Avon Valley National Park
Avon Valley is a national park in Western Australia, 47 kilometres northeast of Perth. It was named after the Avon River; the area is an undulating plateau with the sides of the valley steeply sloping back to the river 200 metres below. The area contains granite outcrops and a mix of soil types including loams and lateritic sands, it was named on 15 October 1971. Jarrah and Wandoo trees are found in the park along with 90 different species of birds making it an ideal place for bird watching. Christmas trees and grasstrees are interspersed through the woodlands. In the springtime the park is visited by wildflower enthusiasts to view the a diverse range of flowers including dryandras, donkey orchids and lechenaultias. Other plants found in the area are Conostylis and the rare fringed lily are found within the park; the bushranger Moondyne Joe used the area as a hide-out with his cave and corral situated within the park boundaries. Both have since been damaged by a series of bushfires within the park.
The third route of the Eastern Railway is in parts the southern border of the park, on the southern side of the Avon River, provides - at times of bushfires and other emergencies - a track and point of access. Entry and camping fees apply for visitors to the park. Toilets, shaded areas and wood barbecues are available for use. Trail signage and an information shelter are located within the park and a dedicated ranger is on site
D'Entrecasteaux National Park
D'Entrecasteaux National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 315 kilometres south of Perth. The park is named after the French Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux, the first European to sight the area and name Point D'Entrecasteaux in 1792; the park received 168,497 visitors through 2008-2009. The park stretches 130 km from Black Point in the west to Long Point in the east and extends inland as far as 20 km. Black Point is made of basalt columns from a lava flow. An interesting feature in the park is Yeagarup dune, a mobile 10-kilometre long sand dune found to the west of Lake Jasper; the park contains a great variety of scenery including beaches, sand-dunes, coastal cliffs, coastal heath and pockets of Karri forest. Rivers such as the Warren, the Donnelly and the Shannon flow through the park and discharge into the waters off-shore. Important large scale wetlands, known as the Blackwater, lakes such as Lake Jasper and Lake Yeagarup are found within the park boundaries. Broke Inlet is contained within the park boundaries at the eastern end.
The gneiss basement rocks project through the shallow waters to form small islands in the Inlet. Sandy Island in Windy Harbour is part of the park; the park has an entry fee. Facilities available to visitors include barbecues, toilets, 4WD tracks, camp sites, disabled access and picnic areas. Canoeing facilities exist within the park on the Deep River. Rangers patrol the area; the Bibbulmun Track passes through the park area. The outdoor education organisation, Outward Bound, operate within the park taking school groups on hiking expeditions. Protected areas of Western Australia Quagering Island
Hidden Valley National Park
Mirima National Park commonly known as Hidden Valley National Park is a National Park in far northern Western Australia located at the eastern side of the Kimberley region. It is located 2,220 kilometres from Perth just outside the township of Kununurra; the park covers a total area of 2,068 hectares and was declared a national park in 1982. Unusual sandstone formations dominate the park and are compared to the Bungle Bungles; the area is of great significance to the local indigenous peoples, the Miriuwung, several examples of rock art can be found within the park."Mirima" is the name given by the Miriwoong people to the area extending some 150 kilometres to the north and south, 170 kilometres to the east and west from Kununurra. Access to the park is via a sealed bitumen road and an entry fee to the park applies. Camping and fires within the park are not permitted. Facilities include toilets, information shelters and three walk trails around the park. Protected areas of Western Australia
Department of Environment and Conservation (Western Australia)
The Department of Environment and Conservation was a department of the Government of Western Australia, responsible for implementing the state's conservation and environment legislation and regulations. It was formed on 1 July 2006 by the amalgamation of the Department of Environment and the Department of Conservation and Land Management; the DEC was separated on 30 June 2013 forming the Department of Parks and Wildlife and the Department of Environment Regulation, which both commenced operations on 1 July 2013. DPaW focuses on nature conservation and the community’s enjoyment and appreciation of Western Australia’s world-class network of national and marine parks. DER focuses on environmental regulation and appeals processes, pollution prevention; the department was managing more than 285,000 km², including more than nine per cent of WA's land area: its national parks, marine parks, conservation parks, regional parks, state forests and timber reserves, nature reserves, roadside reserves and marine nature reserves.
It provided recreation facilities at a sustainable level for many of these. It supported or worked with the following authorities: Environmental Protection Authority Conservation Commission of WA Keep Australia Beautiful Marine Parks and Reserves Authority Swan River Trust Waste AuthorityThe total reportable visitation to DEC-managed lands and waters during the 2012-13 financial year was 16.02 million, with visitor satisfaction levels of 88%. 4,717 people were registered volunteers with the Department in 2012-13 that helped in a range of projects across the state with 564,350 hours contributed. DEC was responsible from 2007 to 2013 for protecting and conserving the state of Western Australia’s environment; the department’s key responsibilities included roles in managing and assessing aspects of the use of the State’s natural resources and biodiversity, including the regulation of native vegetation clearing and pollution control. The department initiated 14 environmental prosecutions during 2012–13, involving a broad range of charges including pollution, unauthorised clearing of native vegetation and illegal dumping.
At 30 June 2013, eight environmental prosecutions remained before the courts. There were an additional 18 pending cases that, subject to the evidentiary standard being met, could result in prosecution or other sanction. DEC was responsible for the wildlife conservation project Western Shield; the Department was in charge of wildfire prevention and suppression on its land as well as fire prevention in unallocated Crown land. The indicative burn target for 2012–13 in the south-west forest regions was 200,000 hectares. In 2012–13, DEC achieved 23,468 hectares in the south-west forest regions, including about 6,410 hectares that were burnt for pine plantation protection; the combination of unsuitable weather conditions, fuels remaining dry due to summer conditions extending into autumn, enhanced requirements in prescribed burn planning and risk management as a result of the 2011 Margaret River bushfire contributed to a significant reduction of the area able to be prescribed burnt this year. The average area of burning achieved over the past 10 years has been about 163,019 hectares per annum.
A further 6,023,884 hectares was burnt in the Kimberley, Goldfields, Midwest and South Coast regions. The burns were carried out on DEC-managed lands as well as on unallocated Crown lands and unmanaged reserves within these regions. DEC staff attended and monitored 676 bushfires throughout the state in 2012–13, which burnt about 5,477,394 hectares; the causes of these fires were: lightning—28 per cent deliberately lit or arson-caused fires—37 per cent accidental fires—16 per cent escapes from private burns—4 per cent escapes from DEC burns—0 per cent other causes—4 per cent unknown—11 per cent. Some of the most severe bushfires the Department had to suppress, in chronological order, included: National parks in Western Australia were under: Department of Lands and Surveys: 1 January 1890 – 31 December 1895 Wood and Forests Department: 1 January 1896 – 31 December 1918 Forests Department: 1 January 1919 – 21 March 1985 State Gardens Board: 15 December 1920 – 30 April 1957 National Parks Board: 1 May 1957 – 30 July 1977 Department of Fisheries and Fauna: 1 October 1964 – 31 December 1973 National Parks Authority: 1 August 1977 – 15 April 1985 Wildlife section of the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife: 1 January 1974 – 21 March 1985 Department of Environment: 1 July 2004 - 30 June 2006 Department of Conservation and Land Management: 22 March 1985 – 30 June 2006 The Department maintained and coordinated a range of specialist equipment and emergency response vehicles.
This included pumpers, water bombers and tankers and other equipment relating to operations involving search and rescue and firefighting. National Parks of Western Australia Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Department of Environment and Conservation Department of Parks and Wildlife Department of Environment Regulation
Purnululu National Park
The Purnululu National Park is a World Heritage Site in the East Kimberley region of Western Australia. The 239,723-hectare national park is located 300 kilometres south of Kununurra, with Halls Creek located to the south. Declared a World Heritage Site in 2003, the park was inscribed as follows:... remote area managed as wilderness. It includes the Bungle Bungle Range, a spectacularly incised landscape of sculptured rocks which contains superlative examples of beehive-shaped karst sandstone rising 250 metres above the surrounding semi-arid savannah grasslands. Unique depositional processes and weathering have given these towers their spectacular black and orange banded appearance, formed by biological processes of cyanobacteria which serve to stabilise and protect the ancient sandstone formations; these outstanding examples of cone karst that have eroded over a period of 20 million years are of great beauty and exceptional geological interest. The World Heritage status of the region was created and negotiated in 2003, the adopted boundary of the existing national park.
Since its listing, the Government of Western Australia has reserved additional areas located adjacent to the World Heritage Area, including the Purnululu Conservation Park and the Ord River Regeneration Reserve. The site was gazetted on the Australian National Heritage List on 21 May 2007 under the Environment and Heritage Legislation Amendment Act, 2003. Purnululu is a mispronounced Djaru word for the area around Bungle Bungle out camp, referred to as Bullmanlulu; the correct Karjaganujaru name for the Bungle Bungle massif is Billingjal which means sand falling away. The traditional owners of the area are the Karjaganujaru peoples; the Bungle Bungle Range, lying within the park, has elevations as high as 578 metres above sea level. It is famous for the sandstone domes and visually striking with their striping in alternating orange and grey bands; the banding of the domes is due to differences in clay content and porosity of the sandstone layers: the orange bands consist of oxidised iron compounds in layers that dry out too for cyanobacteria to multiply.
The Bungle Bungle Range is one of the most extensive and impressive occurrences of sandstone tower karst terrain in the world. The Bungle Bungles were a plateau of Devonian sandstone, carved into a mass of beehive-shaped towers with alternating, dark gray bands of cynobacterial crust; the plateau is dissected by a 100 -- 200-metre sheer-sided gorges and slot canyons. The cone-towers have domed summits. How they were formed is not yet understood, their surface is fragile but stabilized by crusts of iron oxide and bacteria. They provide an outstanding example of land formation by dissolutional weathering of sandstone, with removal of sand grains by wind and sheet wash on slopes. Access to the park by road is via Spring Creek Track, from the Great Northern Highway 250 kilometres south of Kununurra, to the track's end at the visitor centre; the track is usable only in the dry season by four-wheel-drive vehicles. Safely navigating it takes three hours. Access by air is less demanding. Scenic light aircraft flights are available out of Kununurra and Lake Argyle.
Protected areas of Western Australia Kimberley Hoatsan, Dean et al. Bungle Bungle Range: Purnululu National Park, East Kimberley, Western Australia: a guide to the rocks, plants and human impact Canberra: Australian Geological Survey Organisation. ISBN 0-642-25010-3 World heritage listing for Purnululu National Park Purnululu National Park Gallery Purnululu National Park "Information Site" including all relevant history and information about the local area... Kununurra, Halls Creek and surrounds
Millstream Chichester National Park
Millstream Chichester National Park is a national park in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, is located 1,190 kilometres north of the state capital, Perth. The park is made up of the old Millstream Station, on the Millstream Creek, just before it joins Fortescue River, one of the few permanent watercourses in the area and the Chichester Range; the area is homeland of the Yinjibarndi people. Millstream Creek was named by the explorer Francis Thomas Gregory in 1861, he reported the favourable grazing prospects. The first pastoral lease was taken up on 1865. By 1907 the property occupied an area of 1,000 square miles, it was stocked with 20,500 sheep, 1,900 cattle and 150 horses and was passed in at auction at £26,000. The present Millstream Homestead was built in 1920; the homestead was a tavern between 1975 and 1986. In 1970, the Chichester Range National Park was set aside and named. In 1975, the Conservation through Reserves Committee made recommendations for reserves in the Pilbara region, subsequently, the Millstream region was integrated into the park in 1982.
The Yindjibarndi people work as contractors in the Park. The Millstream Homestead Visitor Centre is in the old Homestead, which feature rooms dedicated to the Yinjibarndi people, the early settlers and the natural environment. Other displays provide information about the park's attractions and management challenges; the Pilbara is located within the arid tropics. During summer, between October and April, temperatures rise above 40 degrees and cyclones and local thunderstorms can flood roads and watercourses; the cool season, between May and August, experiences little rain, with daytime temperatures around 26 degrees. Nights at this time of year can be cool, so warm clothes may be necessary. Camping is available at Stargazers campgrounds. Miliyanha toilets and is generator friendly, it has some shade in afternoon. Stargazers is a more open site and generators are not permitted. A gas BBQ and toilets are provided. Both campgrounds are suitable for tent camping up to large caravans and motorhomes, can be accessed by 2WD in good weather, road conditions should be checked before embarking in 2WD, for information concerning road conditions contact The Shire of Ashburton.
Snake Creek Campground has been closed to campers since 2011, Crossing Pool has been closed to campers since 2013 due to safety issues concerning a drop in water levels and tree death. The Millstream Chichester area is significant Indigenous cultural site in northern Australia, its cultural and mythological importance stems from thousands of years occupation, with Millstream being the home of the mythical serpent or warlu, whose presence is still felt at Nhanggangunha. All the pools are significant in this regard and warrant a high level of respect because of their spiritual and mythological importance; the broad area of land straddling the Fortescue River from the Hamersley Range through to the Chichester escarpment is the homeland of the Yindjibarndi people. Ngarluma people's lands run from the Chichester escarpment northward to the sea. Aside from its important spiritual significance, Millstream was an important campsite for intertribal meetings; the Fortescue River provided food and water during drier months.
Along the river, Indigenous people had a varied diet of red meat, reptiles, eggs, honey fruits and root vegetables. Extensive areas were burnt to attract kangaroos; the dry climate meant. The Indigenous people were skilled in land management and were nomadic within their traditional boundaries. Yindjibarndi and Ngarluma people continue to come to the park to spend time on country and to carry out customery activities, they are represented on the Jirndawurrunhs Park Council which, in association with the Department of Parks and Wildlife, manages the strategic direction of the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Juluwarlu Group Aboriginal Corporation
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur