemist. 10th, ISBN 0-911910-27-1 - editor Martha Windholz. In 1984 the Index became available online as well as printed. 11th, ISBN 0-911910-28-X 12th, ISBN 0-911910-12-3 - editor Susan Budavari, a Merck chemist. 13th, ISBN 0-911910-13-1 - editor Maryadele O'Neil, senior editor at Merck. 14th, ISBN 978-0-911910-00-1 - editor Maryadele O'Neil 15th, ISBN 978-1-84973670-1 - editor Maryadele O'Neil, first edition under the Royal Society of Chemistry. List of academic databases and search engines The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy The Merck Veterinary Manual Home Health and Pet Health Official website
Faraday Lectureship Prize
The Faraday Lectureship Prize known as the Faraday Lectureship is awarded once every three years by the Royal Society of Chemistry for "exceptional contributions to physical or theoretical chemistry". Named after Michael Faraday, the first Faraday Lecture was given in 1869, two years after Faraday's death, by Jean-Baptiste Dumas; as of 2009, the prize was worth £5000, with the recipient receiving a medal and a certificate. As the name suggests, the recipient gives a public lecture describing his or her work. Source: RSC Event data as RDF
Royal Society of Chemistry
The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences". It was formed in 1980 from the amalgamation of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society, the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new Royal Charter and the dual role of learned society and professional body. At its inception, the Society had a combined membership of 34,000 in the UK and a further 8,000 abroad; the headquarters of the Society are at Burlington House, London. It has offices in Thomas Graham House in Cambridge where RSC Publishing is based; the Society has offices in the United States at the University City Science Center, Philadelphia, in both Beijing and Shanghai and Bangalore, India. The organisation carries out research, publishes journals and databases, as well as hosting conferences and workshops, it is the professional body for chemistry in the UK, with the ability to award the status of Chartered Chemist and, through the Science Council the awards of Chartered Scientist, Registered Scientist and Registered Science Technician to suitably qualified candidates.
The designation FRSC is given to a group of elected Fellows of the society who have made major contributions to chemistry and other interface disciplines such as biological chemistry. The names of Fellows are published each year in The Times. Honorary Fellowship of the Society is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry; the president is elected biennially and wears a badge in the form of a spoked wheel, with the standing figure of Joseph Priestley depicted in enamel in red and blue, on a hexagonal medallion in the centre. The rim of the wheel is gold, the twelve spokes are of non-tarnishable metals; the current president is Dame Carol V. Robinson. Past presidents of the society have been: The following are membership grades with post-nominals: Affiliate: The grade for students and those involved in chemistry who do not meet the requirements for the following grades. AMRSC: Associate Member, Royal Society of Chemistry The entry level for RSC membership, AMRSC is awarded to graduates in the chemical sciences.
MRSC: Member, Royal Society of Chemistry Awarded to graduates with at least 3 years' experience, who have acquired key skills through professional activity FRSC: Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry Fellowship may be awarded to nominees who have made an outstanding contribution to chemistry. HonFRSC: Honorary Fellow of the Society Honorary Fellowship is awarded for distinguished service in the field of chemistry. CChem: Chartered Chemist The award of CChem is considered separately from admission to a category of RSC membership. Candidates need to be MRSC or FRSC and demonstrate development of specific professional attributes and be in a job which requires their chemical knowledge and skills. CSci: Chartered Scientist The RSC is a licensed by the Science Council for the registration of Chartered Scientists. EurChem: European Chemist The RSC is a member of the European Communities Chemistry Council, can award this designation to Chartered Chemists. MChemA: Mastership in Chemical Analysis The RSC awards this postgraduate qualification, the UK statutory qualification for practice as a Public Analyst.
It requires candidates to submit a portfolio of suitable experience and to take theory papers and a one-day laboratory practical examination. The qualification GRSC was awarded from 1981 to 1995 for completion of college courses equivalent to an honours chemistry degree and overseen by the RSC, it replaced the GRIC offered by the Royal Institute of Chemistry. The society is organised around 9 divisions, based on subject areas, local sections, both in the United Kingdom and overseas. Divisions cover broad areas of chemistry but contain many special interest groups for more specific areas. Analytical Division for analytical chemistry and promoting the original aims of the Society for Analytical Chemistry. 12 Subject Groups. Dalton Division, named after John Dalton, for inorganic chemistry. 6 Subject Groups. Education Division for chemical education. 4 Subject Groups. Faraday Division, named after Michael Faraday, for physical chemistry and promoting the original aims of the Faraday Society. 14 Subject Groups.
Organic Division for organic chemistry. 6 Subject Groups. Chemical Biology Interface Division. 2 Subject Groups. Environment and Energy Division. 3 Subject Groups. Materials Chemistry Division. 4 Subject Groups. Industry and Technology Division. 13 Subject Groups. There are 12 subjects groups not attached to a division. There are 35 local sections covering the United Ireland. In countries of the Commonwealth of Nations and many other countries there are Local Representatives of the society and some activities; the society is a not-for-profit publisher: surplus made by its publishing business is invested to support its aim of advancing the chemical sciences. In addition to scientific journals, including its flagship journals Chemical Communications, Chemical Science and Chemical Society Reviews, the society publishes: Education in Chemistry for teachers. A free online journal for chemistry educators, Chemistry Education Research and Practice. A general chemistry magazine Chemistry World, sent monthly to all members of the Society throughout the world.
The editorial board consists of 10 industrial chemists. It was first published in January 2004, it replaced C
The Corday–Morgan Medal and Prize is awarded by the Royal Society of Chemistry for the most meritorious contributions to experimental chemistry, including computer simulation. The prize was established by chemist Gilbert Morgan, who named it after his father Thomas Morgan and his mother Mary-Louise Corday. From the award's inception in 1949 until 1980 it was awarded by the Chemical Society. Up to three prizes are awarded annually; the Corday–Morgan medallists have included many of the UK's most successful chemists. Since 1949 they have been: Event data as RDF