A treasury is either A government department related to finance and taxation. A place or Schatzkammer where currency or precious items like gold, diamonds etc. are kept. The head of a treasury is known as a treasurer; this position may not have the final control over the actions of the treasury if they are not an elected representative. The adjective for a treasury is treasurial; the adjective "tresorial" can be used, but this means pertaining to a treasurer. The earliest found artefacts made of silver and gold are from Lake Varna in Bulgaria dated 4250–4000 BC, the earliest of copper are dated 9000–7000 BC.... And there was silver weighing many thousands of talents and all the royal treasure amounting to a great sum... The term treasury was first used in Classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or many similar buildings erected in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states to impress others during the ancient Olympic Games.
In Ancient Greece treasuries were always physically incorporated within religious buildings such as temples, thus making state funds sacrosanct and adding moral constraints to the penal ones to those who would have access to these funds. The sovereigns' treasury within the palace in ancient Jerusalem, is considered to be similar in nature to the temple treasury; the temple treasury of the settlement had appointed officials and functioned akin to a bank.... in fact in every city there are banking places for the holy money... In excavations of Persepolis a text containing information pertaining to the activities of a temple treasury were discovered dated to the fifth century BC; the texts written in the Elamite language name the treasurer as ganzabara The ancient Roman word aerarium signified the treasury of the Senate, fiscus was used to indicate the imperial treasury used by Caesar. In the United Kingdom, Her Majesty's Treasury is overseen by the Chancellor of the Exchequer; the traditional honorary title of First Lord of the Treasury is held by the Prime Minister.
Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs administers the taxation system. In the United States, the Treasurer reports to an executive-appointed Secretary of the Treasury; the IRS is the revenue agency of the US Department of the Treasury. In many other countries, the treasury is called the "ministry of finance" and the head is known as the finance minister. Examples include the Bahamas, Belgium, Italy, New Zealand, Canada, Singapore, Japan, the Netherlands and Zimbabwe. In some other countries, a "Treasury" will exist alongside a separate "Ministry of Finance", with divided functions; the State Treasury in Polish law represents the Polish state acting in the field of civil law relations in which it is treated as equal partner to private entities. It can be represented by various officials or institutions depending on circumstances and has its own ministry, the Ministry of State Treasury, it was created in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1590, when the public treasury was split from the Royal Treasury.
The government of Ukraine includes the Ministry of Finance as well as the Ministry of State Treasury. It was the same in Italy before the creation of the united Ministry of Economy. In the Australian federal government a treasurer and a finance minister co-exist; the Department of the Treasury is responsible for drafting the government budget, economic policy, some market regulation and revenue policy. The Finance Minister, who manages the Department of Finance and Deregulation, is responsible for budget management, government expenditure and market deregulation
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Stralsund, is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is located at the Southern coast of the Strelasund, a sound of the Baltic Sea separating the island of Rügen from the mainland; the Strelasund Crossing with its two bridges and several ferry services connects Stralsund with Rügen. The Western Pomeranian town has been the capital of the Vorpommern-Rügen district since the 2011 district reforms, it is the fourth-largest city of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and, together with Greifswald, Stralsund forms an Oberzentrum, one of four high-level urban centers of the region. Stralsund was granted city rights in 1234 and was one of the most prospering members of the medieval Hanseatic League. In 1628, during the Thirty Years' War, Stralsund came under Swedish rule and remained so until the upheavals of the Napoleonic Wars. In the 19th century it became part of Germany. Since 2002, Stralsund's old town with its rich heritage is honored as a UNESCO World Heritage, along with Wismar in Mecklenburg.
The main industries of Stralsund are shipyards, mechanical engineering, and, to an increasing degree, life sciences and high tech industries IT and biotechnology. The town of Stralsund is located in northeastern Germany in the region of Western Pomerania in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, its annual precipitation is 656 mm and comparatively low, falling within the lowest third of all precipitation values in Germany. The driest month is February; the precipitation varies moderately throughout the year. Only 40% of weather stations in Germany exhibit lower seasonal variation; the town lies on the sound of a strait of the Baltic Sea. Its geographic proximity to the island of Rügen, whose only fixed link to the mainland, the Strelasund Crossing, runs between Stralsund and the village of Altefähr, has given Stralsund the sobriquet "Gateway to the Island of Rügen". Stralsund is located close to the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park. Stralsund's town borough includes municipal forest and three municipal ponds (the Knieperteich and Moorteich.
The three ponds and the Strelasund lend the Old Town, the original settlement site and historic center of the town, a protected island ambience. The highest point of the town is the Galgenberg on its western approaches; the town's territory covers an area of 38.97 km², which makes Stralsund, with its nearly 58,000 inhabitants one of the most densely populated towns in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The borough of the Hanseatic town of Stralsund is divided into as follows: The town possesses estates in the local area as well as on the islands of Rügen and Ummanz. Larger towns or cities in the nearby area are Rostock. In the local area around Stralsund there are the towns of Barth and Ribnitz-Damgarten. Many of the smaller villages in the vicinity, like Prohn or Negast, have grown after 1990 as a result of the influx of those living or working in Stralsund. In the Middle Ages the Stralsund area formed part of the West Slavic Principality of Rügen. At that time the Dänholm isle and fishing village, both at the site of the latter town, were called Strale or Stralow, Polabian for "arrow".
The full Polabian name is Strzałów. The village had a ferry to the island of Rügen. In 1168 the Principality of Rügen became part of Kingdom of Denmark. In the course of German Ostsiedlung, many German settlers and merchants were invited to settle in the principality, they populated the Strale settlement. Merchants from other countries as well as locals were attracted to the area and made up one third of the town's population; the Danish navy used the isle as well. When the settlement had grown to town size, prince Wizlaw I of Rügen granted Lübeck law to "our town Stralow" in 1234, although a significant settlement had existed long before the formal founding. In 1240, when the prince gave additional land to the town, he called; the success of the settlement challenged the powerful Free City of Lübeck, which burnt Stralsund down in 1249. Afterwards the town was rebuilt with a massive town wall having 30 watchtowers; the Neustadt, a town-like suburb, had merged with Stralsund by 1361. Schadegard, a nearby twin town to Stralsund founded by Wizlaw I, though not granted German law, served as the principal stronghold and enclosed a fort.
It was torn down by 1269 under pressure from the Stralsund Bürger. In 1293 Stralsund became a member of the Hanseatic League. A total of 300 ships flying the flag of Stralsund cruised the Baltic Sea in the 14th century. In 1325 the Principality of Rügen became part of the Duchy of Pomerania, Stralsund however maintained a considerable independence. In the 17th century opposing forces in the Thirty Years' War fought over Stralsund. In the Battle of Stralsund, the Imperial forces commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein besieged the town after the council refused to accept the Capitulation of Franzburg of November 1627. Stralsund resisted with Swedish support; the Swedish garrison in Stralsund was the first on German soil in history. With the Treaty of Stettin, the town became one of two major Swedish forts in the Duchy of Pomerania, alongside Stettin. After the war, the Peace of Westphalia and the Treaty of Stettin made Stralsund part of Swedish Pomerania. Lost to Brandenburg in the Battle of Stralsund, it reverted to Sweden in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679
Charles XI of Sweden
Charles XI Carl was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire. He was the only son of Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, his father died when he was five years old, so Charles was educated by his governors until his coronation at the age of seventeen. Soon afterward, he was forced out on military expeditions to secure the acquired dominions from Danish troops in the Scanian War. Having fought off the Danes, he returned to Stockholm and engaged in correcting the country's neglected political and economic situation, he managed to sustain peace during the remaining 20 years of his reign. Changes in finance, national maritime and land armaments, judicial procedure, church government and education emerged during this period. Charles XI was succeeded by his only son Charles XII, who made use of the well-trained army in battles throughout Europe; the fact that Charles was crowned as Charles XI does not mean that he was the 11th king of Sweden who had the name Charles.
His father's name was due to his great-grandfather, King Charles IX of Sweden, having adopted his own numeral by using a mythological History of Sweden. This ancestor was the 5th King Charles; the numbering tradition thus begun still continues, with the present king of Sweden being Carl XVI Gustaf. Charles was born in the Stockholm Palace Tre Kronor in November 1655, his father, Charles X of Sweden, had left Sweden in July that year to fight in the war against Poland. After several years of warfare, the king returned in the winter of 1659, gathered his family and the Riksdag of the Estates in Gothenburg. Here he beheld his four-year-old son for the first time. Only a few weeks in mid-January 1660, the king fell ill. Charles X Gustav's will and testament left the administration of the Swedish Empire during Charles XI's minority to a regency led by Queen Dowager Hedwig Eleonora as both formal regent and chair of a six-member Regency Council with two votes and a final say over the rest of the council.
Per Brahe was one member of the council. In addition, Charles X Gustav left command of the army and a seat on the council to his younger brother, Adolph John I, Count Palatine of Kleeburg; these provisions among others led to the remainder of the council challenging the will. On 14 February, the day after King Charles X's death, Hedwig Eleonora sent a message to the council stating that she knew that they contested the will and that she demanded that it should be respected; the council answered that the will must first be discussed with the parliament, at the following council in Stockholm on 13 May, the council tried to keep her from attending. The parliament questioned whether it would be good for her health or suitable for a widow to attend council, that if not, it would be hard to keep sending a messenger to her quarters, her reply that the council would be allowed to meet without her and only inform her when they considered it necessary was met with satisfaction from the council. Hedwig Eleonora's ostensible indifference to politics came as a great relief to the lords of the guardian government.
His mother, Queen Hedvig Eleonora, remained the formal regent until Charles XI attained his majority on 18 December 1672, but she was careful not to embroil herself in political conflicts. During his first appearances in parliament, Charles spoke to the government through her, he would whisper the questions he had in her ear, she would ask them aloud and for him. As an adolescent, Charles devoted himself to sports and his favourite pastime of bear-hunting, he appeared ignorant of the rudiments of statecraft and illiterate. His main difficulties are now seen as evident signs of dyslexia, a disability, poorly understood at the time. According to many contemporary sources, the king was considered poorly educated and therefore not qualified to conduct himself in foreign affairs. Charles was dependent on his mother and advisors to interact with the foreign envoys since he had no foreign language skills apart from German and was ignorant of the world outside the Swedish borders. Italian writer Lorenzo Magalotti visited Stockholm in 1674 and described the teenage Charles XI as "virtually afraid of everything, uneasy to talk to foreigners, not daring to look anyone in the face".
Another trait was a deep religious devotion: he was God-fearing prayed kneeling and attended sermons. Magalotti otherwise described the king's main pursuits as hunting, the upcoming war, jokes; the situation in Europe was shaky during this time and Sweden was going through financial problems. Charles XI's guardians decided to negotiate an alliance with France in 1671; this would ensure that Sweden would not be isolated if there was a war, that the national finances would improve thanks to French subsidies. France directed its aggression against the Dutch in 1672, by the spring of 1674, Sweden was forced to take part by directing forces towards Brandenburg, under the lead of Karl Gustav Wrangel. Denmark was an ally of the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire, it was evident that Sweden was on the verge of yet another war with that country. A remedy was attempted by chancellor Nils Brahe, who traveled to Copenhagen in the spring of 1675 to try to get the Danish princess Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark engaged to the Swedish king.
In mid-June 1675, the engagement was proclaimed. However, when news arrived of the Swedish defeat at the Battle of Fehrbellin, Danish king Christian V declared war on Sweden that September; the Swedish Privy Council continued its internal feuds, the
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
Mull or the Isle of Mull — is the second largest island of the Inner Hebrides, lies off the west coast of Scotland in the council area of Argyll and Bute. With an area of 875.35 square kilometres, Mull is the fourth largest Scottish island and the fourth largest island surrounding Great Britain. In the 2011 census the usual resident population of Mull was 2,800, a slight increase on the 2001 figure of 2,667. In the summer the population is supplemented by many tourists. Much of the population lives in Tobermory, the only burgh on the island until 1973, its capital. Tobermory is home to Mull's only single malt Scotch whisky distillery: Tobermory distillery. Mull has a coastline of 480 kilometres and its climate is moderated by the Gulf Stream; the island has a mountainous core. Various peninsulas, which are predominantly moorland, radiate from the centre; the Aros peninsula to the north includes the main town of Tobermory, a burgh until 1973 when burghs were abolished. Other settlements include Salen and Calgary.
The Ross of Mull lies to the south west and includes the villages of Bunessan, Pennyghael and Fionnphort. Lochbuie and Craignure lie to the east. Numerous islands lie off the west coast of Mull, including Erraid, Inch Kenneth, Iona and Ulva. Smaller uninhabited islands include Little Colonsay, the Treshnish Isles and Staffa. Calve Island is an uninhabited island in Tobermory Bay. Two outlying rock lighthouses are visible from the south west of Mull, Dubh Artach and Skerryvore; the Torran Rocks are a large shoal of reefs and skerries 15 square miles in extent, located two miles to the south west, between the Ross of Mull peninsula and Dubh Artach. Frank Lockwood's Island near Lochbuie is named after the brother-in-law of the 21st MacLean of Lochbuie, Solicitor General from 1894-5. Part of the indented west coast of Mull and some of the offshore islands there are part of the Loch Na Keal National Scenic Area, one of 40 in Scotland, it is believed that Mull was inhabited from shortly after the end of the last Ice Age, around 6000 BC.
Bronze Age inhabitants built menhirs, brochs and a stone circle with examples of burial cairns, standing stones and knife blades provide compelling evidence. Between 600 BC and AD 400, Iron Age inhabitants were building protective forts and crannogs. Whether or not they were Picts is unclear. In the 6th century, Irish migrants invaded Mull and the surrounding coast, establishing the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata; the kingdom was divided into a number of regions, each controlled by a kin group, of which the Cenél Loairn controlled Mull and the adjacent mainland to the east. Dál Riata was a springboard for the Christianisation of the mainland. In the 9th century, Viking invasions led to the destruction of Dál Riata, its replacement by the Norse Kingdom of the Isles, which became part of the kingdom of Norway following Norwegian unification; the Kingdom of the Isles was much more extensive than Dál Riata, encompassing the Outer Hebrides and Skye. In Old Norse, the island kingdom became meaning southern isles.
The former lands of Dál Riata acquired the geographic description "Argyle": the Gaelic coast. In the late 11th century, Magnus Barefoot, the Norwegian king, launched a military campaign which, in 1098, led the king of Scotland to quitclaim to Magnus all claim of sovereign authority over the territory of the Kingdom of the Isles. However, a coup some 60 years led by a Norse-Gael named Somerled, detached the whole of the Suðreyjar from Norway, transformed it into an independent kingdom. After Somerled's death in 1164, nominal Norwegian authority was established, but practical control of the realm was divided between Somerled's sons and the heirs of Somerled's brother-in-law, the Crovan Dynasty, his son Dougall received the former territory of the Cenél Loairn, now known as Lorn, of which Mull formed part. Meanwhile, the Crovan dynasty had retained the title "king of the Isles", control of Lewis/Harris, the Isle of Man. After a few decades, they acknowledged the English kings as their overlords, so Dougall's heirs complained to Haakon, the Norwegian king, in 1237 were rewarded by the kingship being split.
They established the twin castles of Aros and Ardtornish, which together controlled the Sound of Mull. Throughout the early 13th century, the king of Scots, Alexander II, had aggressively tried to expand his realm into the Suðreyjar, despite Edgar's earlier quitclaim; this led to hostility between Norway and Scotland, which continued under Alexander III, Alexander II's successor. The Norwegian king died shortly after the indecisive Battle of Largs. In 1266, his more peaceable successor ceded his nominal authority over the Suðreyjar to Alexander III by the Treaty of Perth, in return for a large sum of money. Alexander acknowledged the semi-independent authority of Somerled's heirs. At the end of the 13th century, a violent dispute arose over the
Daugavgrīva Castle is a former monastery converted into a castle, located at Vecdaugava oxbow on right bank of Daugava, in the northern part of Riga city, Latvia. Nowadays here are seen only earthen ramparts; the first settlement, Daugavgrīva Abbey, was established on the right bank of the Daugava river, 13 miles from Bishop Albert of Riga's residence in Riga, by Cistercian monks from Pforta in 1205. Theoderich von Treyden was an early abbot, while during the 1210s Count Bernhard II of Lippe was its abbot. During a raid of tribal Curonians in 1228, the monastery and its tombs were destroyed, although the monks rebuilt the abbey after fighting died down, they had to endure abuse by the undisciplined crusaders of the Livonian Order. Those knights were defeated at the Battle of Saule and their remnants were incorporated into the Teutonic Knights in 1237; until 1452 the territory of Siggelkow in Mecklenburg was owned by the monastery. In 1305, the local abbot sold the monastery to the Livonian Branch of the Teutonic Knights, who began construction of the fortress of Dünamünde.
In 1329, the knights' castle was taken by the burghers of Riga, who were forced to return it to the knights in 1435. In 1481, the knights closed the Daugava to navigation by stretching an iron chain from Dünamünde to the opposite riverbank, thus hoping to ruin Riga's trade. In retaliation the citizens of Riga destroyed it; the knights returned to rebuild the stronghold eight years later. Because Riga itself was controlled by the Archbishops, the local administrative seat of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights was located in Dünamünde. In 1561 during the Livonian War, Dünamünde became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and afterwards of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. List of castles in Latvia Daugavgrīva Capture of Daugavgrīva Battle of Daugavgriva Zarāns, Alberts. Latvijas pilis un muižas. Castles and manors of Latvia. Riga. ISBN 9984-785-05-X. OCLC 72358861. Media related to Daugavgrīva castle at Wikimedia Commons The fortress of Daugavgriva with contemporary illustrations Daugavgrīva Castle history on Ambermarks website The fortress of Daugavgriva on 1201 website Discussion and pictures on Fortification website